A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. As on all brass instruments, sound is produced when the player's vibrating lips cause the air column inside the instrument to vibrate. Nearly all trombones have a telescoping slide mechanism that varies the length of the instrument to change the pitch. Many modern trombone models use a valve attachment to lower the pitch of the instrument. Variants such as the valve trombone and superbone have three valves similar to those on the trumpet; the word "trombone" derives from Italian tromba and -one, so the name means "large trumpet". The trombone has a predominantly cylindrical bore like its valved counterpart the baritone and in contrast to its conical valved counterparts, the cornet, the euphonium, the French horn; the most encountered trombones are the tenor trombone and bass trombone. The most common variant, the tenor, is a non-transposing instrument pitched in B♭, an octave below the B♭ trumpet and an octave above the pedal B♭ tuba; the once common E♭ alto trombone became less used as improvements in technique extended the upper range of the tenor, but it is now enjoying a resurgence due to its lighter sonority, appreciated in many classical and early romantic works.
Trombone music is written in concert pitch in either bass or tenor clef, although exceptions do occur, notably in British brass-band music where the tenor trombone is presented as a B♭ transposing instrument, written in treble clef. A person who plays the trombone is called a trombone player; the trombone is a predominantly cylindrical tube bent into an elongated "S" shape. Rather than being cylindrical from end to end, the tube is a complex series of tapers with the smallest at the mouthpiece receiver and the largest just before the bell flare; the design of these tapers affects the intonation of the instrument. As with other brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through pursed lips producing a vibration that creates a standing wave in the instrument; the detachable cup-shaped mouthpiece is similar to that of the baritone horn and related to that of the trumpet. It has the venturi: a small constriction of the air column that adds resistance affecting the tone of the instrument and is inserted into the mouthpiece receiver in the slide section.
The slide section consists of a leadpipe, the inner and outer slide tubes, the bracing, or "stays". Modern stays are soldered, while sackbuts were made with unsoldered stays. The'slide', the most distinctive feature of the trombone, allows the player to extend the length of the air column, lowering the pitch. To prevent friction from slowing the action of the slide, additional sleeves were developed during the Renaissance, these "stocking" were soldered onto the ends of the inner slide tubes. Nowadays, the stockings are incorporated into the manufacturing process of the inner slide tubes and represent a fractional widening of the tube to accommodate the necessary method of alleviating friction; this part of the slide must be lubricated frequently. Additional tubing connects the slide to the bell of the instrument through a neckpipe, bell or back bow; the joint connecting the slide and bell sections is furnished with a ferrule to secure the connection of the two parts of the instrument, though older models from the early 20th century and before were equipped with friction joints and no ancillary mechanism to tighten the joint.
The adjustment of intonation is most accomplished with a tuning slide, a short slide between the neckpipe and the bell incorporating the bell bow. However, unlike other instrumentalists, are not subject to the intonation issues resulting from valved or keyed instruments, since they can adjust intonation "on the fly" by subtly altering slide positions when necessary. For example, second position "A" is not in the same place on the slide as second position "E". Many types of trombone include one or more rotary valves used to increase the length of the instrument by directing the air flow through additional tubing; this allows the instrument to reach notes that are otherwise not possible without the valve as well as play other notes in alternate positions. Like the trumpet, the trombone is considered a cylindrical bore instrument since it has extensive sections of tubing, principally in the slide section, that are of unchanging diameter. Tenor trombones have a bore of 0.450 inches to 0.547 inches after the leadpipe and through the slide.
The bore expands through the gooseneck to the bell, between 7 and 8 1⁄2 inches. A number of common variations on trombone construction are noted below. "Trombone" comes from the Italian word tromba plus the suffix -one, meaning "big trumpet". During the Renaissance, the equivalent English term was "sackbut"; the word first appears in court records in 1495 as "shakbusshe" at about the time King Henry VII married a Portuguese princess who brought musicians with her. "Shakbusshe" is similar to "sacabuche", attested in Spain as early as 1478. The French equivalent "saqueboute" appears in 1466; the German "Posaune" long predates the invention of the slide and could refer to a natural trumpet as late as the early fifteenth century. Both towns and courts sponsored bands of shaw
The Stars and Stripes Forever
"The Stars and Stripes Forever" is a patriotic American march written and composed by John Philip Sousa considered to be his magnum opus. By a 1987 act of the U. S. Congress, it is the official National March of the United States of America. In his autobiography, Marching Along, Sousa wrote that he composed the march on Christmas Day, 1896, he was on an ocean liner on his way home from a vacation with his wife in Europe and had just learned of the recent death of David Blakely, the manager of the Sousa Band. He committed the notes to paper on arrival in the United States, it was first performed at Willow Grove Park, just outside Philadelphia, on May 14, 1897, was greeted with enthusiasm. Following an Act of Congress in 1987, it was adopted as the national march of the United States of America. In show business and in theater and the circus, this piece is called "the Disaster March". In the early 20th century, when it was common for theaters and circuses to have house bands, this march was a traditional code signaling a life-threatening emergency.
It subtly notified personnel of emergency situations and ideally allowed them to organize the audience's exit without causing the chaos and panic that an overt declaration might. Circus bands would never play the tune under circumstances other than impending disaster. One memorable example of its use was during the Hartford circus fire of July 6, 1944. At least 168 people were killed; the Stars and Stripes Forever follows the standard U. S. military march form—of repeated phrasing of different melodies performed in sections called strains: a Sousa legacy. Performances vary according to the arrangements of individual band directors or orchestrators regarding tempo and the number and sequence of strains employed. A typical performance of the march begins with the four-bar introduction, following with the first strain, repeated. Now follows the dominant woodwinds in the first run of the famous Trio strain—familiar to many for the nonsense lyrics: "O' be kind to your web-footed friends.."—which repeats, repeats again as the piccolos obligato.
Follows the breakstrain, the final strain, the breakstrain repeated. The final repeats of the Trio render the famous obligato of the piccolo players—joined to a subdued but prominent countermelody by the brass section. Sousa explained to the press that the three themes of the final trio were intended to represent the three regions of the United States; the broad melody, or main theme, portrays the North. The South is represented by the famous piccolo obligato, the West by the bold countermelody of the trombones; the three come together in the climax. Sousa wrote lyrics to the piece. A typical pairing of Sousa's lyrics with various sections of the march—here the First strain and the Grandioso strain—is noted in the colored bars. In 1942 the John Church Company published a four-part choral version of the march with a piano arrangement by Elmer Arthur Tidmarsh; this arrangement has additional lyrics written by Tidmarsh for the Breakstrain section of the march. The exact origin of the parody is unclear, but versions of it were being quoted as early as the 1930s on college campuses, during the 1940s, where it was sung for entertainment by soldiers at the USO.
Some newspapers of that time referred to it as the "Duck Song." In 1954, Charles Grean and Joan Javits composed "Crazy Mixed Up Song", using the theme from The Stars and Stripes Forever, with lyrics beginning "Be kind to your web-footed friends". It was made somewhat popular by Peter Lind Mary Healy in that year. In the early 1960s, it reached a wider audience as a part of a nationally syndicated sing-along show, "Mitch Miller and the Gang"; this version has the best known lyrics, which were used to end every show: "Here We Go", the best known and most widespread English football chant, consist of the words "here we go" continuously repeated to the tune of The Stars and Stripes Forever. It was described by Auberon Waugh as the national anthem of the working classes, it was the basis of Everton F. C.'s official song for the 1984 FA Cup Final. The tune has been repurposed for many other repetitive, football chants; the Stars and Stripes Forever is featured in many U. S. musical performances and pop culture: There are several orchestral transcriptions of The Stars and Stripes Forever, including one by conductor Leopold Stokowski and one by Keith Brion and Loras Schissel.
There was an orchestral arrangement of the march by Carl Davis and David Cullen for the album Carl Conducts... Classical Festival Favourites; the tune is used by soccer fans, with the trio/grandioso section sung with the words "Here We Go". The supporters of Spanish side Valencia CF used to sing it with the words "Xe que bó!" which means something like "Oh! How good" in Catalan, those words have become a symbol for the team. Another version uses the word cheerio normally sung to players or coaches when they have been sent off or when an underdog has ended its opponent's cup campaign. Certain clubs such as Forest Green or Sunderland use the chant just using the club name. A nickname can instead be used for the chant, such as Gateshead fans chanting "
In musical terminology, tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece. In classical music, tempo is indicated with an instruction at the start of a piece and is measured in beats per minute. In modern classical compositions, a "metronome mark" in beats per minute may supplement or replace the normal tempo marking, while in modern genres like electronic dance music, tempo will simply be stated in bpm. Tempo may be separated from articulation and meter, or these aspects may be indicated along with tempo, all contributing to the overall texture. While the ability to hold a steady tempo is a vital skill for a musical performer, tempo is changeable. Depending on the genre of a piece of music and the performers' interpretation, a piece may be played with slight tempo rubato or drastic accelerando. In ensembles, the tempo is indicated by a conductor or by one of the instrumentalists, for instance the drummer. While tempo is described or indicated in many different ways, including with a range of words, it is measured in beats per minute.
For example, a tempo of 60 beats per minute signifies one beat per second, while a tempo of 120 beats per minute is twice as rapid, signifying one beat every 0.5 seconds. The note value of a beat will be that indicated by the denominator of the time signature. For instance, in 44 the beat will be a crotchet; this measurement and indication of tempo became popular during the first half of the 19th century, after Johann Nepomuk Maelzel invented the metronome. Beethoven was one of the first composers to use the metronome. Instead of beats per minute, some 20th-century classical composers specify the total playing time for a piece, from which the performer can derive tempo. With the advent of modern electronics, bpm became an precise measure. Music sequencers use the bpm system to denote tempo. In popular music genres such as electronic dance music, accurate knowledge of a tune's bpm is important to DJs for the purposes of beatmatching; the speed of a piece of music can be gauged according to measures per minute or bars per minute, the number of measures of the piece performed in one minute.
This measure is used in ballroom dance music. In different musical contexts, different instrumental musicians, conductors, music directors or other individuals will select the tempo of a song or piece. In a popular music or traditional music group or band, the bandleader or lead singer may select the tempo. In popular and traditional music, whoever is setting the tempo counts out one or two bars in tempo. In some songs or pieces in which a singer or solo instrumentalist begins the work with a solo introduction, the tempo they set will provide the tempo for the group. In an orchestra or concert band, the conductor sets the tempo. In a marching band, the drum major may set the tempo. In a sound recording, in some cases a record producer may set the tempo for a song. In classical music it is customary to describe the tempo of a piece by one or more words, most in Italian, in addition to or instead of a metronome mark in beats per minute. Italian is used because it was the language of most composers during the time these descriptions became commonplace.
Some well-known Italian tempo indications include "Allegro", "Andante" and "Presto". This practice developed during the baroque and classical periods. In the earlier Renaissance music, performers understood most music to flow at a tempo defined by the tactus; the mensural time signature indicated. In the Baroque period, pieces would be given an indication, which might be a tempo marking, or the name of a dance, the latter being an indication both of tempo and of metre. Any musician of the time was expected to know how to interpret these markings based on custom and experience. In some cases, these markings were omitted. For example, the first movement of Bach's Brandenburg Concerto No. 3 has no tempo or mood indication whatsoever. Despite the increasing number of explicit tempo markings, musicians still observe conventions, expecting a minuet to be at a stately tempo, slower than a Viennese waltz. Genres imply tempos. Thus, Ludwig van Beethoven wrote "In tempo d'un Menuetto" over the first movement of his Piano Sonata Op. 54, though that movement is not a minuet.
Many tempo markings indicate mood and expression. For example and allegro both indicate a speedy execution, but allegro connotes joy. Presto, on the other hand indicates speed. Additional Italian words indicate tempo and mood. For example, the "agitato" in the Allegro agitato of the last movement of George Gershwin's piano concerto in F has both a tempo indication and a mood indication. Composers name movements of compositions after their tempo marking. For instance, the second movement of Samuel Barber's first String Quartet is an Adagio. A particular musical form or genre implies its own tempo, so composers need place no further explanation in the score. Popular music charts use terms such as bossa nova, ballad
The Music Man
The Music Man is a musical with book and lyrics by Meredith Willson, based on a story by Willson and Franklin Lacey. The plot concerns con man Harold Hill, who poses as a boys' band organizer and leader and sells band instruments and uniforms to naive Midwestern townsfolk, promising to train the members of the new band. Harold is no musician and plans to skip town without giving any music lessons. Prim librarian and piano teacher Marian sees through him, but when Harold helps her younger brother overcome his lisp and social awkwardness, Marian begins to fall in love. Harold risks being caught to win her. In 1957, the show became a hit on Broadway, winning five Tony Awards, including Best Musical, running for 1,375 performances; the cast album won the first Grammy Award for Best Musical Theater Album and spent 245 weeks on the Billboard charts. The show's success led to revivals, including a long-running 2000 Broadway revival, a popular 1962 film adaptation and a 2003 television adaptation, it is produced by both professional and amateur theater companies.
Meredith Willson was inspired by his boyhood in Mason City, Iowa, to write and compose his first musical, The Music Man. Willson began developing this theme in his 1948 memoir, he first approached producers Cy Feuer and Ernest Martin for a television special, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer producer Jesse L. Lasky. After these and other unsuccessful attempts, Willson invited Franklin Lacey to help him edit and simplify the libretto. At this time, Willson considered eliminating a long piece of dialogue about the serious trouble facing River City parents. Willson realized it sounded like a lyric, transformed it into the patter song "Ya Got Trouble". Willson wrote about his trials and tribulations in getting the show to Broadway in his book But He Doesn't Know the Territory; the character Marian Paroo was inspired by Marian Seeley of Provo, who met Willson during World War II, when Seeley was a medical records librarian. In the original production, the School Board was played by the 1950 International Quartet Champions of the Society for the Preservation and Encouragement of Barber Shop Quartet Singing in America, the Buffalo Bills.
Robert Preston claimed that he got the role of Harold Hill despite his limited singing range because, when he went to audition, they were having the men sing "Trouble". The producers felt it would be the most difficult song to sing, but with his acting background, it was the easiest for Preston. After years of development, a change of producers forty songs, more than forty drafts, the original Broadway production was produced by Kermit Bloomgarden, directed by Morton DaCosta and choreographed by Onna White, it opened on December 1957 at the Majestic Theatre. It remained at the Majestic for nearly three years before transferring to The Broadway Theatre to complete its 1,375-performance run on April 15, 1961; the original cast included Robert Preston as Harold Hill, Barbara Cook as Marian, Eddie Hodges as Winthrop, Pert Kelton as Mrs. Paroo, Iggie Wolfington as Marcellus Washburn and David Burns as Mayor Shinn. Eddie Albert and Bert Parks each replaced Preston as Hill in the run, Paul Ford was a replacement for Mayor Shinn reprising the role in the film version.
Howard Bay designed the sets. The musical won five Tony Awards, including Best Musical, winning in the same year that West Side Story was nominated for the award. Preston and Burns won. Liza Redfield became the first woman to be the full-time conductor of a Broadway pit orchestra when she assumed the role of music director for the original production's final year of performances beginning in May 1960; the long-running US national tour opened in 1958, starring Forrest Tucker as Hill and Joan Weldon as Marian. The original Australian production ran from March 5, 1960 to July 30, 1960 at the Princess Theatre in Melbourne, at the Tivoli Theatre in Sydney from December 13, 1960 to February 4, 1961; the first UK production opened at Bristol Hippodrome, transferring to London's West End at the Adelphi Theatre on March 16, 1961, starring Van Johnson, Patricia Lambert, C. Denier Warren, Ruth Kettlewell and Dennis Waterman, it ran for 395 performances at the Adelphi. A two-week revival at New York City Center ran in June 1965, directed by Gus Schirmer, Jr. and starring Bert Parks as Harold Hill.
Doro Merande and Sandy Duncan played Eulalie and Zaneeta Shinn. A three-week revival and choreographed by Michael Kidd, ran in June 1980 at the New York City Center; the cast included Dick Van Dyke as Hill, Meg Bussert as Marian, Christian Slater as Winthrop, Carol Arthur as Mrs. Paroo, Iggie Wolfington as Mayor Shinn. In 1987, a Chinese translation of the musical was staged at Beijing's Central Opera Theater. New York City Opera staged a revival from February to April 1988, directed by Arthur Masella and choreographed by Marcia Milgrom Dodge, starring Bob Gunton as Hill, with Muriel Costa-Greenspon as Eulalie and James Billings as Marcellus. Another Broadway revival and choreographed by Susan Stroman, opened on April 27, 2000 at the Neil Simon Theatre, where it ran for 699 performances and 22 previews; the cast included Craig Bierko as Rebecca Luker as Marian. Robert Sean Leonard and Eric McCormack portrayed Hill in the run. In 2008, there was a revival at the Chichester Festival Theatre, starring Brian Conley as Hill and Scarlett Strallen as Marian.
A Broadway revival is planned to begin previews on September 9, 2020, open on October 22, starring Hugh Jackman as Hill and Sutton Foster as Marian, pro
The cornet is a brass instrument similar to the trumpet but distinguished from it by its conical bore, more compact shape, mellower tone quality. The most common cornet is a transposing instrument in B♭, though there is a soprano cornet in E♭ and a cornet in C. All are unrelated to early baroque cornett; the cornet derived from the posthorn by applying rotary valves to it in the 1820s in France. But By the 1830s, Parisian makers were using piston valves. Cornets first appeared as separate instrumental parts in 19th century French compositions; this instrument could not have been developed without the improvement of piston valves by Silesian horn player Friedrich Blühmel and Heinrich Stölzel in the early 19th century. These two instrument makers simultaneously invented valves, though it is that Blühmel was the inventor, Stölzel who developed a practical instrument, they jointly were granted this for a period of ten years. And most François Périnet received a patent in 1838 for an improved valve, the basis of all modern brass instrument piston valves.
The first notable virtuoso player was Jean-Baptiste Arban, who studied the cornet extensively and published La grande méthode complète de cornet à piston et de saxhorn referred to as the Arban method, in 1864. Up until the early 20th century, the trumpet and cornet coexisted in musical ensembles. Symphonic repertoire involves separate parts for trumpet and cornet; as several instrument builders made improvements to both instruments, they started to look and sound more alike. The modern day cornet is used in brass bands, concert bands, in specific orchestral repertoire that requires a more mellow sound; the name cornet derives from corne, meaning itself from Latin cornu. While not musically related, instruments of the Zink family are named "cornetto" or "cornett" in modern English to distinguish them from the valved cornet described here; the 11th edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica referred to serpents as "old wooden cornets". The Roman/Etruscan cornu is the lingual ancestor of these, it is a predecessor of the post horn from which the cornet evolved and was used like a bugle to signal orders on the battlefield.
The cornet was invented by adding valves to the post horn in circa 1828. The valves allowed for melodic playing throughout the register of the cornet. Trumpets were slower to adopt the new valve technology, so for the next 100 years or more, composers wrote separate parts for trumpet and cornet; the trumpet would play fanfare-like passages. The modern trumpet has valves that allow it to play the same fingerings as the cornet. Cornets and trumpets made in a given key play at the same pitch, the technique for playing the instruments is nearly identical; however and trumpets are not interchangeable, as they differ in timbre. Available, but seen only in the brass band, is an E♭ soprano model, pitched a fourth above the standard B♭. Unlike the trumpet, which has a cylindrical bore up to the bell section, the tubing of the cornet has a conical bore, starting narrow at the mouthpiece and widening towards the bell. Cornets following the 1913 patent of E. A. Couturier can have a continuously conical bore.
The conical bore of the cornet is responsible for its characteristic warm, mellow tone, which can be distinguished from the more penetrating sound of the trumpet. The conical bore of the cornet makes it more agile than the trumpet when playing fast passages, but correct pitching is less assured; the cornet is preferred for young beginners as it is easier to hold, with its centre of gravity much closer to the player. The cornet mouthpiece has a shorter and narrower shank than that of a trumpet so it can fit the cornet's smaller mouthpiece receiver; the cup size is deeper than that of a trumpet mouthpiece. One variety is the short model traditional cornet known as a "Shepherd's Crook" shaped model; these are most large–bore instruments with a rich mellow sound. There is a long-model or "American-wrap" cornet with a smaller bore and a brighter sound, produced in a variety of different tubing wraps and is closer to a trumpet in appearance; the Shepherd's Crook model is preferred by cornet traditionalists.
The long-model cornet is used in concert bands in the United States, but has found little following in British-style brass and concert bands. A third and rare variety—distinct from the long-model or "American-wrap" cornet—is the "long cornet", produced in the mid-20th Century by C. G. Conn and F. E. Olds and visually is nearly indistinguishable from a trumpet except that it has a receiver fashioned to accept cornet mouthpieces; the echo cornet has been called an obsolete variant. The echo cornet has a mute chamber mounted to the side acting as a second bell when the fourth valve is pressed; the second bell has a sound similar to that of a Harmon mute and is used to play echo phrases, whereupon the player imitates the sound from the primary bell using the echo chamber. Like the trumpet and all other modern brass wind instruments, the cornet makes a sound when the player vibrates the lips in the mouthpiece, creating a vibrating column of air in the tubing; the frequency of the air column's vibration can be modified by changing the lip tension and aperture or "embouchure", by altering the tongue position to change the shape of the oral cavity, thereby increasing or decreasing the speed of the airstream.
In addition, the column of air can be lengthened by engaging one or more valve
Here's Love is a musical with a book and lyrics by Meredith Willson. Based on the classic film Miracle on 34th Street, it tells the tale of a skeptical little girl who doubts the existence of Santa Claus; when the real Kris Kringle inadvertently is hired to represent jolly St. Nick in the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade, he must convince the child and her cynical divorced mother that he's the genuine article; the Broadway production, directed by Stuart Ostrow and choreographed by Michael Kidd, opened on October 3, 1963 at the Shubert Theatre, closed on July 25, 1964 after 334 performances and 2 previews. The cast included Laurence Naismith, Janis Paige, Craig Stevens, Lisa Kirk, Fred Gwynne, Kathy Cody, Michael Bennett, Baayork Lee; the original director, Norman Jewison, was replaced by the producer, during rehearsals. The Toronto Civic Light Opera Company has produced Here's Love twice, with significant musical and book revisions by artistic director, Joe Cascone, their first production ran in December 1994, a more elaborate staging was presented in December 2007.
This show been titled It's Beginning To Look a Lot Like Christmas and Miracle on 34th Street: The Musical. The song "It's Beginning to Look a Lot Like Christmas" was written by Willson in 1951 and used in the musical where it is sung in counterpoint to the newly composed "Pinecones and Holly Berries". Susan Walker and her mother, live alone in New York City in the 1960s. Doris works in an executive position at Macy's and, at the start of the musical, is busy organizing the Macy's Thanksgiving Day Parade. Susan meets an ex-marine named Fred Gaily, who takes it upon himself to rid her of her "realistic" outlook on life by taking her to see Santa Claus at Macy's. Kris manages to win Susan over while love blooms between Doris; the second act sees Kris appearing in the New York Supreme Court, with Fred helping him defend his sanity. In the conclusion, Fred uses the Post Office to prove to the court that Santa Claus does exist: Kris Kringle is he. Valerie Lee - Susan Walker Janis Paige - Doris Walker Laurence Naismith - Kris Kringle Craig Stevens - Fred Gaily Fred Gwynne - Mr. Shellhammer Paul Reed - Mr. Macy Kathy Cody - Hendrika Broadway Here's Love at guidetomusicaltheatre.com Here's Love at the Internet Broadway Database