click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sex-selective abortion

Sex-selective abortion is the practice of terminating a pregnancy based upon the predicted sex of the infant. The selective abortion of female fetuses is most common where male children are valued over female children in parts of East Asia and South Asia, North America, as well as in the Caucasus, Western Balkans. Sex selective abortion was first documented in 1975, became commonplace by the late 1980s in South Korea and China and around the same time or later in India. Sex-selective abortion affects the human sex ratio—the relative number of males to females in a given age group, with China and India, the two most populous countries of the world, having unbalanced gender ratios. Studies and reports focusing on sex-selective abortion are predominantly statistical; this assumption has been questioned by some scholars. According to demographic scholarship, the expected birth sex ratio range is 103 to 107 males to 100 females at birth. Sex-selective abortion affects the human sex ratio—the relative number of males to females in a given age group.

Studies and reports that discuss sex-selective abortion are based on the assumption that birth sex ratio—the overall ratio of boys and girls at birth for a regional population, is an indicator of sex-selective abortion. The natural human sex ratio at birth was estimated, in a 2002 study, to be close to 106 boys to 100 girls. Human sex ratio at birth, different from 106 is assumed to be correlated to the prevalence and scale of sex-selective abortion. Countries considered to have significant practices of sex-selective abortion are those with birth sex ratios of 108 and above, 102 and below; this assumption is controversial, the subject of continuing scientific studies. One school of scholars suggest that any birth sex ratio of boys to girls, outside of the normal 105–107 range implies sex-selective abortion; these scholars claim that both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Significant deviations in birth sex ratios from the normal range can only be explained by manipulation, sex-selective abortion.

In a cited article, Amartya Sen compared the birth sex ratio in Europe and United States with those in Asia and argued that the high sex ratios in East Asia, West Asia and South Asia may be due to excessive female mortality. Sen pointed to research that had shown that if men and women receive similar nutritional and medical attention and good health care females have better survival rates, it is the male, the genetically fragile sex. Sen estimated'missing women' from extra women who would have survived in Asia if it had the same ratio of women to men as Europe and United States. According to Sen, the high birth sex ratio over decades, implies a female shortfall of 11% in Asia, or over 100 million women as missing from the 3 billion combined population of South Asia, West Asia, North Africa and China. Other scholars question. William James and others suggest that conventional assumptions have been: there are equal numbers of X and Y chromosomes in mammalian sperms X and Y stand equal chance of achieving conception therefore equal number of male and female zygotes are formed, that therefore any variation of sex ratio at birth is due to sex selection between conception and birth.

James cautions that available scientific evidence stands against the above assumptions and conclusions. He reports that there is an excess of males at birth in all human populations, the natural sex ratio at birth is between 102 and 108; however the ratio may deviate from this range for natural reasons such as early marriage and fertility, teenage mothers, average maternal age at birth, paternal age, age gap between father and mother, late births, ethnicity and economic stress, warfare and hormonal effects. This school of scholars support their alternate hypothesis with historical data when modern sex-selection technologies were unavailable, as well as birth sex ratio in sub-regions, various ethnic groups of developed economies, they suggest that direct abortion data should be collected and studied, instead of drawing conclusions indirectly from human sex ratio at birth. James' hypothesis is supported by historical birth sex ratio data before technologies for ultrasonographic sex-screening were discovered and commercialized in the 1960s and 1970s, as well by reverse abnormal sex ratios observed in Africa.

Michel Garenne reports that many African nations have, over decades, witnessed birth sex ratios below 100, more girls are born than boys. Angola and Namibia have reported birth sex ratios between 94 and 99, quite different than the presumed 104 to 106 as natural human birth sex ratio. John Graunt noted that in London over a 35-year period in the 17th century, the birth sex ratio was 1.07. Other historical records from Asia too support James' hypothesis. For example, Jiang et al. claim that the birth sex ratio in China was 116–121 over a 100-year period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. In the United States, the sex ratios at birth over the period 1970–2002 were 105 for the white non-Hispanic population, 104 for Mexican A

Saga dialect

The Saga dialect is a dialect of the Japanese language spoken in Saga prefecture and some other areas, such as Isahaya. It is influenced by Hichiku dialect. Saga-ben is further divided by accents centered on individual towns; the Saga dialect, like most dialects of rural Kyushu, can be nearly unintelligible to people who are accustomed to standard Japanese. A popular urban legend has it that two Saga-ben speakers met up in Tokyo and bystanders mistook their dialect for Chinese. Many of Saga's dialectical properties are variants, in particles or conjugations, of standard Japanese. Words are repeated twice; the sentence-ending particle "よ" becomes "ばい" or "たい". The contrastive conjunction "ばってん" replaces standard Japanese equivalents; the operative particle "を" is replaced with "ば". Ex.:手紙ば書いた=Wrote letter. The particle "が", when referring to other people, is replaced with "の". Ex.:黒君の書いた=Kuro-kun wrote. Traditional masu-form keigo is replaced by the suffix "~しんさつ", "~しんさる", "~しよんさつ", or "~しよんさる". Ex.:手紙をかきよんさった=Wrote letter.

The direction particles "に" and "へ" are replaced with "さい". Ex.:学校さい行く=Go to school. The explanatory "の" is replaced by "と". Ex.:手紙を書いたと?= Wrote letter. The continuative conjugation "~ている" becomes "とっ". Ex.:書いとっ= writing. In the passive conjugation of a verb, "れ" is taken out and "る" becomes a long vowel, or doubles the next consonant. Ex.:書かれる becomes replaced with 書かるう or 書かるっ. I-adjectives have their "い" s replaced with "か" s. Ex.: cold becomes 寒か. Na-adjectives sometimes have a か added on, reminiscent of the above characteristic; this seems to happen more in the south. Ex.: じょうず becomes じょうずか. Pronunciation is similar to Hakata dialect in the following: "sa, shi, su, se, so" become "sha, shu, sho". In addition, Saga-ben has the unique pronunciations of "za, zu, ze, da, ga," and "na" rendered as "ja, ju, je, ja, gya," and "nya", respectively. "~ない" conjugations become "ん" the "ない" adjective itself becomes "なか" ). This reflects the negative archaic/rude conjugation in standard Japanese. For example, whereas 食べん would be rude in eastern Japan, in Saga-ben it is standard.

Ex.:分からない becomes 分からん The Saga-ben version of 好きじゃない is either 好かん or 好きじゃなか I-adjectives' "い"s become "さ" in when the speaker wants to add strong emphasis. I-adjectives' continuative form's "く" becomes a modifying "う" that elongates and changes the vowel of the character before it. Ex.:interesting becomes "おもしろう". The Demonstrative series is uniquely pronounced in Saga-dialect; the normal これ, それ, あれ, どれ series in Japanese has its れ sounds replaced with い. 俺 follows this pattern, becomes おい. Indeed, many words follow this pattern; the related words どう, こう, そう become どがん, そがん, こがん, respectively. An more rustic conjugation set of these words is どぎゃん, そぎゃん, こぎゃん. Saga-ben contains lots of characteristic vocabulary. Examples are included in the following table: Saga-ben was spoken in the 2006 film, now television series, "Gabai bā-chan"; the title itself is in Saga-ben. The protagonist of Zombie Land Saga Minamoto Sakura speaks in Saga-ben the Karatsu variant. Japanese dialects

Agrypon flaveolatum

Agrypon flaveolatum is a species of parasitoid wasp belonging to the family Ichneumonidae described by Johann Ludwig Christian Gravenhorst in 1807. It is a parasite of the larva of the winter moth, has been used in biological pest control to control this moth, whose larvae feed on foliage and defoliate trees. Agrypon flaveolatum is native to Asia where it is a parasitoid of geometrid moths; when the winter moth was accidentally introduced into Nova Scotia, Canada, in the 1920s, it caused the damage and death of many native trees by defoliation. In 1949 it was declared to be an invasive pest species and six species of parasitic insects were imported from Europe in an attempt to control it. Two of these insects became established in Nova Scotia, the fly Cyzenis albicans as well as A. flaveolatum. Although they were unable to prevent the winter moth from spreading to other areas, they are to accompany their host to new locations and may reduce the rate at which it spreads. In 1954, in a study area, each tree was associated with more than a thousand adult winter moths, but by 1963, fewer than one moth per tree was present, a good example of classical biological control.

Another outbreak of winter moths occurred on Vancouver Island in British Columbia, where it was accompanied by the bruce spanworm. Here, at high densities the winter moth was controlled by the fly and the parasitoid wasp, but at low densities, a more important factor seems to have been the native beetles that ate the moth pupae; when an outbreak of winter moths occurred in the US state of Massachusetts in the first decade of the 21st century, the fly was the biological control of choice because it was feared that the wasp might parasitise other geometrid moths, of which there were about a dozen rare species in the state

List of gothic metal bands

This is a list of gothic metal bands. Gothic metal is a genre of heavy metal music, it is characterized as a combination of the dark atmosphere of gothic rock with the aggression of heavy metal music. The genre originated during the early 1990s in Europe as an outgrowth of death/doom, a fusion of death metal, doom metal, gothic rock; the music of gothic metal is diverse with bands known to adopt the gothic approach to different styles of heavy metal music. Lyrics are melodramatic and dark with inspiration from gothic fiction as well as personal experiences. Members of metal bands such as After Forever, HIM and Nightwish have downplayed or dismissed the gothic label from their music; the issue is obscured further by bands that have since moved away from gothic metal or heavy metal music altogether, as is the case for Anathema and The Gathering. Gothic metal List of gothic rock bands List of heavy metal bands Baddeley, Gavin. "Gothic Chic: A Connoisseur's Guide to Dark Culture". London: Plexus Publishing Limited.

ISBN 0-85965-308-0. Berelian, Essi; the Rough Guide to Heavy Metal. London: Rough Guides. ISBN 1-84353-415-0. List of gothic metal bands on About.com

History of Harringay (1880–present)

The advance of late Victorian urbanisation during the last twenty years of the 19th century swept away the 18th and early 19th-century houses, their grounds and the farmland. By 1900 Harringay was urbanised. From 1894, Harringay was spread across the borders of the former urban districts municipal boroughs, of Hornsey and Tottenham in Middlesex. Following the Second World War, Harringay began to change as immigration began to impact the nature of the town. In 1965 it was unified under one local authority with the creation of the London Borough of Haringey; the earliest development in West Harringay followed the development of Finsbury Park and the construction of Endymion Road, started in about 1875 by the Metropolitan Board of Works. A small area of land between the Tottenham & Hampstead Junction Railway, Finsbury Park and Endymion Road was laid out as streets and developed by 1885. Before this development was complete, the British Land Company purchased most of the Harringay Park Estate in June 1881.

It was bought from a Mr Hodgson who had acquired the land in 1880 from the executors of Edward Chapman, the last owner of Harringay House and grounds. In 1881 the Great Northern Railway Company purchased a large slice of land, about half a mile long by 800 feet wide, at its broadest; the land, which ran along the western boundary of the estate, was used to construct a large railway sidings. Having acquired the land, the British Land Company was responsible for most of the development of West Harringay. Established as part of the land reform movement, by the time the company was involved in Harringay's development it was operating as a purely commercial land company, its role in Harringay was with the preliminaries of estate development—laying out the estate, building the roads and supplying major services. Once this was complete it auctioned off the land to builders. For development purposes, the area was divided into two halves: the'Hornsey Station Estate' and the'Harringay Park Estate'; the former estate was located close to Hornsey Station and included around a half of the total area of the Harringay Park Estate.

To the south, the Harringay Park Estate included all the roads from Beresford Road to Atterbury Road. The development of the railways in the area was critical to the development of housing. By 1880 the area was well served with Hornsey, Harringay Green Lanes and Finsbury Park Stations. With the opening of Harringay station by the Great Northern Railway on 2 May 1885, the area was amongst the best served in London; the pattern of housing development started closest to the railway stations. In the case of the'Hornsey Station Estate' the first roads to be laid out were those nearest to Hornsey Station. On the'Harringay Park Estate', the earliest roads to be built were those nearest to Finsbury Park and Harringay Green Lanes stations; the pattern of subsequent development was for the Hornsey Station Estate to spread southwards, whilst the Harringay Park Estate was extended northwards until the two met. The first mention of development on the estate was made in a report of the Plans Committee of the Hornsey Local Board in October in the same year, when plans for the'Hornsey Station Estate' were submitted by the British Land Company.

In March 1881 plans were submitted for the'Harringay Park Estate'. Most of the auctions for both estates took place in the Auction room adjoining the Queen's Head Tavern, Green Lanes. On 7 July 1881 a local press advertisement appeared announcing the auction of the first portion of the Station estate. More than a year in September 1882, an advertisement announcing the auction of the first portion of the Harringay Park Estate appeared; this delay in the development of the Harringay Park portion was due to problems associated with providing adequate drainage facilities in the more difficult hilly terrain of the Harringay Park part of the estate. There was the problem of finding a satisfactory way to divert the course of the New River in order to facilitate the provision of more building land; because of the total size of the estates, it was some time before they were both laid out and the individual plots sold. The first roads to be laid out were the Wightman Road, set out by the Great Northern Railway Company, what is now Effingham Road, by the British Land Company.

The British Land Company took great care to ensure that the type and value of the buildings were of a good quality. With development taking place in successive stages the type of development in one section would affect the saleable value of areas that were yet to be developed and had not yet been put up for auction, their concern is shown in a plan, issued in connection with an auction of 119 lots on the Harringay Park Estate on 17 November 1884. Incorporated in the plan are stipulations; the following is an extract: Once building work started, many builders were at work on both estates. Most of the applicants requesting permission to build were from local addresses not more than 5 miles away from either estate - some applicants lived on either one of the estates. In the majority of cases the scale of operations of each builder was not unusually large; the Hornsey Local Board minutes show that the biggest single development seems to have been one of 32 dwellings in Mattison Road, for which planning permission was granted in 1895.

However, this seems to have been exceptional since most applications were for a dozen houses or less. The evidence of this can be still be seen today. At first glance most of the houses look the same, but a second look will reveal a considerable range of styles. With some care, it is p

Bulgarian Americans

Bulgarian Americans are Americans of Bulgarian descent. For the 2000 United States Census, 55,489 Americans indicated Bulgarian as their first ancestry, while 92,841 persons declared to have Bulgarian ancestry; those can include Bulgarian Americans living in the United States for one or several generations, dual Bulgarian American citizens, or any other Bulgarian Americans who consider themselves to be affiliated to both cultures or countries. Some Bulgarian Americans might be born in Bulgaria, the United States or other countries with ethnic Bulgarian population; because some Bulgarians are not American citizens, others are dual citizens, still others' ancestors have come to the US several generations ago, some of these people consider themselves to be Americans, Bulgarians living in the United States or American Bulgarians. After 2000 US census, in the recent years the population grew — according to the general assessments of Bulgarian diplomatic representations in the US for 2010, there are 250,000 Bulgarians residing in the country, more than 30,000 students.

Mass Bulgarian immigration to the United States began in the mid 19th century. According to Mihaela Robila they tended to settle in Slavic enclaves in the Midwest or Northeast David Cassens has published a study of'The Bulgarian Colony of Southwestern Illinois 1900-1920' There is a book written by the famous and eminent Bulgarian writer Aleko Konstantinov, called To Chicago and Back, first published in 1894 although this concerns attendance at a trade fair not emigration per se. According to the 2000 census, the highest number of Bulgarians lived in the cities of New York, Los Angeles and Miami; the United States has one of the highest numbers of Bulgarians of any country in the world. As many as 250,0001 Bulgarians live in the country. From the Eastern European countries, Bulgaria has the second highest number of students who study in the United States, after Russia; the 2000 United States Census shows that there were 63,000 people of Bulgarian descent in the US. According to the same source, the state with the largest number of Bulgarians is California, followed by Illinois, New York, Florida and Indiana.

Texas, more Houston has a growing population. According to the 2000 US census the cities with the highest number of Bulgarian Americans are New York, Los Angeles and Miami. 60% of Bulgarian Americans over the age of 25 hold a bachelor's degree or higher. Bulgarian Americans have an annual median household income of $76,862. Following the 2000 US census when Bulgarians were 50-100,000, during the last 10 years their number has grown to over 250,000. Bulgarian-born population in the US since 2010: According to the 2000 US Census, 28,565 people indicated that they speak Bulgarian at home in 2000, but in the recent years the number grew to over 250,000 people. Some Bulgarian Americans speak Bulgarian the more recent immigrants, while others might not speak the language at all, or speak Bulgarian mixed with English to a lesser or greater extent; some Bulgarian Americans understand Bulgarian though they might not be able to speak the language. There are cases where older generations of Bulgarians or descendants of Bulgarian immigrants from the early part of the 20th century are fluent in the Bulgarian language as well.

John Vincent Atanasoff – inventor of the first automatic electronic digital computer Miroslav Barnyashev – professional wrestler for WWE who goes by the ring name "Rusev" Christo – world-famous artist known for projects such as The Gates and The Wrapped Reichstag Carolyn Christov-Bakargiev – writer, art historian, curator Laura ChukanovMiss USA 2009 competitor Bill Danoffsongwriter and singer Carl Djerassichemist, developed the first oral contraceptive pill, nominated as one of the greatest medical discoveries in the last 166 years Stephane Groueff – writer and journalist who wrote the book Manhattan Project: The Untold Story of the Making of the Atomic Bomb Assen Jordanoff – aviation constructor with a global recognition Dan Kolov – early 20th century wrestler Ted Kotcheff – film and television director and producer Leah LaBelle – singer and finalist on American Idol Milcho Levievjazz pianist and composer Alex Maleev – comic book illustrator and artist best known for the Marvel Comics' series Daredevil, collaborating with writer Brian Michael Bendis Angela Nikodinov – figure skater Victor Ninov – nuclear physicist Peter Petroff – inventor, engineer, NASA scientist, adventurer Maria Popova – writer and blogger.

The numbers include members of the diaspora, legal immigrants, illegal immigrants and other individuals permanently residing in the country in question as of 2004. Altankov, Nikolay G; the Bulgarian-Americans. Palo Alto, Calif.: Ragusan Press, 1979. Auerbach, Susan