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Sex segregation

Sex segregation is the physical and cultural separation of people according to their biological sex. Sex segregation can refer to literal physical and spatial separation by sex without any aspects of discrimination. In other circumstances, sex segregation can be controversial. Depending on the circumstances, it can be a violation of capabilities and human rights and can create economic inefficiencies, while some supporters argue that it is central to certain religious laws and social and cultural histories and traditions; the term gender apartheid is used for to segregation of people by gender. The term gender segregation is used in a similar way to sex segregation though sex and gender are considered distinct concepts; the term "sex" in "sex segregation" refers to apparent biological distinctions between men and women, used in contrast to "gender". The term "segregation" refers to separation of the sexes, which can be enforced by rules and policies, or be a de facto outcome in which people are separated by sex.

As a de facto outcome, sex segregation taken as a whole can be caused by societal pressures, historical practices, socialized preferences. Sex segregation can refer to literal physical and spatial separation by sex; the term is used for the exclusion of one sex from participation in an occupation, institution, or group. Sex segregation can be complete or partial, as when members of one sex predominate within, but do not constitute, a group or organization. In the United States some scholars use the term “sex separation” and not sex segregation"; the term gender apartheid has been applied to segregation of people by gender, implying that it is sexual discrimination. If sex segregation is a form of sex discrimination, its effects have important consequences for gender equality and equity. Sex segregation can occur in both public and private contexts, be classified in many ways. Legal and gender studies scholar David S. Cohen offers one taxonomy in categorizing sex segregation as mandatory, permissive, or voluntary.

Mandatory and administrative sex segregation are required and enforced by governments in public environments, while permissive and voluntary sex segregation are stances chosen by public or private institutions, but within the capacity of the law. Mandatory sex segregation is required and enforces separation based on sex. Examples include separation of men and women in prisons, law enforcement, military service, public toilets, housing; these mandatory rules can be nuanced, as in military service, where sexes are separated in laws about conscription, in housing, in regulations on which sexes can participate in certain roles, like frontline infantry. Mandatory sex segregation includes less obvious cases of separation, as when men and women are required to have same-sex attendants for body searches. Mandatory sex segregation can thus dictate parameters for employment in sex segregated spaces, including medical and care work contexts, can be a form of occupational segregation. For example, a government may mandate.

Administrative sex segregation involves public and government institutions segregating by sex in their operating capacity, rather than as the result of a formal mandate. Examples of administrative sex segregation include sex segregation in government sponsored medical research, sports leagues, public hospitals with shared rooms, rehabilitation programs, some public education facilities. Administrative sex segregation can occur in these environments as through the provisioning of sex segregated public toilets despite limited explicit legal requirements to do so. Permissive sex segregation is segregation, explicitly permitted by law, i.e. affirmatively authorized, but not legally required or encouraged. Permissive sex segregation exempts certain things from anti-sex-discrimination laws allowing for, among others, segregation of religious and military schools, undergraduate schools that have traditionally admitted based on sex, health clubs, athletic teams, social fraternities and sororities and choruses, voluntary youth service organizations such as the Girl Scouts and Boy Scouts, father/son and mother/daughter activities, sex-exclusive beauty pageants and scholarships.

Sex segregation, neither mandated, nor enacted in an administrative capacity, nor explicitly permitted by law, is recognized as voluntary sex segregation. Voluntary sex segregation refers to lack of explicit legal prescriptions. Voluntary sex segregation takes place in numerous national professional and interest-based membership organizations and larger clubs, professional sports teams, private recreational facilities, religious institutions, performing arts, more. Within feminist theory and feminist legal theory, there are six main theoretical approaches that can be considered and used to analyze the causes and effects of sex segregation, they include libertarianism, equal treatment, difference feminism, anti-subordination, critical race feminism, anti-essentialism. Libertarian feminist theory stems from ideologies similar to libertarian political theory. Libertarianism takes a free market approach to sex segregation saying that women have a natural right and are the most informed to make decisions for themselves but rejects special protections for women.

Autonomy is central to libertarianism, so theorists b

Stanley Kauffmann

Stanley Kauffmann was an American author and critic of film and theater. Kauffmann started with The New Republic in 1958 and contributed film criticism to that magazine for the next fifty-five years, publishing his last review in 2013, he had one brief break in his New Republic tenure, when he served as the drama critic for the New York Times for eight months in 1966. He worked as an acquisitions editor at Ballantine Books in 1953, where he acquired the novel Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury. Several years while working as an editor at Alfred A. Knopf in 1959 he discovered a manuscript by Walker Percy, The Moviegoer. Following a year of rewrites and revisions, the novel was published in 1961, went on to win a National Book Award in 1962. Kauffmann was a long-time advocate and enthusiast of foreign film, helping to introduce and popularize in America the works of directors such as Ingmar Bergman, François Truffaut, Claude Chabrol, Yasujirō Ozu, he influenced younger film and cultural critics such as Roger Ebert and David Denby.

Kauffmann was a professor of English and Film at City University of New York and taught at the Yale School of Drama. Kauffmann was featured in the 2009 documentary For the Love of Movies: The Story of American Film Criticism where he was shown discussing the beginnings of film criticism in America, noting the important contributions of poet Vachel Lindsay, who grasped that "the arrival of film was an important moment in the history of human consciousness". Kauffmann is noted for his opinions on otherwise critically acclaimed movies, having given negative reviews for Star Wars: A New Hope, Raiders of the Lost Ark, The Godfather, Pulp Fiction, Million Dollar Baby, Gone with the Wind, 2001: A Space Odyssey, films that were praised by other notable critics. Kauffmann attended DeWitt Clinton High School in the Bronx and New York University where he received a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1935 and was an actor and stage manager with the Washington Square Players. Kauffmann married Laura Cohen in 1943, they remained together until Cohen's death in 2013.

They did not have children. Kauffmann died of pneumonia at St. Luke's Hospital in Manhattan on October 9, 2013, aged 97. Regarding Film: Criticism and Comment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Distinguishing Features: Film Criticism and Comment. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Field of View: Film Criticism and Comment. New York: Performing Arts Journal Publications. Theater Criticisms. New York: Performing Arts Journal Publications. Albums of Early Life. New Haven: Ticknor & Fields. Before My Eyes: Film Criticism and Comment. New York: Harper & Row. Persons of the Drama: Theater Criticism and Comment. New York: Harper & Row. Living Images: Film Comment and Criticism. New York: Harper & Row. American Film Criticism: From the Beginnings to "Citizen Kane". New York: Liveright. Figures of Light: Film Criticism and Comment. New York: Harper & Row. A World on Film: Criticism and Comment. New York: Harper & Row. Stanley Kauffmann on IMDb Interview at Bright Lights Film Journal February, 2004 Review of Regarding Film at Pop Matters A Conversation with Stanley Kauffmann, Charlie Rose July 9, 1998 NYTimes obit

Action of 6 July 1746

For other actions with this location, see Battle of Negapatam The Action of 6 July 1746 was an inconclusive naval engagement between the British and French fleets during the War of the Austrian Succession. The English fleet, first under the command of Commodore Curtis Barnett and Edward Peyton, a French fleet under Bertrand-François Mahé de La Bourdonnais, engaged each other early in the First Carnatic War. Both fleets were damaged, with La Bourdonnais putting in at Pondicherry for repairs, Peyton at Trincomalee. La Bourdonnais acquired additional guns at Pondicherry, when the fleets met again in August 1746, Peyton refused battle and retreated to Bengal. La Bourdonnais proceeded to lead the successful French attack on Madras in September. HMS Medway HMS Preston HMS Harwich HMS Winchester HMS Medway's Prize HMS Lively Achille, 72 guns Bourbon, 44 guns Phénix, 44 guns Lys, 40 guns Neptune, 40 guns Saint-Louis, 36 guns Duc d'Orléans, 36 guns Insullaire, 30 guns Renommée, 30 guns Dodwell and Clive The Navy in the War of 1739-1748

Birmingham Central Synagogue

Birmingham Central Synagogue is an Orthodox synagogue situated in Edgbaston, England. The Ashkenazi Orthodox community was established in a private house in Belgrave Road in 1883 before moving to Wrottesley Street in 1900 and to Bristol Street in 1928, taking over a former Methodist Hall. In 1961 a small group of individuals acquired the large plot of land upon which a synagogue and classrooms were built at 133 Pershore Road; the ground breaking ceremony took place in July 1958. Construction of the 1960s building took place between 1959 and 1961; the congregation voted to sell the Pershore Road shul in 2010. For the next few years they had to wait to get planning permission from both Birmingham City Council and Calthorpe Estates. Redevelopment of the Malcolm Locker Hall into the new synagogue began in January 2013. Work was completed in July 2013, with the handover taking place in August 2013. Of the 42 etched glass windows in the old building, only 6 could be saved; the other 36 were to be sold.

From August 2013 the old building was in the hands of the developers, who had to first remove asbestos. The old shul building was demolished during October 2013; the developers Seddon will build a 70-bed care home for Gracewell Healthcare on the former synagogue site. The new synagogue at 4 Speedwell Road is adjacent to the site of the former Pershore Road building. Services began in August 2013. By September, the new ark was installed in time for the High Holy Days; the new Chief Rabbi Ephraim Mirvis consecrated the new building by unveiling a plaque on Sunday 13 October 2013. Rabbi Chanan Atlas was appointed minister of the shul in early 2012 taking over from Rabbi Shlomo Odze. Rabbi Atlas and his family left Birmingham, he was replaced by Rabbi Dr Lior Kaminetsky in May 2015, who along with his family stayed for four years until May 2019. Birmingham Central Synagogue on Jewish Communities and Records - UK. Official Website Photos of the shul windows Photos of the Chief Rabbi consecrating the new shul

Gert Westphaler

Gert Westphaler or The Loquacious Barber is a satirical play written byt Norwegian-Danish playwright Ludvig Holberg. It premiered in five sets at the Lille Grønnegade Theatre in Copenhagen on 28 October 1722 but Holberg adapted it into a one- set version. Holberg comments on the reception of the play in his first Latin-language memoir from 1728: The Loquacious Barber displeased all spectators in the audience to such an extent that quite a few left before it ended, some discretely and secretly and bluntly. I had expected something else. DR has produced a "made for television version" of the play, first broadcast on 29 March 1976, it was directed by Hans Rosenquist and was starring Stig Hoffmeyer, Ruth Brejnholm, Lisbet Lipschitz]and Ejnar Hans Jensen. Gert Westphaler

Flekkefjord Station

Flekkefjord Station is a former railway station located in the town of Flekkefjord in the municipality of Flekkefjord in Vest-Agder county, Norway. It served as the terminus of the 1,067 mm gauge Flekkefjord Line from 1904 to 1990; the station building was built in brick Art Nouveau. The station was important for transport along the coast until 1944, when the completion of the Sørland Line made Flekkefjord a branch station. At the same time, the line was converted to standard gauge, the number of station tracks was reduced, the station received an overhaul; the station building was demolished in 1970, but the station was still served until the line closed in 1990. The tracks and depot buildings still exist; the Flekkefjord Line ran from Egersund to Flekkefjord, as an extension of the Jæren Line, that ran from Stavanger to Egersund. The Norwegian Parliament voted in favor of the line in 1894, construction started two years later. While initial plans were to open the line in 1902, the station and line did not open until 1 November 1904.

The line was built as a 3 ft 6 in gauge line, the first rolling stock was reallocated from the Voss Line. There were four trains daily in each direction, reduced to three on holidays; the most important train was the one. This become the dominant route for people to get from Stavanger to cities along the South Coast, as well as to Oslo. In addition to passengers, major cargo shipments included seasonal shipments of herring, as well as lumber from the surrounding areas. Coal for the trains was imported by steam ship to Flekkefjord. With the arrival of the Kragerø Line to Kragerø in 1927, the Sørland Line to Arendal in 1935, buses were used between Flekkefjord and the terminus cities, allowing land connection between Stavanger and Oslo via Flekkefjord. At the same time, diesel multiple units were introduced on the "lightning trains", cutting travel time to Stavanger by 50 minutes to 3 hours 15 minutes; the Flekkefjord Line was planned as part of the Sørland Line, that would make Flekkefjord a station on the line between Oslo and Stavanger.

Instead, the route of the Sørland Line was chosen to traverse an inner route, the Flekkefjord Line became a 17.1 km branch line of the Sørland Line in 1944. As part of the construction, the Flekkefjord Line was converted in 1940–41 to standard gauge; the first standard gauge train, a NSB Class 18, operated on 8 August 1941. The large traffic during the reconstruction period caused so much damage to the wharf that it had to be taken out of service; the speed on the line was reduced to 40 kilometres per hour, as the gauge conversion was done without changing the right-of-way profile. Dual gauge was kept until 1 March 1944. At the same time the four tracks at the station were reduced to three; the cargo building was moved three metres. In June 1945, twelve people were employed at the station. With the introduction of standard gauge, Flekkefjord went from being an important hub for transport along the south coast, to being a branch station. However, the number of daily trains to Sira and Moi had increased to twelve, operated with Class 86 and Class 87 multiple units.

The Class 87 was used until 1956. In 1966, Class 87 was reintroduced. Important cargo customers at the time were Halvorsens Kjelfabrikk. From 1981, the Class 89 came into use, remaining until the station was closed in 1990; as the only proper station on the line, Flekkefjord was built in brick in Art Nouveau. The two-story 338 m2 building, designed by Paul Armin Due had a ground floor with a ticket office, four offices and three waiting rooms; the second story was an apartment for the station master. Due chose to design the building symmetrically around the waiting room, it had curved corners and two round towers. This gave both a soft form in organic interaction, it has been considered one of Due's best works of Art Nouveau. Beside the station there was a 196 m2 single story restaurant building. In addition to a large main building, the station had a freight building, a wharf, a locomotive and wagon depot, a loading area. There were four tracks past the station, in addition to two track to the cargo area.

The cargo building had room for three wagons. The locomotive depot had places for six steam locomotives; the restaurant was converted into housing in the 1950s, in May 1970 the station building was demolished to make room for a new bus station. The cargo building was refurbished to serve as offices; the wharf was sold by the municipality in 1987, the last train to serve the station departed on 31 December 1990. Most of the line and infrastructure is however intact. Owen, Roy. "Chapter 8: "Sørlandsbanen and branches"". Norwegian Railways: From Stephenson to High-speed. Hitchin, UK: Balholm Press. ISBN 0-9528069-0-8