click links in text for more info

Sex education

Sex education is the instruction of issues relating to human sexuality, including emotional relations and responsibilities, human sexual anatomy, sexual activity, sexual reproduction, age of consent, reproductive health, reproductive rights, safe sex, birth control and sexual abstinence. Sex education that covers all of these aspects is known as comprehensive sex education. Common avenues for sex education are parents or caregivers, formal school programs, public health campaigns. Traditionally, adolescents in many cultures were not given any information on sexual matters, with the discussion of these issues being considered taboo; such instruction, as was given, was traditionally left to a child's parents, this was put off until just before a child's marriage. The progressive education movement of the late 19th century, led to the introduction of "social hygiene" in North American school curricula and the advent of school-based sex education. Despite early inroads of school-based sex education, most of the information on sexual matters in the mid-20th century was obtained informally from friends and the media, much of this information was deficient or of dubious value during the period following puberty, when curiosity about sexual matters was the most acute.

This deficiency was heightened by the increasing incidence of teenage pregnancies in Western countries after the 1960s. As part of each country's efforts to reduce such pregnancies, programs of sex education were introduced over strong opposition from parent and religious groups; the outbreak of AIDS has given a new sense of urgency to sex education. In many African countries, where AIDS is at epidemic levels, sex education is seen by most scientists as a vital public health strategy; some international organizations such as Planned Parenthood consider that broad sex education programs have global benefits, such as controlling the risk of overpopulation and the advancement of women's rights. The use of mass media campaigns has sometimes resulted in high levels of "awareness" coupled with superficial knowledge of HIV transmission. According to SIECUS, the Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States, 93% of adults they surveyed support sexuality education in high school and 84% support it in junior high school.

In fact, 88% of parents of junior high school students and 80% of parents of secondary school students believe that sex education in school makes it easier for them to talk to their adolescents about sex. 92% of adolescents report that they want both to talk to their parents about sex and to have comprehensive in-school sex education. Furthermore, a "study, conducted by Mathematica Policy Research on behalf of the U. S. Department of Health and Human Services, found that abstinence-only-until-marriage programs are ineffective." John J. Burt defined sex education as the study of the characteristics of beings: a male and female; such characteristics make up the person's sexuality. Sexuality is an important aspect of the life of a human being and all people, including children, want to know about it. Sex education includes all the educational measures which - regardless of the particular method used - may center on sex, he further said that sex education stands for protection, presentation extension and development of the family based on accepted ethical ideas.

Leepson sees sex education as instruction in various physiological and sociological aspects of sexual response and reproduction. Kearney defined sex education as "involving a comprehensive course of action by the school, calculated to bring about the desirable attitudes and personal conduct on the part of children and adults, that will best protect the individual as a human and the family as a social institution." Thus, sex education may be described as "sexuality education", which means that it encompasses education about all aspects of sexuality, including information about family planning, plus information about all aspects of one's sexuality including: body image, sexual orientation, sexual pleasure, decision making, dating, sexually transmitted infections and how to avoid them, birth control methods. Various aspects of sex education are considered appropriate in school depending on the age of the students or what the children can comprehend at a particular point in time. Rubin and Kindendall expressed that sex education is not the topics of reproduction and teaching how babies are conceived and born.

Instead, it has a far richer scope and goal of helping children incorporate sex more meaningfully into their present and future life and to provide them with some basic understanding of every aspect of sex by the time they reach full maturity. Evidence shows that a combination of comprehensive sex education and access to birth control appears to decrease the rates of unintended pregnancies among teenagers. A meta-analysis that compared comprehensive sex education programs with abstinence-only programs found that abstinence-only programs did not reduce the likelihood of pregnancy, but rather may have increased it. Numerous studies show that curricula providing accurate information about condoms and contraception can lead to reductions in the risky behaviors reported by young people as well as reductions in unintended pregnancies and STIs. Programs that teach only abstinence have not been shown to be effective. According to UNFPA, "A 2010 review found that'gender-focused' curricula – meaning curricula that integrate gender equality into the learning material – were m

1908–09 Brentford F.C. season

During the 1908–09 English football season, Brentford competed in the Southern League First Division. A disastrous season ended with a bottom-place finish, but the club was spared relegation after the First Division was expanded in June 1909. After encountering severe financial problems during the 1907–08 season, the Brentford committee was forced to dispense with the majority of the first team squad in May 1908, due to many of the players being unwilling to accept lower wages for the 1908–09 season. Top-scorer Adam Bowman had been sold in April and he was followed out of Griffin Park by Tosher Underwood, Jock Watson, Jock Hamilton, Tom McAllister, George Parsonage, Fred Corbett, Jimmy Tomlinson, Andy Clark, John Montgomery, Vince Hayes and Patsy Hendren, while Oakey Field, Charlie Williams and Jimmy Jay elected to retire. Fred Halliday was appointed Brentford manager on 24 June and began assembling an entirely new squad, which reduced the wage bill by 20%, to £2,565 across the entire season.

Brentford endured a forgettable Southern League First Division season, matching the 33 points won during the previous season, but instead finishing five places lower at the bottom of the table. The return of Jimmy Jay in October helped solidify the back lines, which up to that point were leaking goals. Forward Alex McCulloch, signed during the 1908 off-season, caught the eye of manager Halliday's former club Bradford Park Avenue and departed for a £350 fee in November, with Geordie Reid arriving at Griffin Park in part-exchange. Reid would top-score for the Bees during the season with 18 goals. There was some cheer late in the season, with the Bees winning the Southern Professional Charity Cup. Brentford's bottom-place finish was no cause for concern, with plans afoot for 16 Southern League clubs, plus another two from a list of six, to form a Third Division of the Football League; the chance fell through when the Football League First and Second Division clubs voted against the formation of a Third Division, but Brentford were saved from relegation when the Southern League opted to expand to 22 clubs in June 1909, with Croydon Common being promoted from the Second Division and thus preserving Brentford's First Division status.

Brentford's goal tally listed first. Source: 100 Years of Brentford Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Source: 100 Years of Brentford Players listed in italics left the club mid-season. Source: 100 Years Of Brentford

Wakely Mountain Fire Observation Station

The Wakely Mountain Fire Observation Station is a historic fire observation station located on Wakely Mountain at Lake Pleasant in Hamilton County, New York. The station and contributing resources include a 70-foot-tall, steel-frame lookout tower erected in 1916 and a 3-mile foot trail that leads down the mountain; the tower is a prefabricated structure built by the Aermotor Corporation. It is one of the initial ten towers purchased by the State Commission to provide a front line of defense in preserving the Adirondack Forest Preserve from the hazards of forest fires, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. The Fire Towers of New York

Bundesautobahn 11

Bundesautobahn 11 is an autobahn in eastern Germany, opened in 1936. As it is in a dilapidated state, it is undergoing modernisation works on various stretches; the road forms the main connection between Berlin and Szczecin, it is connected to the Polish motorway A6 at Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. In the 1930s, it was completed as a part of the Reichsautobahn Berlin-Königsberg; this autobahn, together with A 10, forms part of the north-eastern border of Berlin. The whole of the A 11 is designated as the E28 thus constituting the E28's entire run through Germany; the planning for the Stettiner Dreieck and the first four lane kilometers, including the transfer of the Reichsstraße 2 began in April 1935. The construction was on the one hand a job creation project, on the other hand, in the structurally weak region the economic boom should be propagated, The route from the Berliner Ring to Joachimsthal was released on 4 April 1936, until 27 September of the same year the highway was passable to Szczecin-South.

In 1937 the Oder bridges were completed and the route to Stettin released. The junction Wandlitz was created for better accessibility of the forest settlement - a residential area for the members of the SED Politburo of the former GDR; the junction Chorin was built only after 1945. This explains the short distance for Reichsautobahnen Joachimsthal junction of about 1.5 kilometers. The now integrated into the cross Barnim branch of the A 11 from the Berlin ring was called in the GDR branch Penkun or branch Prenzlau and was renamed in the 1990s in "triangle Schwanebeck"; the motorway junction was used 1952-1973 as Bernauer loop for motorcycle races. The steep curve was demolished in the 1990s; until reunification in 1990, the West Berlin part of the Transitautobahn to Hamburg bore the designation A 11. It is now called A 111. In 1991, the used junction, Gramzow on the B 198, was rebuilt as part of the first major construction project since 1936. During construction, the junction was closed for several months.

At the same time, the basic extension of the A 11 in the area to approx 500m including the construction of the hard shoulder strips took place. The expansion was required because no deceleration strips were available before; the A11 has been refurbished since 1996 on most of its route by a modern road surface and the widening to newly created lanes. As a special feature, the A 11 in the area of the Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve has no hard shoulder, although the new development took place after 2000. By 2007, the highway had a desolate road condition on some sections. For example, on the section between kilometers 95.0 and 101.0, since 2003 traffic has been carried on only one lane with one lane per direction of travel. The unused roadway still consisted of brittle concrete slabs from the 1930s, it was not until December 2007. Since November 2008, the section between the interchange Kreuz Uckermark and the interchange Schmölln is renewed. From May 5, 2011 to November 11, 2013, the Schwanebeck Triangle was rebuilt into Barnim Cross.

This was associated with the fundamental expansion of the A 11 in the first about three kilometres. A bridge for wildlife is located in the Grumsinerforst forest, between the exits of Joachimsthal and Pfingstberg; the bridge is made of reinforced concrete, over which a special foil was laid and covered with sand and topsoil. The cost of the construction completed in May 2005 was around three million euros. Since commissioning, the path has been monitored by means of a camera. By October 2006, 2,300 debris were counted; the bridge is used by fallow deer, wild boars, foxes, raccoon dogs and martens. Red deer could not be observed yet. According to the General Association of the German Insurance Industry, the emergency pillar between Chorin and Werbellin in the direction of Berlin was used for 199 emergency calls in 2010, making it the most used on German highways; the highway had several other connection points during the GDR period, which were shut down after the reunification. There additional junctions had been set up because numerous state hunting areas and recreational areas of the GDR leadership were located along the A11, as well as bunkers for the GDR leadership.

After the fall of the wall, junctions were no longer needed because they were in sparsely populated areas and the main reason for their operation fell away. They were dismantled. Bundesautobahn 11 – detailed route plan

Postage stamp gum

In philately, gum is the substance applied to the back of a stamp to enable it to adhere to a letter or other mailed item. The term is generic, applies both to traditional types such as gum arabic and to synthetic modern formulations. Gum is a matter of high importance in philately. Before postage stamps existed, people receiving letters would have to pay for them; the payment was based on how far the letter had traveled. Rowland Hill came up with a solution of prepayment; this led to his invention of stamp gum in 1837. The world's first adhesive postage stamp was called the Penny Black. Many early stamps were not gummed and some have been unable to be gummed due to shortage. Extreme tropical climates were a problem for Curaçao and Suriname; some stamps, intended only for sale to stamp collectors, have been issued without gum, for instance the United States Farley's Follies souvenir sheets of 1933. On the first stamps of Great Britain the gum was called cement and was made from a mixture of potato starch, wheat starch and acacia gum.

Gumming took place after printing and before perforation because the paper had to be damp for printing to work well, but in modern times most stamp printing is done dry on pre-gummed paper. There have been a couple of historical instances where stamps were regummed after being perforated, but these were unusual situations. On early issues, gum was applied by hand, using a brush or roller, but in 1880 De La Rue came up with a machine gumming process using a printing press, gum is now always applied by machine; the gum is universally spread as uniformly as possible. The greatest manufacturing problem of the gumming process is its tendency to make the stamps curl, due to the different reaction of paper and gum to varying moisture levels. In the most extreme cases, the stamp will spontaneously roll up into a small tube. Various schemes have been tried. On Swiss stamps of the 1930s, Courvoisier used a gum-breaking machine that pressed a pattern of small squares into the gum, resulting in so-called grilled gum.

Another scheme has been to slice the gum with knives. In some cases the gum solves the problem itself by becoming "crackly"; the appearance of the gum varies with the type and method of application, may range from nearly invisible to dark brown globs. Types of gum used on stamps include: dextrin, produced by heating starch gum arabic or acacia gum, derived from the acacia plant glue, from gelatin seen on stamps polyvinyl alcoholSome stamps have had gum applied in a pattern resembling a watermark as an additional security device. German stamps from 1921 had a pattern of wavy lines while Czech stamps from 1923 had gum showing the initials of the Czech Republic, CSP; these patterns have been called gum devices or gum watermarks. Due to shortages of material, such as in the situation following World War II in Germany, stamps may be gummed in an economy fashion; this so-called economy gum is only applied in patches. In recent years, the use of self-adhesive stamps, otherwise known as pressure-sensitive stamps, has become widespread.

This new form of stamps has a smooth waxed or polymer-coated release carrier backing to which the pressure-adhesive adhesive of the stamp does not adhere as as on paper. Therefore, the stamps can be released from the backing and placed onto a postal envelope; the first use was by Sierra Leone in 1964, the United States tried it on a 1974 Christmas stamp. In the 1990s, the U. S. Post Office began transitioning from water-based stamps into the use of self-adhesive stamps. By 1995, only 20 percent of the thirty-five billion stamps the Post Office produced every year were self-adhesive, yet by 2013 all U. S. stamps issued had become self-adhesive. A 1965 British study of the transmission of bacteria and viruses on gummed paper found that "Although pathogenic bacteria and viruses were not isolated from sample envelopes obtained from various sources, the gums used in manufacture were found to exert a protective effect against death from desiccation on the bacteria and viruses, introduced into them" and it was possible to demonstrate bacterial multiplication in the gum used for the manufacture of postage stamps."

The authors added the warning that "postage stamps are handled carelessly when issued over the counter, yet the purchaser will lick them without hesitation. The present work shows how bacteria can adhere to the surface of gummed paper, moistened; the episode has been linked anecdotally to an increase in worries about the health risks of licking gummed paper and it has been speculated that it may have contributed to the growing popularity of self-adhesive stamps, at least in the United States. Stamp gum is an item of importance for collectors, although its presence is of use in differentiating between common and rare stamps, being on the back of the stamp it is not visible, its condition is reflected in the valuation of unused stamps. The following conditions are distinguished: Mint: stamps with full, undamaged original gum, as sold by the post office; this condition is valued highest. Unused: stamps whose original gum has been damaged, e.g. through use of

Pierre Paul Nicolas Henrion de Pansey

Pierre Paul Nicolas Henrion de Pansey was a French jurist and politician. He was Minister of Justice in the French provisional government of 1814 formed after the defeat of Napoleon, he was one of the presidents of the Court of a final court of appeal in France. He wrote several major works on jurisprudence. Pierre Paul Nicolas Henrion de Pansey was born on 28 March 1742 in Tréveray, near to Ligny in Lorraine, he came from a respectable family. He studied law at Pont-à-Mousson moved to Paris in 1762, he was received as an advocate on 10 March 1763, admitted to the bar in 1767. He continued his studies, his Traité des fiefs, published in 1773, made his reputation as an expert on jurisprudence. To avoid the excesses of the French Revolution Henrion returned to Pansey, where his family held property, he moved to Joinville, a small neighboring town in the department of Haute-Marne. In 1796 the French Directory named Henrion president of the administration of Haute-Marne, based in Chaumont, he was named professor of legislation in the central school of Chaumont.

Under the Consulate, the Senate named Henrion to the Court of Cassation in 1800. In the year XIII he published De la Compétence des Juges de Paix, discussing the new institution of "Justice of Peace" created by the Constituent Assembly in imitation of the English equivalent. With this work he tried to clarify the role of the justices based on the spirit of the rather obscure applicable laws. In 1809 Henrion was appointed president of the chambre des requêtes of the Court of Cassation. In 1810 he issued De l'Autorité Judiciaire, a broad work on judicial authority that covered history, issues, relationship to other powers and so on. Napoleon gave him the title of Baron. Henrion objected that he did not want to leave the Court of Cassation, but Napoleon assured him that he could stay, he would only be asked to give verbal advice to the emperor. After the fall of the Empire, the provisional government announced the appointment of commissaires to head the ministries on 3 April 1814. Henrion was given the ministry of Justice.

As minister he released citizens, arbitrarily detained in prison, suppressed the provostal courts and customs tribunes. He held office until 13 May 1814, when King Louis XVIII of France announced the government of the first Bourbon restoration. Louis XVIII named Henrion to his council. Henrion supported the Charter of 1814, which he thought combined the best features of monarchy and democracy. During the Hundred Days when Napoleon returned from exile, Henrion remained at the Court of Cassation; as a result, on the second Bourbon Restoration he was dismissed from his position as Councillor of State in extraordinary service. In 1822 Henrion published du pouvoir municipal et des Biens communaux, exploring the nature of public and private authority. In the years that followed he continued to publish significant works on jurisprudence while presiding over the Court of Cassation, he died in Paris on 23 April 1829, was buried in the Montparnasse Cemetery. Henrion's works include: Notes Citations Sources