Ossetra caviar is one of the most prized and expensive types of caviar. It is obtained from the Ossetra sturgeon which can live up to 50 years. Ossetra caviar varies in color from deep brown to gold. Lighter varieties are more sought after, as they have the richest flavor and come from the oldest of sturgeon. Golden Ossetra is a rare form of Ossetra caviar, is golden-yellow in color with a rich flavor; the word Ossetra is the transcription of the genitive case form "осетра" of the Russian word "осётр" from the phrase икра осетра. At one time, the term "ossetra" referred to Russian sturgeon species harvested for this type of caviar. In Russian, there are different names for the species of sturgeon that live in various territories such as Beluga and Sterlet; the name Ossetra corresponds to the species Acipenser gueldenstaedtii, much smaller than Beluga sturgeon, has a firmer texture. In the territory of the Russian Federation dwells another type of sturgeon, Siberian sturgeon, farmed all over the world because it can adapt to a wider range of habitats.
It begins to produce caviar faster than Acipenser gueldenstaedtii. Throughout the entire history of black caviar consumption, reference to Ossetra was made only to the fish, caught first in Imperial Russia the USSR, now in the Russian Federation. Today, Caspian Ossetra is facing extinction in its native habitat. Farming sturgeon is the only way to continue the production of high-quality caviar. Continuous drastic declines in natural sturgeon populations over the past 30 years plus a high market demand for caviar have led the way for sturgeon farming for the production of caviar. Russia, members of the European Union and the USA were among the first; as with other caviars, ossetra is traditionally served on blinis with crème fraiche. Lower-grade varieties of caviar are used as stuffing in many seafood dishes, some meat dishes. Caviar is added to salads as well. World Sturgeon Conservation Society Osetra Caviar
Tobiko is the Japanese word for flying fish roe. It is most known for its use in creating certain types of sushi; the eggs are small. For comparison, tobiko is smaller than ikura. Natural tobiko has a red-orange color, a mild smoky or salty taste, a crunchy texture. Sometimes, tobiko is colored to change its appearance, other natural ingredients are used to accomplish the change, such as squid ink to make it black, yuzu to make it pale orange, or wasabi to make it green and spicy. A serving of tobiko can contain several pieces, each having a different color; when prepared as sashimi, it may be presented on avocado wedges. Tobiko is used in the creation of many other Japanese dishes, it is used as an ingredient in California rolls. Masago is substituted for tobiko, due to its similar appearance and flavor; the smaller size of the individual eggs is apparent to the experienced diner, however
Karasumi is a food product made by salting mullet roe and drying it in sunlight. A theory suggests that it got its name from its resemblance to the blocks of sumi imported from China for use in Japanese calligraphy. Karasumi is a high priced delicacy and it is eaten while drinking sake, it is a softer analog of Mediterranean Bottarga. It is a speciality of Nagasaki and along with salt-pickled sea urchin roe and Konowata one of the "three chinmi of Japan"; the town of Donggang in Taiwan specializes in the delicacy. Mullet fishing in Taiwan can be traced back to. Bottarga Eoran List of delicacies
Pollock roe pollack roe, is the roe of Alaska pollock which, despite its name, is a species of cod. Salted pollock roe is a popular culinary ingredient in Korean and Russian cuisines. In Korean, pollock roe is called myeongnan, while the salted roe dish is called myeongnan-jeot, being considered a type of jeotgal; the Korean word myeongnan means pollock roe as myeong came from myeongtae, the Korean word for Alaska pollocks, ran pronounced nan, means "egg". As jeot is a category of salted seafood, the compound myeongnan-jeot refers to salted pollock roe. In Japanese, the word tarako refers to fresh and salted pollock roe, while the spicy version introduced from Korea after World War II is called mentaiko or karashi-mentaiko; the Japanese word mentaiko is a compound of mentai, borrowed from its Korean cognate myeongtae meaning Alaska pollock, ko, a Japanese word for "child". Alaska pollocks are called suketōdara in Japanese. Tara means cod in Japanese. In Russian, pollock roe is called ikra mintaya.
The word is used to referred to the salted roe. The Russian word ikra means "roe" and mintaya is the singular genitive form of mintay, which means Alaska pollock; the word derived from its Korean cognate, myeongtae. Koreans have been enjoying pollock roe since the Joseon era. One of the earliest mentions are from Diary of the Royal Secretariat, where a 1652 entry stated: "The management administration should be interrogated for bringing in pollock roe instead of cod roe." Recipe for salted pollock roe is found in Siuijeonseo. A 1696 Japanese book records the use of Alaska pollock's roe in Northern land; the dish mentaiko originates from Korea and is the Korean myeongnan-jeot. Toshio Kawahara, born in the city of Busan, Korea during the Japanese occupation, founded the oldest mentaiko company in Japan called "Aji no Mentaiko Fukuya" after World War II, he made slight modifications to myeongnan-jeot to adapt to Japanese tastes and introduced it to Japan as "Karashi mentaiko", it popular name is "mentaiko".
The milder, less spicy version is called tarako in Japan. Traditionally, myeongnan-jeot was made before dongji. Intact skeins of Alaska pollock roe are washed with salt water salted in a sokuri; the ratio of salt to roe ranges from less than 5:100 to more than 15:100. After 2-3 days and drained roe is marinated for at least a day with fine gochutgaru and finely minced garlic. Myeongnan-jeot is served with some drops of sesame oil. Myeongnan-jeot, whether raw, and/or cooked, is a common banchan and anju, it is used in a variety of dishes, such as gyeran-jjim, bokkeum-bap, in Korean-style Italian pasta dishes. Myeongnan-jeot is a specialty of South Hamgyong Province of North Korea, Gangwon Province and Busan of South Korea. Mentaiko, originates in Korea and is the Korean myeongnan-jeot, is eaten in Japan, it is available at airports and main train stations. It is eaten with onigiri, but is enjoyed by itself with sake. A common variety is spicy mentaiko, it is a product of the Hakata ward of Fukuoka City.
Milder version is called tarako, Recently in Japan, mentaiko pasta has become common and popular. Mentaiko is used as a sauce for spaghetti. Thin strips of Nori are sprinkled on top. Mentaiko was nominated as Japan's number one side dish in the Japanese weekly magazine, Shūkan Bunshun. Tarako is served in a number of ways: plain, as a filling for onigiri, as a pasta sauce. Traditionally, tarako was dyed bright red, but recent concerns about the safety of food coloring have all but eliminated that custom. In Kyūshū, tarako is served with red chili pepper flakes. In Russia, pollock roe is consumed as a sandwich spread; the product, resembling liquid paste due to the small size of eggs and oil added, is sold canned. Alaska pollock as food Jeotgal Masago Tobiko Media related to Mentaiko at Wikimedia Commons
Arctoscopus japonicus, the sailfin sandfish or Japanese sandfish, is a species of fish of the Percomorpha clade in the order Trachiniformes, being one of the two genera in the family Trichodontidae, the sandfishes. Known in Japan as hatahata, it is a commercially important fish for Akita and Yamagata prefectures, its habitat occurs in sandy-mud bottoms ranging from the Sea of Japan to the Okhotsk Sea. As a food source, the fish has been sourced locally from the coastal region of the Sea of Japan, has been designated the official prefectural fish of Akita Prefecture; the fish, scaleless, may be prepared whole as braised or grilled fish, has a mucilaginous consistency. It is dried to make stockfish, it is the main ingredient of the fish sauce called shottsuru. The egg masses are known as burikko. In Korean the fish is called 도루묵 dorumuk; the fish had been used dried or in fish meal form as fertilizer, shipped to agricultural areas at one time, into the 20th century. Arctoscopus japonicus has a life span of 5 years, attaining a typical fork length of 20 centimetres.
It is a deep sea fish that inhabits sandy and muddy sea floors in waters 200 to 400 metres deep, but migrates from November to January to spawn in shallow rocky beds of seaweed. The males reach sexual maturity at 1 1/2 years of age and beyond, females at the 2-year-old stage, it preys and feeds on amphipods, mysidacea, krill and fish. It is distributed in the northwestern Pacific Ocean the Sea of Japan to the Okhotsk Sea, Kurile Islands and Kamchatka Peninsula. Three broad regional population groups had been postulated by Okiyama based on tagging, mitochondrial DNA analysis confirmed these grouping on a genetic basis; the population groups are: Western Japan – This is a group that migrate the coast of the Sea of Japan from Tottori to Akita Prefecture. It comprises the "northern Sea of Japan" and "western Sea of Japan" subgroups; the spawning grounds of the group has been assumed to be off all along the coast, but bulk spawning grounds are absent around the Noto Peninsula and any further west/south, in fact, it has been reported that the western Sea of Japan group's spawning grounds occur in the east coast of the Korean peninsula.
South Hokkaido – This is a group with breeding grounds in the Pacific Ocean off Hokkaido. It consists of Ishikari Bay, Funka Bay, Hidaka and Nemuro subgroups. Eastern Korea – This group has breeding grounds in the eastern coast of the Korean Peninsula. Catch production in the Tōhoku region's Pacific coast is modest, no regular spawning grounds have been confirmed. Migration routes have not been charted, but their travel range is considered extensive, since individuals from the Hokkaido and Sea of Japan population groups have been captured in the Sanriku shore; the color is silvery underneath, light brown above with dark brown streaks flecked with spots. Tall body depth, though not as tall as the Pacific sandfish. Head and trunk are scaleless. A large mouth and turned upwards, is lined with rows of fine teeth; the gill-flap on the cheek each has five sharp spines. It has a second dorsal fin that are separated by a gap; the pectoral fins are large. The fish lacks an air-bladder, it is active nocturnally, during the day time lies buried in the mud or sand on the sea bottom, with only the mouth and eyes visible.
The egg mass is green, but may have yellow, red, or brown coloration. Pigment components present in the eggs include bilin and carotenoids such as idoxanthin and vitamin A2 aldehyde; the bilin and retinal produces the base green color, the amount of relative idoxanthin content is the key determinant of the color variation. Study of its prey or the fish's stomach contents reveal negligible traces of idoxanthin and crustaxanthin, which means the fish must be internally converting other carotenoid substances such as astaxanthin that are abundant in their food into idoxanthin and crustaxanthin, given that fish in general cannot build their own carotenoid wholly out of building block materials. Researchers hypothesize that the intake of astaxanthin influences the idoxanthin concentration in the body, which result in the egg color change. In the current taxonomy, the species is classified under the Perciformes order, Trachinoidei suborder, Trichodontidae family. However, mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that the species is more related to Cottus spp. of the Scorpaeniformes order.
Pacific sandfish, Trichodon trichodon, or ezo hatahata in Japanese, found from the Aleutian Islands to Alaska down to California. The Japanese name hatahata may be written as 鰰, which consists of the fish radical 魚 combined with the character kami "god". Shokusanjin records the lore that it came to be written this way "because within its scales arises the pattern of Mt. Fuji, was celebrated as auspicious fish," though the actual species has no scales. An alternate Japanese name is kaminari-uwo "thunder fish", which derives from their spawning season coinciding with the months when thunderstorms become frequent. In fact, hatahata is an old onomatopoeia representing the sound of the thunderclap, whose use is attested in the 10th century Kagerō Nikki, and, the root of the verb hatata-ku "to thunder."In the Akita dialect, hatahata
Roe or hard roe is the ripe internal egg masses in the ovaries, or the released external egg masses of fish and certain marine animals, such as shrimp and sea urchins. As a seafood, roe is used both as a raw ingredient; the roe of marine animals, such as the roe of lumpsucker and salmon, is an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids. Roe from a sturgeon or sometimes other fish is the raw base product; the term soft roe or white roe denotes fish milt. The large indigenous population in KwaZulu-Natal consumes fish roe in the form of sour curry or battered and deep fried. In southern Brazil, in particular in the litoral parts of the state of Santa Catarina, Mullet roesacks are consumed deepfried or pan-seared by the locals. In the province of New Brunswick, roe of the Atlantic sturgeon is harvested from the Saint John river. Roe from the cisco is harvested from the Great Lakes for overseas markets. Roe is extracted from herring and sea urchins. In coastal British Columbia, Fraser River white sturgeon are sustainably farmed to produce caviar.
In Chile, sea urchin roe is a traditional food known as an "erizo de mar". Chile is one of many countries that exports sea urchins to Japan in order to fulfill Japanese demand. In Dominican Republic and smoked herring roe is eaten. Unlike in some countries, it's cooked before consumption. In Peru, roe is served in many seafood restaurants sauteed and pan fried, sometimes accompanied by a side of fresh onion salad, it is called Huevera Frita. Cojinova yields the best roe for this dish. Despite the fact that many people like it, it is hardly considered a delicacy. Upscale restaurants are not expected to offer it, but street vendors and smaller restaurants will make their first daily sales of it before they run out. Cojinova itself is caught for its fish meal, not for its roe, considered a chance product. Sea urchin roe is considered a delicacy and it is used to add strength to ceviche. In the United States, several kinds of roe are produced: salmon from the Pacific coast and herring species like the American shad and alewife, paddlefish, American bowfin, some species of sturgeon.
Shad and other roe are sometimes pan-fried with bacon. Spot Prawn roe is a delicacy from the North Pacific. Flounder roe, pan-fried and served with grits is popular on the Southeastern coast. Roe from the Ilish fish is considered a delicacy in Bangladesh; the roe is deep-fried, although other preparations such as mashed roe where the roe crushed along with oil and pepper, or curry of roe can be found. In many regions in China and urchin roes are eaten as a delicacy. Crab roe are used as topping in dishes such as "crab roe tofu". Nanxiang Steamed Bun Restaurant serves "crab roe xiaolongbao" as their special. Shrimp roes are eaten in certain places around the downstream of Yangtze River, such as Wuhu, as toppings for noodle soup. Among the tribal populace of eastern India, roe, roasted over an open fire is a delicacy. In this region, the roe of rohu is considered a delicacy and is eaten fried or as a stuffing within a fried pointed gourd to make potoler dolma. All along the Konkan coast and Northern Kerala, the roe of sardines, black mackerel and several other fish is considered a delicacy.
The roe can be eaten fried and as a thick curry. In Goa, roe is first steamed or poached coated with salt and chilli powder and shallow fried or roasted on a tawa. In the state of Kerala, roe is deep fried in coconut oil, is considered a delicacy. A common method of quick preparation is to wrap the roe in wet banana leaves and cook it over charcoal embers. In Odisha and West Bengal, roe of several fresh-water fish, including hilsa, are eaten, the roe being cooked separately or along with the fish, the latter method being preferred for all but large fishes. Roe, either light or deep-fried are eaten as snacks or appetizers before a major meal. All along the Indus River and Specially South Pakistan Sindh, the roe of Palla and several other fish is considered a delicacy; the roe can be eaten fried and as a thick curry. Coated with salt and chilli powder and shallow fried or roasted on a tawa. In the Caspian provinces of Gilan and Mazandaran, several types of roe are used. Called ashpal or ashbal, roe is consumed grilled, salted, or mixed with other ingredients.
If salted or cured, it is consumed as a condiment. If used fresh, it is grilled, steamed, or mixed with eggs and fried to form a custard-like dish called "Ashpal Kuku". Besides the much sought-after caviar, roe from kutum, Caspian roach and Caspian salmon are prized. Roe from carp is less common and barbel roe is occasionally used. Several sections of the Israeli cuisine include roe. In Modern Hebrew, roe is referred to by its Russian name "ikra"; when necessary, the color is mentioned: white or pink, as appropriate. Israeli "white ikra" is made of carp or herring eggs, while "red ikra" is made of flathead mullet eggs or, in rarer cases, salmon eggs; the term "caviar" is separate, denotes only sturgeon eggs. Ikra is served as a starter dish, to be eaten with pita or similar breads in Arab restaurants, it can be purchased in stores, in standard-sized p
The sterlet is a small species of sturgeon from Eurasia native to large rivers that flow into the Black Sea, Azov Sea, Caspian Sea, as well as rivers in Siberia as far east as Yenisei. Populations migrating between fresh and salt water have been extirpated. Due to overfishing and dams, the sterlet has declined throughout its native range and is considered vulnerable by the IUCN. Restocking projects are ongoing, it has been introduced to some regions outside its native range, but the latter have not become self-sustaining. Today, the majority of the international trade involves sterlets from aquaculture; the sterlet may reach 16 kg in weight and 100 to 125 cm in length exceeding a length of 3 ft. It is quite variable in coloration, but has a yellowish ventral side, it is distinguishable from other European species of sturgeons by the presence of a great number of whitish lateral scutes, fringed barbels, an elongated and narrow snout variable in length. The sterlet's main source of food is benthic organisms.
The sterlet reaches the age of 22 to 25 years. Males reach sexual maturity at 3–7 years old and females at 4–12 years old. Spawning occurs from the middle of April to the beginning of June. Females may lay from 15,000–44,000 eggs, at water temperatures preferably 12–17 °C. Sterlets require large ponds with good water conditions, may get entangled in plants such as blanketweed, they may require special food such as sterlet sticks, as they are unable to digest the vegetable proteins found in commercial fish foods. In Russia, it is held in high esteem on account of its excellent flesh, contributing to the best kinds of caviar and isinglass. Sterlet x Beluga = Sterlet x Siberian Sturgeon ] Sterlet x Diamondback Hybrids are hardier than their parents