1.
Distributed computing
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Distributed computing is a field of computer science that studies distributed systems. A distributed system is a model in which components located on networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions by passing messages, the components interact with each other in order to achieve a common goal. Three significant characteristics of distributed systems are, concurrency of components, lack of a global clock, examples of distributed systems vary from SOA-based systems to massively multiplayer online games to peer-to-peer applications. A computer program that runs in a system is called a distributed program. There are many alternatives for the message passing mechanism, including pure HTTP, RPC-like connectors, Distributed computing also refers to the use of distributed systems to solve computational problems. In distributed computing, a problem is divided into many tasks, each of which is solved by one or more computers, which communicate with each other by message passing. The terms are used in a much wider sense, even referring to autonomous processes that run on the same physical computer. The entities communicate with each other by message passing, a distributed system may have a common goal, such as solving a large computational problem, the user then perceives the collection of autonomous processors as a unit. Other typical properties of distributed systems include the following, The system has to tolerate failures in individual computers. The structure of the system is not known in advance, the system may consist of different kinds of computers and network links, each computer has only a limited, incomplete view of the system. Each computer may know one part of the input. Distributed systems are groups of networked computers, which have the goal for their work. The terms concurrent computing, parallel computing, and distributed computing have a lot of overlap, the same system may be characterized both as parallel and distributed, the processors in a typical distributed system run concurrently in parallel. Parallel computing may be seen as a tightly coupled form of distributed computing. In distributed computing, each processor has its own private memory, Information is exchanged by passing messages between the processors. The figure on the right illustrates the difference between distributed and parallel systems, figure shows a parallel system in which each processor has a direct access to a shared memory. The situation is complicated by the traditional uses of the terms parallel and distributed algorithm that do not quite match the above definitions of parallel. The use of concurrent processes that communicate by message-passing has its roots in operating system architectures studied in the 1960s, the first widespread distributed systems were local-area networks such as Ethernet, which was invented in the 1970s
2.
PrimeGrid
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PrimeGrid is a distributed computing project for searching for prime numbers of world-record size. It makes use of the Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing platform, PrimeGrid started in June 2005 under the name Message@home and tried to decipher text fragments hashed with MD5. Message@home was a test to port the BOINC scheduler to Perl to obtain greater portability, after a while the project attempted the RSA factoring challenge trying to factor RSA-640. After RSA-640 was factored by a team in November 2005. With the chance to succeed too small, it discarded the RSA challenges, was renamed to PrimeGrid, at 210,000,000,000 the primegen subproject was stopped. In June 2006, dialog started with Riesel Sieve to bring their project to the BOINC community, PrimeGrid provided PerlBOINC support and Riesel Sieve was successful in implementing their sieve as well as a prime finding application. With collaboration from Riesel Sieve, PrimeGrid was able to implement the LLR application in partnership with another prime finding project, in November 2006, the TPS LLR application was officially released at PrimeGrid. Less than two months later, January 2007, the twin was found by the original manual project. PrimeGrid and TPS then advanced their search for even larger twin primes, the summer of 2007 was very active as the Cullen and Woodall prime searches were launched. In the Fall, more prime searches were added through partnerships with the Prime Sierpinski Problem, additionally, two sieves were added, the Prime Sierpinski Problem combined sieve which includes supporting the Seventeen or Bust sieve, and the combined Cullen/Woodall sieve. In the Fall of 2007, PrimeGrid migrated its systems from PerlBOINC to standard BOINC software, since September 2008, PrimeGrid is also running a Proth prime sieving subproject. In January 2010 the subproject Seventeen or Bust was added, the calculations for the Riesel problem followed in March 2010. In addition, PrimeGrid is helping test for a record Sophie Germain prime. As of March 2016, PrimeGrid is working on or has worked on the projects,321 Prime Search is a continuation of Paul Underwoods 321 Search which looked for primes of the form 3 · 2n −1. PrimeGrid added the +1 form and continues the search up to n = 25M, the search was successful in April 2010 with the finding of the first known AP26,43142746595714191 +23681770 · 23# · n is prime for n =0. 23# = 2·3·5·7·11·13·17·19·23 =223092870, or 23 primorial, is the product of all primes up to 23, PrimeGrid is also running a search for Cullen prime numbers, yielding the two largest known Cullen primes. The first one being the 14th largest known prime at the time of discovery, as of 9 March 2014 PrimeGrid has eliminated 14 values of k from the Riesel problem and is continuing the search to eliminate the 50 remaining numbers. Primegrid then worked with the Twin Prime Search to search for a twin prime at approximately 58700 digits
3.
Composite number
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A composite number is a positive integer that can be formed by multiplying together two smaller positive integers. Equivalently, it is an integer that has at least one divisor other than 1. Every positive integer is composite, prime, or the unit 1, so the numbers are exactly the numbers that are not prime. For example, the integer 14 is a number because it is the product of the two smaller integers 2 ×7. Likewise, the integers 2 and 3 are not composite numbers because each of them can only be divided by one, every composite number can be written as the product of two or more primes. For example, the composite number 299 can be written as 13 ×23, and the composite number 360 can be written as 23 ×32 ×5, furthermore and this fact is called the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. There are several known primality tests that can determine whether a number is prime or composite, one way to classify composite numbers is by counting the number of prime factors. A composite number with two prime factors is a semiprime or 2-almost prime, a composite number with three distinct prime factors is a sphenic number. In some applications, it is necessary to differentiate between composite numbers with an odd number of prime factors and those with an even number of distinct prime factors. For the latter μ =2 x =1, while for the former μ =2 x +1 = −1, however, for prime numbers, the function also returns −1 and μ =1. For a number n with one or more repeated prime factors, if all the prime factors of a number are repeated it is called a powerful number. If none of its factors are repeated, it is called squarefree. For example,72 =23 ×32, all the factors are repeated. 42 =2 ×3 ×7, none of the factors are repeated. Another way to classify composite numbers is by counting the number of divisors, all composite numbers have at least three divisors. In the case of squares of primes, those divisors are, a number n that has more divisors than any x < n is a highly composite number. Composite numbers have also been called rectangular numbers, but that name can refer to the pronic numbers, numbers that are the product of two consecutive integers. Table of prime factors Integer factorization Canonical representation of a positive integer Sieve of Eratosthenes Fraleigh, a First Course In Abstract Algebra, Reading, Addison-Wesley, ISBN 0-201-01984-1 Herstein, I. N
4.
Prime number
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A prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a number is called a composite number. For example,5 is prime because 1 and 5 are its only positive integer factors, the property of being prime is called primality. A simple but slow method of verifying the primality of a number n is known as trial division. It consists of testing whether n is a multiple of any integer between 2 and n, algorithms much more efficient than trial division have been devised to test the primality of large numbers. Particularly fast methods are available for numbers of forms, such as Mersenne numbers. As of January 2016, the largest known prime number has 22,338,618 decimal digits, there are infinitely many primes, as demonstrated by Euclid around 300 BC. There is no simple formula that separates prime numbers from composite numbers. However, the distribution of primes, that is to say, many questions regarding prime numbers remain open, such as Goldbachs conjecture, and the twin prime conjecture. Such questions spurred the development of branches of number theory. Prime numbers give rise to various generalizations in other domains, mainly algebra, such as prime elements. A natural number is called a number if it has exactly two positive divisors,1 and the number itself. Natural numbers greater than 1 that are not prime are called composite, among the numbers 1 to 6, the numbers 2,3, and 5 are the prime numbers, while 1,4, and 6 are not prime. 1 is excluded as a number, for reasons explained below. 2 is a number, since the only natural numbers dividing it are 1 and 2. Next,3 is prime, too,1 and 3 do divide 3 without remainder, however,4 is composite, since 2 is another number dividing 4 without remainder,4 =2 ·2. 5 is again prime, none of the numbers 2,3, next,6 is divisible by 2 or 3, since 6 =2 ·3. The image at the right illustrates that 12 is not prime,12 =3 ·4, no even number greater than 2 is prime because by definition, any such number n has at least three distinct divisors, namely 1,2, and n
5.
Sequence
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In mathematics, a sequence is an enumerated collection of objects in which repetitions are allowed. Like a set, it contains members, the number of elements is called the length of the sequence. Unlike a set, order matters, and exactly the elements can appear multiple times at different positions in the sequence. Formally, a sequence can be defined as a function whose domain is either the set of the numbers or the set of the first n natural numbers. The position of an element in a sequence is its rank or index and it depends on the context or of a specific convention, if the first element has index 0 or 1. For example, is a sequence of letters with the letter M first, also, the sequence, which contains the number 1 at two different positions, is a valid sequence. Sequences can be finite, as in these examples, or infinite, the empty sequence is included in most notions of sequence, but may be excluded depending on the context. A sequence can be thought of as a list of elements with a particular order, Sequences are useful in a number of mathematical disciplines for studying functions, spaces, and other mathematical structures using the convergence properties of sequences. In particular, sequences are the basis for series, which are important in differential equations, Sequences are also of interest in their own right and can be studied as patterns or puzzles, such as in the study of prime numbers. There are a number of ways to denote a sequence, some of which are useful for specific types of sequences. One way to specify a sequence is to list the elements, for example, the first four odd numbers form the sequence. This notation can be used for sequences as well. For instance, the sequence of positive odd integers can be written. Listing is most useful for sequences with a pattern that can be easily discerned from the first few elements. Other ways to denote a sequence are discussed after the examples, the prime numbers are the natural numbers bigger than 1, that have no divisors but 1 and themselves. Taking these in their natural order gives the sequence, the prime numbers are widely used in mathematics and specifically in number theory. The Fibonacci numbers are the integer sequence whose elements are the sum of the two elements. The first two elements are either 0 and 1 or 1 and 1 so that the sequence is, for a large list of examples of integer sequences, see On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences
6.
Conjecture
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In mathematics, a conjecture is a conclusion or proposition based on incomplete information, for which no proof has been found. Conjectures such as the Riemann hypothesis or Fermats Last Theorem have shaped much of history as new areas of mathematics are developed in order to prove them. In number theory, Fermats Last Theorem states that no three positive integers a, b, and c can satisfy the equation an + bn = cn for any value of n greater than two. This theorem was first conjectured by Pierre de Fermat in 1637 in the margin of a copy of Arithmetica where he claimed he had a proof that was too large to fit in the margin. The first successful proof was released in 1994 by Andrew Wiles, the unsolved problem stimulated the development of algebraic number theory in the 19th century and the proof of the modularity theorem in the 20th century. It is among the most notable theorems in the history of mathematics, two regions are called adjacent if they share a common boundary that is not a corner, where corners are the points shared by three or more regions. For example, in the map of the United States of America, Utah and Arizona are adjacent, but Utah and New Mexico, möbius mentioned the problem in his lectures as early as 1840. The conjecture was first proposed on October 23,1852 when Francis Guthrie, while trying to color the map of counties of England, a number of false proofs and false counterexamples have appeared since the first statement of the four color theorem in 1852. The four color theorem was proven in 1976 by Kenneth Appel and it was the first major theorem to be proved using a computer. Appel and Hakens approach started by showing that there is a set of 1,936 maps. Appel and Haken used a computer program to confirm that each of these maps had this property. Additionally, any map that could potentially be a counterexample must have a portion that looks like one of these 1,936 maps, showing this required hundreds of pages of hand analysis. Appel and Haken concluded that no smallest counterexamples exists because any must contain, yet do not contain and this contradiction means there are no counterexamples at all and that the theorem is therefore true. Initially, their proof was not accepted by all mathematicians because the proof was infeasible for a human to check by hand. Since then the proof has gained acceptance, although doubts remain. The Hauptvermutung of geometric topology is the conjecture that any two triangulations of a triangulable space have a refinement, a single triangulation that is a subdivision of both of them. It was originally formulated in 1908, by Steinitz and Tietze and this conjecture is now known to be false. The non-manifold version was disproved by John Milnor in 1961 using Reidemeister torsion, the manifold version is true in dimensions m ≤3
7.
Factorization
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In mathematics, factorization or factoring is the decomposition of an object into a product of other objects, or factors, which when multiplied together give the original. For example, the number 15 factors into primes as 3 ×5, in all cases, a product of simpler objects is obtained. The aim of factoring is usually to reduce something to “basic building blocks”, such as numbers to prime numbers, factoring integers is covered by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and factoring polynomials by the fundamental theorem of algebra. Viètes formulas relate the coefficients of a polynomial to its roots, the opposite of polynomial factorization is expansion, the multiplying together of polynomial factors to an “expanded” polynomial, written as just a sum of terms. Integer factorization for large integers appears to be a difficult problem, there is no known method to carry it out quickly. Its complexity is the basis of the security of some public key cryptography algorithms. A matrix can also be factorized into a product of matrices of special types, One major example of this uses an orthogonal or unitary matrix, and a triangular matrix. There are different types, QR decomposition, LQ, QL, RQ and this situation is generalized by factorization systems. By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, every integer greater than 1 has a unique prime factorization. Given an algorithm for integer factorization, one can factor any integer down to its constituent primes by repeated application of this algorithm, for very large numbers, no efficient classical algorithm is known. Modern techniques for factoring polynomials are fast and efficient, but use sophisticated mathematical ideas and these techniques are used in the construction of computer routines for carrying out polynomial factorization in Computer algebra systems. This article is concerned with classical techniques. While the general notion of factoring just means writing an expression as a product of simpler expressions, when factoring polynomials this means that the factors are to be polynomials of smaller degree. Thus, while x 2 − y = is a factorization of the expression, another issue concerns the coefficients of the factors. It is not always possible to do this, and a polynomial that can not be factored in this way is said to be irreducible over this type of coefficient, thus, x2 -2 is irreducible over the integers and x2 +4 is irreducible over the reals. In the first example, the integers 1 and -2 can also be thought of as real numbers, and if they are, then x 2 −2 = shows that this polynomial factors over the reals. Similarly, since the integers 1 and 4 can be thought of as real and hence complex numbers, x2 +4 splits over the complex numbers, i. e. x 2 +4 =. The fundamental theorem of algebra can be stated as, Every polynomial of n with complex number coefficients splits completely into n linear factors
8.
Prime95
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Prime95 is the freeware application written by George Woltman that is used by GIMPS, a distributed computing project dedicated to finding new Mersenne prime numbers. More specifically, Prime95 refers to the Windows and macOS versions of the software, mPrime is the Linux command-line interface version of Prime95, to be run in a text terminal or in a terminal emulator window as a remote shell client. It is identical to Prime95 in functionality, except it lacks a graphical user interface, as such, a user who uses Prime95 to discover a qualifying prime number would not be able to claim the prize directly. A free software package would not have this restriction, the code that is used to generate checksums is not publicly available for security reasons. The rewritten FFT assembly code in the current stable version 28 uses FMA instruction set instructions of Haswell CPUs, Prime95 currently does not have GPU support, although Woltman has indicated that it is under development. However, there are third-party programs, such as CUDALucas, that use of the processing power of GPUs. As of 2014,14 new Mersenne prime numbers have been found by the network of participants, and a new Mersenne prime was discovered every year until 2009. A table of selected benchmarks is provided below, the complete list can be found at the official GIMPS website. Over the years, Prime95 has become popular among PC enthusiasts. It includes a Torture Test mode designed specifically for testing PC subsystems for errors in order to ensure the correct operation of Prime95 on that system. This is important because each iteration of the Lucas-Lehmer depends on the one, if one iteration is incorrect. The stress-test feature in Prime95 can be configured to better test various components of the computer by changing the fast fourier transform size, three pre-set configurations are available, Small FFTs and In-place FFTs, and Blend. Small and In-place modes primarily test the FPU and the caches of the CPU, by selecting Custom, the user can gain further control of the configuration. For example, by selecting 8-8 kB as the FFT size, by selecting 2048-4096 kB and unchecking the Run FFTs in-place checkbox, providing the maximum amount of RAM free in the system, the program tests the memory and the chipset. If the amount of memory to use option is set too high, then the system start using the paging file. On an absolutely stable system, Prime95 would run indefinitely, if an error occurs, at which point the stress test would terminate, this would indicate that the system may be unstable. There is a debate about terms stable and Prime-stable, as Prime95 often fails before the system becomes unstable or crashes in any other application. Twenty-four hours of testing is recommended to be sure, as errors may show up after 16 or more hours of testing, in addition, Prime95 stresses a computer far more than the majority of software-based torture suites
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Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search
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The Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search is a collaborative project of volunteers who use freely available software to search for Mersenne prime numbers. The GIMPS project was founded by George Woltman, who wrote the software Prime95. Scott Kurowski wrote the PrimeNet Internet server that supports the research to demonstrate Entropia-distributed computing software, GIMPS is registered as Mersenne Research, Inc. Kurowski is Executive Vice President and board director of Mersenne Research Inc, GIMPS is said to be one of the first large scale distributed computing projects over the Internet for research purposes. The project has found a total of fifteen Mersenne primes as of January 2016, the largest known prime as of January 2016 is 274,207,281 −1. This prime was discovered on September 17,2015 by Curtis Cooper at the University of Central Missouri and they also have a trial division phase, used to rapidly eliminate Mersenne numbers with small factors which make up a large proportion of candidates. Pollards p -1 algorithm is used to search for larger factors. The project began in early January 1996, with a program ran on i386 computers. The name for the project was coined by Luther Welsh, one of its earlier searchers, within a few months, several dozen people had joined, and over a thousand by the end of the first year. Joel Armengaud, a participant, discovered the primality of M1,398,269 on November 13,1996, as of March 2013, GIMPS has a sustained aggregate throughput of approximately 137.023 TFLOP/s. In November 2012, GIMPS maintained 95 TFLOP/s, theoretically earning the GIMPS virtual computer a place among the TOP500 most powerful computer systems in the world. Also theoretically, in November 2012, the GIMPS held a rank of 330 in the TOP500, the preceding place was then held by an HP Cluster Platform 3000 BL460c G7 of Hewlett-Packard. As of November 2014 TOP500 results, these old GIMPS numbers would no longer make the list, previously, this was approximately 50 TFLOP/s in early 2010,30 TFLOP/s in mid-2008,20 TFLOP/s in mid-2006, and 14 TFLOP/s in early 2004. Third-party programs for testing Mersenne numbers, such as Mlucas and Glucas, also, GIMPS reserves the right to change this EULA without notice and with reasonable retroactive effect. All Mersenne primes are in the form Mq, where q is the exponent, the prime number itself is 2q −1, so the smallest prime number in this table is 21398269 −1. Mn is the rank of the Mersenne prime based on its exponent, furthermore,71,027,647 is the largest exponent below which all other exponents have been tested at least once, so some Mersenne numbers between the 48th and the 49th have yet to be tested. ^ ‡ The number M74207281 has 22,338,618 decimal digits, to help visualize the size of this number, a standard word processor layout would require 5,957 pages to display it. If one were to print it out using standard printer paper, single-sided, whenever a possible prime is reported to the server, it is verified first before it is announced
10.
Largest known prime number
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As of January 2017, the largest known prime number is 274,207,281 −1, a number with 22,338,618 digits. It was found in 2016 by the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search, euclid proved that there is no largest prime number, and many mathematicians and hobbyists continue to search for large prime numbers. Many of the largest known primes are Mersenne primes, as of January 2017, the six largest known primes are Mersenne primes, while the seventh is the largest known non-Mersenne prime. The last 16 record primes were Mersenne primes, the fast Fourier transform implementation of the Lucas–Lehmer primality test for Mersenne numbers is fast compared to other known primality tests for other kinds of numbers. The record is held by 274,207,281 −1 with 22,338,618 digits, found by GIMPS in 2015. 717774014762912462113646879425801445107393100212927181629335931494239018213879217671164956287190498687010073391086436351 The first and last 120 digits are shown above, there are several prizes offered by the Electronic Frontier Foundation for record primes. GIMPS is also coordinating its long-range search efforts for primes of 100 million digits and larger, the record passed one million digits in 1999, earning a $50,000 prize. In 2008 the record passed ten million digits, earning a $100,000 prize, time called it the 29th top invention of 2008. Additional prizes are being offered for the first prime number found with at least one hundred million digits, both the $50,000 and the $100,000 prizes were won by participation in GIMPS. The following table lists the progression of the largest known prime number in ascending order, here Mn= 2n −1 is the Mersenne number with exponent n. The longest record-holder known was M19 =524,287, which was the largest known prime for 144 years, almost no records are known before 1456. GIMPS found the thirteen latest records on ordinary computers operated by participants around the world
11.
Mersenne prime
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In mathematics, a Mersenne prime is a prime number that is one less than a power of two. That is, it is a number that can be written in the form Mn = 2n −1 for some integer n. They are named after Marin Mersenne, a French Minim friar, the first four Mersenne primes are 3,7,31, and 127. If n is a number then so is 2n −1. The definition is therefore unchanged when written Mp = 2p −1 where p is assumed prime, more generally, numbers of the form Mn = 2n −1 without the primality requirement are called Mersenne numbers. The smallest composite pernicious Mersenne number is 211 −1 =2047 =23 ×89, Mersenne primes Mp are also noteworthy due to their connection to perfect numbers. As of January 2016,49 Mersenne primes are known, the largest known prime number 274,207,281 −1 is a Mersenne prime. Since 1997, all newly found Mersenne primes have been discovered by the “Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search”, many fundamental questions about Mersenne primes remain unresolved. It is not even whether the set of Mersenne primes is finite or infinite. The Lenstra–Pomerance–Wagstaff conjecture asserts that there are infinitely many Mersenne primes,23 | M11,47 | M23,167 | M83,263 | M131,359 | M179,383 | M191,479 | M239, and 503 | M251. Since for these primes p, 2p +1 is congruent to 7 mod 8, so 2 is a quadratic residue mod 2p +1, since p is a prime, it must be p or 1. The first four Mersenne primes are M2 =3, M3 =7, M5 =31, a basic theorem about Mersenne numbers states that if Mp is prime, then the exponent p must also be prime. This follows from the identity 2 a b −1 = ⋅ = ⋅ and this rules out primality for Mersenne numbers with composite exponent, such as M4 =24 −1 =15 =3 ×5 = ×. Though the above examples might suggest that Mp is prime for all p, this is not the case. The evidence at hand does suggest that a randomly selected Mersenne number is more likely to be prime than an arbitrary randomly selected odd integer of similar size. Nonetheless, prime Mp appear to grow increasingly sparse as p increases, in fact, of the 2,270,720 prime numbers p up to 37,156,667, Mp is prime for only 45 of them. The lack of any simple test to determine whether a given Mersenne number is prime makes the search for Mersenne primes a difficult task, the Lucas–Lehmer primality test is an efficient primality test that greatly aids this task. The search for the largest known prime has somewhat of a cult following, consequently, a lot of computer power has been expended searching for new Mersenne primes, much of which is now done using distributed computing
12.
Stephen Colbert
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Stephen Tyrone Colbert is an American comedian, television host, and author. Colbert has hosted The Late Show with Stephen Colbert, a television talk show on CBS. Colbert originally studied to be an actor, but became interested in improvisational theatre while attending Northwestern University. He wrote and performed on the short-lived Dana Carvey Show before collaborating with Sedaris and he gained considerable attention for his role on the latter as closeted gay history teacher Chuck Noblet. His work as a correspondent on Comedy Centrals news-parody series The Daily Show gained him wide recognition, in 2005, he left The Daily Show to host a spin-off series, The Colbert Report. The series became one of Comedy Centrals highest-rated series, earning Colbert an invitation to perform as featured entertainer at the White House Correspondents Association Dinner in 2006, Colbert has won nine Primetime Emmy Awards, two Grammy Awards, and two Peabody Awards. Colbert was named one of Times 100 Most Influential People in 2006 and 2012 and his book, I Am America, was #1 on The New York Times Best Seller list in 2007. Colbert was born in Washington, D. C. the youngest of 11 children in a Catholic family and he grew up on James Island, South Carolina. Colbert and his siblings, in descending order by age, are James, Edward, Mary, William, Margo, Thomas, Jay, Elizabeth, Paul, Peter, stephens mother, Lorna Elizabeth Colbert, was a homemaker. In interviews, Colbert has described his parents as people who also strongly valued intellectualism and taught their children that it was possible to question the church. The emphasis his family placed on intelligence and his observation of negative stereotypes of Southerners led Colbert to train himself to suppress his Southern accent while he was quite young. While Colbert sometimes comedically claims his surname is French, he is of 15/16ths Irish ancestry, many of his ancestors emigrated from Ireland to North America in the 19th century before and during the Great Famine. He offered his children the option to pronounce the name whichever way they preferred, Stephen started using /koʊlˈbɛər/ later in life when he transferred to Northwestern University, taking advantage of the opportunity to reinvent himself in a new place where no one knew him. Ed responded /ˈkoʊlbərt/, to which Stephen jokingly replied, See you in Hell and they were en route to enroll the two boys at Canterbury School in New Milford, Connecticut. Lorna Colbert relocated the family downtown to the urban environment of East Bay Street in Charleston. Colbert found the transition difficult and did not easily make new friends in his new neighborhood, Colbert later described himself during this time as detached, lacking a sense of importance regarding the things with which other children concerned themselves. He developed a love of science fiction and fantasy novels, especially the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, Colbert attended Charlestons Episcopal Porter-Gaud School, where he participated in several school plays and contributed to the school newspaper but was not highly motivated academically. During his adolescence, he briefly fronted A Shot in the Dark, when he was younger, he had hoped to study marine biology, but surgery intended to repair a severely perforated eardrum caused him inner ear damage
13.
Novel
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A novel is any relatively long piece of written narrative fiction, normally in prose, and typically published as a book. The genre has also described as possessing, a continuous. This view sees the novels origins in Classical Greece and Rome, medieval, early modern romance, the latter, an Italian word used to describe short stories, supplied the present generic English term in the 18th century. The romance is a closely related long prose narrative, Romance, as defined here, should not be confused with the genre fiction love romance or romance novel. Other European languages do not distinguish between romance and novel, a novel is le roman, der Roman, il romanzo, a novel is a long, fictional narrative which describes intimate human experiences. Most European languages use the word romance for extended narratives, fictionality is most commonly cited as distinguishing novels from historiography. However this can be a problematic criterion, historians would also invent and compose speeches for didactic purposes. Novels can, on the hand, depict the social, political and personal realities of a place and period with clarity. Even in the 19th century, fictional narratives in verse, such as Lord Byrons Don Juan, Alexander Pushkins Yevgeniy Onegin, vikram Seths The Golden Gate, composed of 590 Onegin stanzas, is a more recent example of the verse novel. Both in 12th-century Japan and 15th-century Europe, prose fiction created intimate reading situations, on the other hand, verse epics, including the Odyssey and Aeneid, had been recited to a select audiences, though this was a more intimate experience than the performance of plays in theaters. A new world of Individualistic fashion, personal views, intimate feelings, secret anxieties, conduct and gallantry spread with novels, the novel is today the longest genre of narrative prose fiction, followed by the novella, short story, and flash fiction. However, in the 17th century critics saw the romance as of epic length, the length of a novel can still be important because most literary awards use length as a criterion in the ranking system. Urbanization and the spread of printed books in Song Dynasty China led to the evolution of oral storytelling into consciously fictional novels by the Ming dynasty, parallel European developments did not occur for centuries, and awaited the time when the availability of paper allowed for similar opportunities. By contrast, Ibn Tufails Hayy ibn Yaqdhan and Ibn al-Nafis Theologus Autodidactus are works of didactic philosophy, in this sense, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan would be considered an early example of a philosophical novel, while Theologus Autodidactus would be considered an early theological novel. Epic poetry exhibits some similarities with the novel, and the Western tradition of the novel back into the field of verse epics. Then at the beginning of the 18th century, French prose translations brought Homers works to a wider public, longus is the author of the famous Greek novel, Daphnis and Chloe. Romance or chivalric romance is a type of narrative in prose or verse popular in the circles of High Medieval. In later romances, particularly those of French origin, there is a tendency to emphasize themes of courtly love
14.
Stack Exchange
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The sites are modeled after Stack Overflow, a Q&A site for computer programming questions that was the original site in this network. The reputation system allows the sites to be self-moderating, as of April 2017, the three most popular sites in the network are, Stack Overflow, Super User and Ask Ubuntu. User contributions are licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported, in 2009, they started additional sites based on the Stack Overflow model, Server Fault for questions related to system administration and Super User for questions from computer power users. This white label service was not successful, with few customers, users vote on new site topics in a staging area called Area 51, where algorithms determine which suggested site topics have critical mass and should be created. In November 2010, Stack Exchange site topics in beta testing included physics, mathematics, Stack Exchange publicly launched in January 2011 with 33 Web sites, it had 27 employees and 1.5 million users at the time, and it included advertising. At that time, it was compared to Quora, founded in 2009, other competing sites include WikiAnswers and Yahoo. In February 2011, Stack Overflow released an associated job board called Careers 2.0, charging fees to recruiters for access, in March 2011, Stack Overflow raised US$12 million in additional venture funding, and the company renamed itself to Stack Exchange, Inc. It is based in Manhattan, New York City, in February 2012, Atwood left the company. On 18 April 2013 CipherCloud issued Digital Millennium Copyright Act takedown notices in an attempt to block discussion of possible weaknesses of their encryption algorithm, the Stack Exchange Crypto group discussion on the algorithm was censored, but it was later restored without pictures. As of September 2015, Stack Exchange no longer refers to the company, instead, the company is now referred to as Stack Overflow. In 2016 Stack Exchange added a variety of new sites which pushed the boundaries of the typical question-and-answer site, the primary purpose of each Stack Exchange site is to enable users to post questions and answer them. Users can vote on both answers and questions, and through this process users earn points, a form of gamification. This voting system was compared to Digg when the Stack Exchange platform was first released, users receive privileges by collecting reputation points, ranging from the ability to vote and comment on questions and answers to the ability to moderate many aspects of the site. Due to the prominence of Stack Exchange profiles in web search results, along with posting questions and answers, users can add comments to them and edit text written by others. Notable parts of Stack Exchange include sites focused on physics, video games, all user-generated content posted on the Stack Exchange Network is copyright by the contributor and licensed to Stack Exchange under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike license. Stack Exchange uses IIS, SQL Server, and the ASP. NET framework, blogs formerly used WordPress, but they have been discontinued. The team also uses Redis, HAProxy and Elasticsearch, Stack Exchange tries to stay up to date with the newest technologies from Microsoft, usually using the latest releases of any given framework. The code is written in C# ASP. NET MVC using the Razor View Engine
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Internet Archive
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The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of universal access to all knowledge. As of October 2016, its collection topped 15 petabytes, in addition to its archiving function, the Archive is an activist organization, advocating for a free and open Internet. Its web archive, the Wayback Machine, contains over 150 billion web captures, the Archive also oversees one of the worlds largest book digitization projects. Founded by Brewster Kahle in May 1996, the Archive is a 501 nonprofit operating in the United States. It has a budget of $10 million, derived from a variety of sources, revenue from its Web crawling services, various partnerships, grants, donations. Its headquarters are in San Francisco, California, where about 30 of its 200 employees work, Most of its staff work in its book-scanning centers. The Archive has data centers in three Californian cities, San Francisco, Redwood City, and Richmond, the Archive is a member of the International Internet Preservation Consortium and was officially designated as a library by the State of California in 2007. Brewster Kahle founded the Archive in 1996 at around the time that he began the for-profit web crawling company Alexa Internet. In October 1996, the Internet Archive had begun to archive and preserve the World Wide Web in large quantities, the archived content wasnt available to the general public until 2001, when it developed the Wayback Machine. In late 1999, the Archive expanded its collections beyond the Web archive, Now the Internet Archive includes texts, audio, moving images, and software. It hosts a number of projects, the NASA Images Archive, the contract crawling service Archive-It. According to its web site, Most societies place importance on preserving artifacts of their culture, without such artifacts, civilization has no memory and no mechanism to learn from its successes and failures. Our culture now produces more and more artifacts in digital form, the Archives mission is to help preserve those artifacts and create an Internet library for researchers, historians, and scholars. In August 2012, the Archive announced that it has added BitTorrent to its file download options for over 1.3 million existing files, on November 6,2013, the Internet Archives headquarters in San Franciscos Richmond District caught fire, destroying equipment and damaging some nearby apartments. The nonprofit Archive sought donations to cover the estimated $600,000 in damage, in November 2016, Kahle announced that the Internet Archive was building the Internet Archive of Canada, a copy of the archive to be based somewhere in the country of Canada. The announcement received widespread coverage due to the implication that the decision to build an archive in a foreign country was because of the upcoming presidency of Donald Trump. Kahle was quoted as saying that on November 9th in America and it was a firm reminder that institutions like ours, built for the long-term, need to design for change. For us, it means keeping our cultural materials safe, private and it means preparing for a Web that may face greater restrictions