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Seventh Avenue (Manhattan)

Seventh Avenue – known as Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard north of Central Park – is a thoroughfare on the West Side of the borough of Manhattan in New York City, it is southbound below a two-way street north of the park. Seventh Avenue originates in the West Village at Clarkson Street, where Varick Street becomes Seventh Avenue South. A part of the avenue in the Garment District is co-named Fashion Avenue, it is interrupted by Central Park from 59th to 110th Street. Artisans' Gate is the 59th Street exit from Central Park to Seventh Avenue. North of Warriors' Gate at the north end of the Park, the avenue carries traffic in both directions through Harlem, where it is called Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard. Addresses continue as if the street was continuous through Central Park, with the first block north of the park being the 1800 block; the United States Postal Service delivers mail using either street name. As is the case with "Sixth Avenue" and "Avenue of the Americas", long-time New Yorkers continue to use the older name.

The street has two northern termini. A lower level continues a bit further curves into the lower level of West 155th Street. Seventh Avenue was laid out in the Commissioners' Plan of 1811; the southern terminus of Seventh Avenue was Eleventh Street in Greenwich Village through the early part of the 20th century. It was extended southward, as Seventh Avenue South, to link up with Varick Street in 1914, Varick was widened at the same time. Extension of the avenue allowed better vehicular connections between midtown Manhattan and the commercial district in what is now TriBeCa, it permitted construction of the New York City Subway IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line which opened in 1918. Extension of the avenue was under consideration for several years, was approved by the New York City Board of Estimate in September 1911, when the first $3 million appropriation was made for the initial planning of the work; the extension had been urged by civic groups to meet the commercial needs of Greenwich Village.

A significant number of old buildings were marked for demolition in the extension, the demolished buildings included the Bedford Street Methodist Church, constructed in 1840. Most of Seventh Avenue has carried traffic one-way southbound since June 6, 1954; the portion north of Times Square carried two-way traffic until March 10, 1957. Seventh Avenue is served by the 1, ​2, ​3 trains for most of its length, with N, ​Q, ​R, ​W service between 42nd Street and Central Park South; the Seventh Avenue station serves the B, ​D​, E trains. North of the park, Powell Boulevard is served by the Harlem–148th Street on the 3 train, the 155th Street station on the B and ​D trains, it is served by numerous local MTA New York City Bus routes the M7 and M20 south of Central Park and the M2 north of the park. South of 14th Street Seventh Avenue is a major thoroughfare in the West Village; the now defunct Saint Vincent's Catholic Medical Center was a main downtown hospital on Seventh Avenue and 11th Street. Running through the Garment District, it is referred to as Fashion Avenue due to its role as a center of the garment and fashion industry and the famed fashion designers who established New York as a world fashion capital.

The first, temporary signs designating the section of Seventh Avenue as "Fashion Avenue" were dual-posted in 1972, with permanent signs added over the ensuing years. Seventh Avenue intersects with Broadway and with 42nd Street at Times Square, with multiple buildings at the intersections. Notable buildings located on Seventh Avenue include: Carnegie Hall, 57th Street Madison Square Garden and Penn Station, 32nd Street Fashion Institute of Technology, 27th Street Alwyn Court Apartments, 58th Street AXA Center, at 51st Street. Notable buildings on Adam Clayton Powell Jr. Boulevard, from Central Park north through Harlem, include: Adam Clayton Powell Jr. State Office Building Hotel Theresa Seventh Avenue is mentioned in films and books. Seventh Avenue was mentioned in the Simon and Garfunkel song "The Boxer," in which the protagonist mentions receiving a "come-on from the whores on Seventh Avenue." In the 1962 play and 1965 film A Thousand Clowns, Seventh Avenue is mentioned as being in proximity.

In the 1973 Steely Dan song "The Boston Rag", the protagonist declares, "There was nothing that I could do So I pointed my car down Seventh Avenue". In the 1978 Rolling Stones song "Shattered", from the Some Girls album, Mick Jagger sings "I can't give it away on Seventh Avenue." The title of the June 2019 book Can't Give It Away on Seventh Avenue: The Rolling Stones and New York City is a reference to that lyric. Seventh Avenue is mentioned in Dashiell Hammett's The Maltese Falcon, when detective Sam Spade tells the gunsel Wilmer that his telling him to "shove off" "would go over big back on Seventh Avenue, but you're not in Romeville now. You're in my burg." In Dave Gibbons's Watching the Watchmen, the comics artist speculates that the Gunga Diner, Utopia Cinema, Promethean Cab Co. and Institute for Extraspatial Studies are situated at the intersection of Seventh Avenue and West 31st Street. Seventh Avenue was the title and subject of a 1977 NBC TV miniseries which focused on the Garment District.

In the 2008 The Gaslight Anthem song "Here's Looking At You, Kid", Seventh Avenue is mentioned in the lyric, "goes crazy over that New York scene on Seventh Avenue". The Pet Shop Boys' song "New York

Rocky Mountain Wings Ridge Runner

The Rocky Mountain Wings Ridge Runner is a family of American high wing, strut-braced, single engine, conventional landing gear aircraft that were designed by Stace Schrader and are produced by Rocky Mountain Wings of Nampa, Idaho for amateur construction. Introduced at Airventure, Wisconsin in July 2000, the first Ridge Runner was a single seater designed as an FAR 103 Ultralight Vehicles compliant aircraft that would have an empty weight within that category's 254 lb empty weight limit; the designer, Stace Schrader was involved with Avid Aircraft, the Denney Kitfox and Sky Raider LLC designs, all similar aircraft. The resulting aircraft was described by reviewer Andre Cliche as "a clone identical to its predecessors except for a few details like, for example the type of ailerons and balloon tires for rough terrain operations."The aircraft has an optional powder coated 4130 steel tube frame fuselage covered in doped fabric. The wing is constructed with aluminium tube spars and is fabric-covered.

The kit includes many pre-fabricated parts, including the wing ribs, seat belts and shoulder harnesses and tires. The manufacturer estimates the construction time as 250–600 hours, depending on the options selected and builder experience; the Ridge Runner 1 requires a light engine to remain under 254 lb empty weight and the specified engine remains the out-of-production 28 hp Rotax 277. Ridge Runner Model 1 Ultralight Original model, a single seat, FAR 103 compliant aircraft, with a 247 lb empty weight when equipped with the out-of-production 28 hp Rotax 277 engine, or alternatively an experimental light sport aircraft. Acceptable power range 20 to 80 hp. Ridge Runner Model 2 Light sport or amateur-built version, similar to the Model 1, but with a jump seat added, though without dual controls, an empty weight increased to 350 lb, gross weight 950 lb. Acceptable power range 28 to 52 hp; the manufacturer says of this model: "Ridge Runner II is not a full two place. It has a small jump seat or cargo area" Ridge Runner Model 3 Light sport or amateur-built version, with two seats in tandem with dual controls.

Standard engine is the Rotax 503 of 52 hp. Acceptable power range 40 to 100 hp. Ridge Runner Model 4 Light sport or amateur-built version, with two seats in side-by-side configuration with dual controls. Standard engine is the Rotax 912 of 80 hp. Acceptable power range 45 to 120 hp. Data from KitplanesGeneral characteristics Crew: one Length: 17 ft 0 in Wingspan: 26 ft 2 in Height: 5 ft 3 in Wing area: 99.4 sq ft Empty weight: 247 lb Gross weight: 900 lb Fuel capacity: 5 US gallons Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 277, 28 hp Propellers: 2-bladed woodenPerformance Cruise speed: 55 mph Stall speed: 23 mph Range: 140 mi Rate of climb: 700 ft/min Related development Avid Flyer Denney Kitfox Flying K Sky RaiderAircraft of comparable role and era Carlson Sparrow Official website

Vlachs (social class)

Vlachs was a social and fiscal class in several late medieval states of Southeastern Europe, a distinctive social and fiscal class within the millet system of the Ottoman Empire, composed of Eastern Orthodox Christians who practiced nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral lifestyle, including populations in various migratory regions composed of ethnic Vlachs and Serbs. At that time the amalgamation of the process of sedentarization of the Orthodox Vlachs and their gradual fusion into the Serbian rural population reached a high level and was recognized by the Ottoman authorities. Following the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, the Vlachs, being both Orthodox and Catholic, still a nomadic and semi-nomadic pastoral non-Slavic-speaking people, played a dual role in the relations with the new Ottoman ruler. Although a few of the Orthodox Vlachs and part of the Catholic Vlachs from Duklja and Bosnia fled before the invading Ottoman armies, to Christian lands in the West, it thus propitiated special arrangements between the Turks and the Vlachs, who in turn, while preserving their religion, placed themselves in the Sultan's service.

In addition, with the beginning of Ottoman rule, within this social class came to be included other Vlach-like populations, such as cattle-breeding Orthodox Serbs. During the early history of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, there was a social class of Vlachs in Serbia and Macedonia, made up of Christians who served as auxiliary forces and had the same rights as Muslims. Due to their experience in carrying goods and the skill and speed with which they crossed the mountain regions. In adittion, they always accompanied the Ottoman armies in their expeditions throughout the Balkans, up to the North-West, in whole communities, they formed important as well as numbered Christian military garrisons attached to the Ottoman army, in the newly conquered towns. In exchange for their regular duties, they were granted privileges which were denied to all other Zimmîs by the Šerijat or Islamic Law; this rewarding privileges were extended to the economic sphere. At the same time, great Turkish and Slavic Muslim landholding military nobles brought with them significant quantities of these Vlachs, in order that they farmed their lands.

However, during the course of time, with centralisation and changes to state structure, the economic system and military organisation occurring, many of the services that the Vlachs used to provide for the Ottomans became superfluous. As a result, the 1520s saw the beginning of Vlach sedentarisation and a reduction of their privileges. By the end of the 16th century, these privileges resulted in the majority of Vlachs’ social standing being equalled to that of the filurîci, with ordinary reaya peasants. Lastly, the sound Ottoman defeat at Sisak in 1593 triggered the beginning of loss of faith by these Vlachs, in those who until had been their masters, propitiated the passing of the Vlachs and the Serbs over to the Habsburg side; the Rüsûm-i Eflakiye was a tax on Vlachs in the Ottoman Empire. Vlachs in the Balkans were granted tax concessions under Byzantine and Serb rulers in return for military service. Instead of some of the customary taxes, they paid a special "Vlach tax", Rüsûm-i Eflakiye: One sheep and one lamb from each household on St. Georges Day each year.

Because Vlachs were taxed differently, they were listed differently in defters

Central Mall (Port Arthur, Texas)

Central Mall is an enclosed shopping mall in Port Arthur, United States. Opened in 1982, it features Bed Bath & Beyond, Dillard's, J. C. Penney, Target, TJ Maxx and a movie theater; the mall opened in 1982 with J. C. Penney, Dillard's, Sears and The White House. Target was added in 2004. Hurricane Rita destroyed the roof of the Dillard's store, which reopened in 2006. Hobby Lobby, which replaced the former White House store, was damaged beyond repair. Other parts of the mall sustained roof damage as well. Bed Bath & Beyond joined the mall in late 2006-early 2007. Steve & Barry's, added in 2005, closed in 2008; the space was Old Navy, which closed in 2004. In 2013, TJ Maxx and Shoe Dept. Encore were added; the former replaced a Luby's and a Gap which had closed in 2005, the latter replaced the former Old Navy/Steve & Barry's. On December 28, 2018, it was announced that Sears would be closing as part of a plan to close 80 stores nationwide; the store closed in March 2019. Official website

Silicon organic water repellent

Organosilicon water repellent: The water-repelling liquid is applied: To provide the surface of materials with excellent water resistance properties - the surface does not absorb water. The water-repelling liquid is applied: To provide the surface of materials with excellent water resistance properties - the surface does not absorb water; the liquid is methyl hydride siloxane polymer with low viscosity of light-yellow color or colorless. It is dissoluble in aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons, is undergone to gelation in the presence of amines, amino alcohols, strong acids and alkalis. No dissolution in lower alcohols and water; the positive effects of the application of methyl hydride siloxane: Improved water resistance of various building materials - water remains on the surface in the form of droplets and does not penetrate the material. Water emulsion of organo silicon the methyl hydride siloxane with additives of emulsifier and stabilizers Solids content in the emulsion SE 50-94M is 50%.

The color is from white to light gray. Application: The emulsion oligo methyl hydride siloxane has properties and characteristics similar with the methyl hydride siloxane; the emulsion is used to provide various materials with water repellency properties. However, as oligo methyl hydride siloxane is the water emulsion, it can be applied as an additive in the production of solutions and mixtures, by the volumetric method. For concrete, gypsum, porcelain in the production of waterproof papers and leather. Application Metal manufacture: binding agent in the manufacture of ceramic molds for precision core-mold casting. Hydrophobe Amphiphile Froth flotation Hydrophile Hydrophobic effect Hydrophobicity scales Superhydrophobe Superhydrophobic coating

Gregory III of Constantinople

Patriarch Gregory III, surnamed Mammis or Μammas was Ecumenical Patriarch within the Eastern Orthodox Church during the period 1443–1450. He was prominent in unsuccessful initiatives toward reunification with the Roman Catholic Church, which led to his quitting his post as Patriarch. Few things are known about his patriarchate. Not his surname is certain, with the names Mammis or Mammas being mocking appellations. In the unreliable Chronicum Majus of George Sphrantzes, it is recorded that he came from Crete, that his real name was Melissenos. In other works he is referred to as Melissenos-Strategopoulos, he was tonsured. 1420, is considered to have been the confessor of Emperor John VIII Palaiologos. He was a supporter of the Union with the Roman Catholic Church, he played a active role in the theological discussions. He participated in the preliminary negotiations with Rome at the Council of Basle and accompanied Patriarch Joseph II to the Council of Ferrara-Florence, where he represented Philotheus of Alexandria.

He was elected Patriarch after the death of the also-unionist Patriarch Metrophanes II. Gregory did his best to reconcile monks, the church hierarchy, common people to the agreement reached at Ferrara-Florence, but in vain, he was opposed by George Scholarios and John Eugenikos. Leading anti-Unionist clergy refused to pray for the Emperor in their churches. In 1450, the tension in ecclesiastical circles grew so tense that Gregory left his post and arrived in Rome in August 1451, he was cordially received by Pope Nicholas V. Pro-unionists in the Latin-occupied areas of Greece continued to consider him the legitimate patriarch of Constantinople. Gregory died in 1459 in Rome, he was honoured as wonder-worker by the Roman Catholic Church. He wrote two dissertations about the confutation of the works of the anti-unionist Bishop Mark Eugenikos, one on the provenance of the Holy Spirit; some of his letters have been preserved, while three further theological treatises, On the unleavened bread, On the Primacy of the Pope and On the Heavenly Beatitude, remain unpublished.

Michel Cacouros, ‘Un patriarche à Rome, un katholikos didaskalos au patriarcat et deux donations trop tardives de reliques du seigneur: Grégoire III Mamas et Georges Scholarios, le synode et la synaxis’, in Byzantium State and Society: In Memory of Nikos Oikonomides, ed. Anna Avramea, Angeliki Laiou and E. Chrysos, pp. 71-124 Jonathan Harris, ‘The Patriarch of Constantinople and the last days of Byzantium’, in The Patriarchate of Constantinople in Context and Comparison, ed. Christian Gastgeber, Ekaterini Mitsiou, Johannes Preiser-Kapeller and Vratislav Zervan, pp. 9-16. 978-3-7001-7973-3. Ecumenical Patriarchate GREGORY THE CONFESSOR