Jean Michel Rollin Roth Le Gentil was a French film director and novelist best known for his work in the fantastique genre. His career, spanning over fifty years, featured early short films and his achievements with his first four vampire classics Le viol du vampire, La vampire nue, Le frisson des vampires, Requiem pour un vampire. Rollin's subsequent notable works include La rose de fer, Lèvres de sang, Les raisins de la mort, La morte vivante, his films are noted for their exquisite, if static, off-kilter plot progression and poetic dialogue, their playful surrealism and recurrent use of well-constructed female lead characters. Outlandish denouments and abstruse visual symbols were trademarks throughout his'dark fantasy' career. Remarkably, in spite of their seeming high production values and precise craftsmanship, his films were made with little money, under crushing deadlines. In the mid-1970s, lack of regular work led the director to direct pornographic films under various pseudonyms, a process he kept on going up until the 1980s.
Jean Rollin was born in Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, to Claude Louis René Rollin-Roth-Le Gentil, an actor and theatre director, who went by the stage name "Claude Martin", his wife Denise, an artists' model. His half-brother was actor Olivier Rollin. Rollin had a passion for cinema from an early age, he saw his first film during the second World War, it was Capitaine Fracasse, a 1942 film directed by Abel Gance. Jean decided. During his teens, he read comic books; these serials were an obvious influence on him as a teenager. When he was 16, he found a job at Les Films de Saturne, he was there to help write invoices, earned himself some money, of course wanted to be involved in cinema, they specialized in creating opening and closing credits and short cartoons, but real films were shot, industrial shorts and documentaries were made. Jean was part of the crew in a short documentary about Snecma, a big factory in France which built motors and planes, he arranged the tracking shots, laid the tracks, checked the electricity, helped the cameraman.
When Jean did his military service for the French army, he worked as an editor in the cinema department alongside Claude Lelouch. They worked on army commercials, Lelouch directed, Jean did the montage, did two films, Mechanographie, a documentary, La Guerre de Silence, a real film with actors and a story. In 1958, he directed his first short film Les Amours Jaunes, which he directed after he left the army, he shot it on a 35mm Maurigraphe camera, used a beach in Dieppe as his location, the same beach, used in his films. In 1960, Jean decided to direct his first feature film, but abandoned the project as he had no money to finish it, his next short, Ciel de Cuivre, was directed in 1961, was quite surreal, it told a sentimental story. He did not finish the film because he ran out of money and because it was not good; the footage is now lost. In 1962, he was as an assistant director on the film Un Cheval pour Deux, not a great experience for him, he decided to approach cinema in a different way.
In the early sixties, Jean became interested in politics, made a short documentary in 1964 called Vivre en Espagne, it was about Generalissimo Francisco Franco, thirty minutes were filmed and it was not good, but he risked a lot to get it made. Jean and the crew found themselves pursued by the police and just managed to make it back into France. Jean directed a short film in 1965 called Les Pays Loins. In 1968, Jean directed his first feature Le Viol du Vampire. At the time he was still not known in the world of cinema, having only done a few short films and documentaries; the film was shot on a low budget, consisted of two parts because it was intended to be another short film. The release of Le Viol caused public scandal and outrage, his strong inspiration of American serials did not attract viewers, it was released during the events of May 1968, due to the riots, it was a rare theatrical production at the time. Rollin himself was threatened due to this scandal, because of this, he decided to give up making films.
His second feature La Vampire Nue was his first film in colour. It was inspired by the 1916 film Judex, surrealism in general. Rollin wanted to do something a little more temperate than a traditional mystery film. Anyway, as he himself stated, it came to be the same kind of film as his first feature, it has the same spirit. La vampire nue became notable in that it introduced Catherine and Marie-Pierre Castel, twin sisters who collaborated with Rollin during the early years of his career. Following La vampire nue, Rollin found himself in a financial crisis and having suffered an accident during production which left him traumatized, the circumstances took a positive turn when he met with producer Monique Nathan, owner of the Films Moderns company. Nathan having put her faith and support in Rollin, turned down several a number of the most prominent French New Wave filmmakers for financing and instead supported Rollin as both a producer and a co-screenwriter for his next project, Le Frisson des Vampires, heavily
A white coat known as laboratory coat, is a knee-length overcoat/smock worn by professionals in the medical field or by those involved in laboratory work. The coat protects their street clothes and serves as a simple uniform; the garment is made from white or light-colored cotton, linen, or cotton polyester blend, allowing it to be washed at high temperature and making it easy to see if it is clean. Similar coats are a symbol of learning in Argentina and Uruguay, where they are worn by both students and teachers in state schools. In Tunisia and Mozambique, teachers wear white coats to protect their street clothes from chalk. Like the word "suit", the phrase "white coat" is sometimes used as a synecdoche to denote the wearer, such as a scientist working in a high-tech company. White coats are sometimes seen as the distinctive dress of both physicians and surgeons, who have worn them for over 100 years. In the nineteenth century, respect for the certainty of science was in stark contrast to the quackery and mysticism of nineteenth century medicine.
To emphasize the transition to the more scientific approach to modern medicine, physicians sought to represent themselves as scientists, began to wear the most recognizable symbol of the scientist, the white laboratory coat. White coat ceremonies have become popular amongst those starting medical school; the modern white coat was introduced to medicine in the late 1800s as a symbol of cleanliness. A study conducted in the United Kingdom found that the majority of patients prefer their doctors to wear white coats, but the majority of doctors prefer other clothing, such as scrubs; the study found that psychiatrists were among the least to wear white coats and when they are worn, they are worn over the scrubs. Some medical doctors view the coats as hot and uncomfortable, many feel that they spread infection; some patients who have their blood pressure measured in a clinical setting have higher readings than they do when measured in a home setting. This is a result of patients feeling more relaxed when they are at home.
The phenomenon is sometimes called "white coat hypertension," in reference to the traditional white coats worn in a clinical setting, though the coats themselves may have nothing to do with the elevated readings. The term is used as verbal shorthand for psychiatric orderlies or other personnel and may be used, in a jocular manner, to imply someone's lunacy or paranoia; until the mid-1920s, students who were examining cadavers would wear black lab coats to show respect for the dead. Black lab coats were used in early microbiology laboratories; the "whiteness" and "pureness" concepts that were established in medicine pervaded that environment at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries and physicians changed the black for the white coat. A white coat ceremony is a new ritual that marks one's entrance into medical school and, more into a number of health-related schools and professions, it originated at University of Chicago's Pritzker School of Medicine in 1989 and involves a formal "robing" or "cloaking" in white lab coats.
Studies have shown that doctor's coats worn in hospitals can harbor contagions including MRSA. In 2007, the UK National Health Service started banning long-sleeved coats. In 2009, the American Medical Association investigated banning coats with long sleeves to protect patients, but did not institute a ban. A study published in 2011 investigating the effectiveness of the NHS ban showed no statistical difference in contamination levels between residents wearing long-sleeved coats and those wearing short-sleeved scrubs. In an effort to reduce the contamination of healthcare uniforms, ASTM International is developing standards to address liquid penetration resistance, liquid repellency, bacterial decontamination, antimicrobial properties of such uniforms; when used in the laboratory, lab coats protect against e.g. acids. In this case they have long sleeves and are made of an absorbent material, such as cotton, so that the user can be protected from the chemical; some lab coats have buttons or elastic at the end of the sleeves, to secure them around the wrist so that they do not hang into containers of chemicals.
Short-sleeved lab coats exist where protection from substances such as acid is not necessary, are favoured by certain scientists, such as microbiologists, avoiding the problem of hanging sleeves altogether, combined with the ease of washing the forearms. For added safety, a variant of the lab coat, called a "Howie" style lab coat is adopted, it is called such after a 1978 report commissioned by the UK department of Health and Social Security to codify standard clinical laboratory practices, chaired by J. W. Howie. Among the codified standards was protective clothing, it has the buttons on the left flank, elasticated wrists and a mandarin collar, is quite similar to a chef's uniform. It is designed to minimize pathogen contact with street clothes. White coats which resemble lab coats are worn by students and teachers of most public primary schools as a daily uniform in countries like Argentina, Spain and Morocco, it was worn during past decades in Paraguay and Chile. White coat hypertension Scrubs White coats and the medical profession Lab Coats
Motion Picture Association of America
The Motion Picture Association of America is an American trade association representing the five major film studios of Hollywood, streaming service giant, Netflix. Founded in 1922 as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, its original goal was to ensure the viability of the American film industry. In addition, the MPAA established guidelines for film content which resulted in the creation of the Production Code in 1930; this code known as the Hays Code, was replaced by a voluntary film rating system in 1968, managed by the Classification and Rating Administration. More the MPAA has advocated for the motion picture and television industry, with the goals of promoting effective copyright protection, reducing piracy, expanding market access, it has long worked to curb copyright infringement, including recent attempts to limit the sharing of copyrighted works via peer-to-peer file-sharing networks and by streaming from pirate sites. Former United States Ambassador to France Charles Rivkin is the current chairman and CEO of the MPAA.
The MPAA was founded as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America in 1922 as a trade association of member motion picture companies. At its founding, MPPDA member companies produced 70 to 80 percent of the films made in the United States. Former Postmaster General Will H. Hays was named the association's first president; the main focus of the MPPDA in its early years was on producing a strong public relations campaign to ensure that Hollywood remained financially stable and able to attract investment from Wall Street, while ensuring that American films had a "clean moral tone". The MPPDA instituted a code of conduct for Hollywood's actors in an attempt to govern their behavior offscreen; the code sought to protect American film interests abroad by encouraging film studios to avoid racist portrayals of foreigners. From the early days of the association, Hays spoke out against public censorship, the MPPDA worked to raise support from the general public for the film industry's efforts against such censorship.
Large portions of the public opposed censorship, but decried the lack of morals in movies. At the time of the MPPDA's founding, there was no national censorship, but some state and municipal laws required movies to be censored, a process oveseen by a local censorship board. Thus, in certain locations in the U. S. films were edited to comply with local laws regarding the onscreen portrayal of violence and sexuality, among other topics. This resulted in negative publicity for the studios and decreasing numbers of theater goers, who were uninterested in films that were sometimes so edited that they were incoherent. In 1929, more than 50 percent of American moviegoers lived in a location overseen by such a board. In 1924, Hays instituted "The Formula", a loose set of guidelines for filmmakers, in an effort to get the movie industry to self-regulate the issues that the censorship boards had been created to address. "The Formula" requested that studios send synopses of films being considered to the MPPDA for review.
This effort failed, however, as studios were under no obligation to send their scripts to Hays's office, nor to follow his recommendations. In 1927, Hays oversaw the creation of a code of "Be Carefuls" for the industry; this list outlined the issues. Hays created a Studio Relations Department with staff available to the studios for script reviews and advice regarding potential problems. Again, despite Hays' efforts, studios ignored the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls," and by the end of 1929, the MPPDA received only about 20 percent of Hollywood scripts prior to production, the number of regional and local censorship boards continued to increase. In 1930, the MPPDA introduced the Production Code, sometimes called the "Hays Code"; the Code consisted of moral guidelines regarding. Unlike the "Dont's and Be Carefuls", which the studios had ignored, the Production Code was endorsed by studio executives; the Code incorporated many of the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls" as specific examples of what could not be portrayed.
Among other rules, the code prohibited inclusion of "scenes of passion" unless they were essential to a film's plot. Because studio executives had been involved in the decision to adopt the code, MPPDA-member studios were more willing to submit scripts for consideration. However, the growing economic impacts of the Great Depression of the early 1930s increased pressure on studios to make films that would draw the largest possible audiences if it meant taking their chances with local censorship boards by disobeying the Code. In 1933 and 1934 the Catholic Legion of Decency, along with a number of Protestant and women's groups, launched plans to boycott films that they deemed immoral. In order to avert boycotts which might further harm the profitability of the film industry, the MPPDA created a new department, the Production Code Administration, with Joseph Breen as its head. Unlike previous attempts at self-censorship, PCA decisions were binding—no film could be exhibited in an American theater without a stamp of approval from the PCA, any producer attempting to do so faced a fine of $25,000.
After ten years of unsuccessful voluntary codes and expanding local censorship boards, the studio approved and agreed to enforce the codes, the nationwide "Production Code" was enforced starting on July 1, 1934. In the years that followed the
Hilda Isabel Gorrindo Sarli, nicknamed Coca, is a retired Argentine actress and glamour model, known for starring in several sexploitation films by Armando Bó in the 1960s and 1970s. She began her career as a model and beauty queen, becoming Miss Argentina and reaching the semi-finalis of Miss Universe 1955, she was discovered by Bó in 1956 and made her acting debut the following year with Thunder Among the Leaves, in which a controversial nude scene featuring Sarli made it the first film to feature full frontal nudity in Argentine cinema. As the muse and protagonist of Bó's films, Sarli became the quintessential sex symbol of her country and a popular figure worldwide. With Bó's death in 1981, Sarli retired from acting. Since the 1990s, her films have been revalued for its camp and kitsch content and are recognised as cult classics, she is considered a pop icon. Hilda Isabel Sarli Gorrindo Tito was born in Concordia, Entre Ríos Province, into a poor family, as one of the daughters of Antonio Gorrindo and María Elena Sarli.
Her father left the family. Those he had left behind, including Isabel and her mother moved to Buenos Aires, her youngest sibling, only brother, died at the age of five. Although, years her father tried to contact her, angrily she refused. Sarli trained to become a secretary and, upon completing this training, started working for a publicity agency to support her mother, she was offered to work as a model, at which she proved to be so successful that she ended up resigning from her secretarial work. She won an award as the "most photographed model". Contrary to what is known, she was nicknamed "Coca" by her mother. In 1955 she was chosen Miss Argentina and met the Argentine President, Juan Domingo Peron. In June 1956, she met Armando Bo on a TV show, who offered her the opportunity to star in El trueno entre las hojas. Bo convinced Sarli to be naked in a scene in which she bathed in a lake, though she had been told she would wear a flesh-colored body stocking. Though Bo told Sarli they would shoot from afar, the camera had magnification.
The film became the first to feature full frontal nudity in Argentine cinema. She went on to become an international Latin American star and made international headlines for the nude scene, she appeared in Time and Playboy Magazines, the first Argentinian actress to accomplish that feat. Bo and Sarli became lovers and she became the primary star of his films till his death in 1981. During this time, Sarli refused many offers to work with another director, with the exception of Leopoldo Torre Nilsson on Setenta veces siete and Dirk DeVilliers on The Virgin Goddess, her only English film; the films were controversial at the time and most of them were banned, but this ban led them to be more successful. Films like Fuego and Fiebre reached the European markets, she received offers to work in the United States with Robert Aldrich, along with two offers extended to her from England, to appear in the Hammer Film production The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll and the American co-productionThe Guns of Navarone, but she declined them.
However Isabel worked in Latin America, although always under Bo's direction: she made La diosa impura in México, Lujuria tropical in Venezuela, Desnuda en la arena in Panamá, La burrerita de Ypacaraí in Paraguay, Favela and La leona in Brazil. After Bo's death in 1981, Sarli retired from the cinema industry altogether but came back in the mid-90s for Jorge Polaco's picaresque film, La dama regresa; the film was inspired by her life and her public image, serving as an homage of sorts. In 2009 she teamed once more with Polaco in Arroz con leche for a bit part. In 2011 she starred in the movie Mis días con Gloria, where she acted out a character based on herself; the film was her first major role since La dama regresa in 1996. In a radio interview, Sarli said the film had not gone well because of the poor promotion it had received. Before meeting Bo, Sarli was married to Ralph Heinlein and divorced. Bo and Sarli never married, contrary to the popular belief, she has two adopted children and Isabelita, her goddaughter.
As of June 2016, she and her daughter Isabelita were living in Buenos Aires. In 2007 Argentinian film critic Diego Curubeto made the documentary Carne sobre carne – Intimidades de Isabel Sarli, with the collaboration of Isabel, Argentinian actor Gastón Pauls and Spanish director Alex de la Iglesia, it is a well-received homage that includes deleted scenes from her films, censored material, rehearsals and interviews. On 12 October 2012, it was reported that the Argentine President, Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, had named Sarli as Argentine Ambassador of Popular Culture; the Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, under Decree 1876/2012, stated: Isabel Sarli is considered a true representative of the national culture, as much for her acting skills in films as for being considered a popular icon of her day and an emblematic figure of Argentine cinema. In 2010, the movie Fuego premiered at the Lincoln Center in New York, where it was shown with English subtitles, it was about this premiere that Time Magazine's critic, Richard Corliss, wrote the review described above.
The phrase "What do you want from me?", erroneously taken from the movie "CARNE", has become a catchphrase in Argentina. In fact, the phrase was used in the movie "... And the devil created the men" Film director John Waters has said that Isabel Sarli's movies had inspired some of his own films. In April 2018, John Waters presented'Fuego' in Argentina
Radley Metzger was an American pioneering filmmaker and film distributor, most noted for popular artistic, adult-oriented films, including Camille 2000, The Lickerish Quartet, The Private Afternoons of Pamela Mann, The Image and The Opening of Misty Beethoven. According to one film reviewer, Metzger's films, including those made during the Golden Age of Porn, are noted for their "lavish design, witty screenplays, a penchant for the unusual camera angle". Another reviewer noted that his films were "highly artistic — and cerebral... and featured gorgeous cinematography". Film and audio works by Metzger have been added to the permanent collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. Radley Henry Metzger was born on January 21, 1929 on the Grand Concourse in The Bronx, New York City, was the second son of Jewish parents and Anne, he claimed he found relief from his allergies in movie theaters at the Audubon Ballroom theatre, while growing up. Metzger received a B. A. in Dramatic Arts from City College of New York, where he studied with filmmakers Hans Richter and Leo Seltzer.
He studied acting with director Harold Clurman. During the Korean War, Metzger served in the U. S. Air Force with the 1350th Photographic Group, which interrupted his graduate studies at Columbia University, his older brother, now deceased, had become a physician. Metzger married and had a daughter. Early in his career, in the 1950s, Metzger worked as a film editor and was a member of Local 771 of the IATSE, he was employed in editing trailers for Janus Films, a major distributor of foreign art films those of Michelangelo Antonioni, Ingmar Bergman, Federico Fellini, Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut. In 1953, Metzger was credited as assistant director to William Kyriakis on the film Guerilla Girl. In 1956, he worked on the dubbing of And God Created Woman, starring Brigitte Bardot, his directorial film debut, Dark Odyssey, was a drama concerning the experiences of a Greek immigrant arriving in New York. The film was favorably reviewed by others. In 1959, he edited the film The Gangster Story, starring Walter Matthau, and, in 1960, Metzger was a presenter for the Japanese film, The Warped Ones.
In 1961, along with film distributor Ava Leighton, Metzger founded Audubon Films. The company was named after the Audubon Ballroom theatre, one of his favorite movie theaters while growing up; the newly founded distribution company specialized in importing international features, some of which were marketed into the expanding adult erotic film genre. Metzger's skills as an editor were employed in re-cutting and augmenting many of the features Audubon handled, including The Twilight Girls and, their first runaway success, Mac Ahlberg's I, a Woman. Metzger's second directorial effort, The Dirty Girls, marked his emergence as a major auteur in the adult erotic film genre, his subsequent films were shot in Europe and adapted from novels or other literary sources, including Carmen, La Dame aux Camélias, L'image, Naked Came the Stranger, Six Characters in Search of an Author, The Cat and the Canary, Thérèse et Isabelle. He cites John Farrow, Claude Lelouch, Michael Powell, Alain Resnais and Orson Welles as influencing his work.
Metzger worked with the French film director Jean Renoir, as well as the American actor Hal Linden. Andy Warhol, who helped begin the Golden Age of Porn with his 1969 film Blue Movie, was a fan of Metzger's film work and commented that Metzger's 1970 film, The Lickerish Quartet, was “an outrageously kinky masterpiece”. In 1972, Metzger directed the film Score, based on an erotic off-Broadway play that included Sylvester Stallone. Films directed by Metzger included musical scores composed by Georges Auric, Stelvio Cipriani, Georges Delerue, Piero Piccioni. Metzger's signature film style of his "elegant erotica" had developed into being "a Euro-centric combination of stylish decadence and the aristocratic". Under the pseudonym "Henry Paris," Metzger directed several explicit adult erotic features during the mid- to late-1970s; these films were released during the Golden Age of Porn in the United States, at a time of "porno chic", in which adult erotic films were just beginning to be released, publicly discussed by celebrities and taken by film critics.
Metzger's films are typified by high production values The Private Afternoons of Pamela Mann and The Opening of Misty Beethoven, are critically celebrated. Some historians assess The Opening of Misty Beethoven, based on the play Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw, as attaining a mainstream level in storyline and sets and is considered, by award-winning author Toni Bentley, the "crown jewel" of the Golden Age of Porn; some of the adult erotic "Henry Paris" films, including Score, have been presented in softcore versions. Many of Metzger's films, including Score, The Image, The Opening of Misty Beethoven and Barbara Broadcast, as well as his earlier softcore films, Camille 2000 and The Lickerish Quartet, have be
A grindhouse or action house is an American term for a theater that shows exploitation films. According to historian David Church, this theater type was named after the "grind policy", a film-programming strategy dating back to the early 1920s which continuously showed films at cut-rate ticket prices that rose over the course of each day; this exhibition practice was markedly different from the era's more common practice of fewer shows per day and graduated pricing for different seating sections in large urban theaters, which were studio-owned. Due to these theaters' proximity to controversially sexualized forms of entertainment like burlesque, the term "grindhouse" has been erroneously associated with burlesque theaters in urban entertainment areas such as 42nd Street in New York City, where "bump and grind" dancing and striptease were featured. In the film Lady of Burlesque one of the characters refers to one such burlesque theatre on 42nd Street as a "grindhouse," but Church points out the primary definition in the Oxford English Dictionary is for a movie theater distinguished by three criteria: Shows a variety of films, in continuous succession Low admission fees Films screened are of poor quality or low meritChurch states the first use of the term "grind house" was in a 1923 Variety article, which may have adopted the contemporary slang usage of "grind" to refer to the actions of barkers exhorting potential patrons to enter the venue.
Double, "all night" bills on a single admission charge encouraged patrons to spend long periods of time in the theaters. The milieu was and faithfully captured at the time by the magazine Sleazoid Express; because grindhouse theaters were associated with a lower class audience, grindhouse theaters became perceived as disreputable places that showed disreputable films, regardless of the variety of films — including subsequent-run Hollywood films — that were screened. Similar second-run screenings are held at discount theaters and neighborhood theatres; the introduction of television eroded the audience for local and single-screen movie theaters, many of which were built during the cinema boom of the 1930s. In combination with urban decay after white flight out of older city areas in the mid to late 1960s, changing economics forced these theaters to either close or offer something that television could not. In the 1970s, many of these theaters became venues for exploitation films, either adult pornography and sleaze, or slasher horror and dubbed martial arts films from Hong Kong.
Films shot for and screened at grindhouses characteristically contain large amounts of sex, violence, or bizarre subject matter. One featured genre were "roughies" or sexploitation films, a mix of sex and sadism. Quality varied. Critical opinions varied regarding typical grindhouse fare, but many films acquired cult following and critical praise. By the 1980s, home video and cable movie channels threatened to render the grindhouse obsolete. By the end of the decade, these theaters had vanished from Los Angeles's Broadway and Hollywood Boulevard, New York City's Times Square and San Francisco's Market Street. By the mid-1990s, these particular theaters had all but disappeared from the United States. Few exist today; the Robert Rodriguez film Planet Terror and the Quentin Tarantino film Death Proof, which were released together as Grindhouse in 2007, were created as an homage to the cinematic genre. Similar films such as Machete, Drive Angry and Sign Gene have appeared since. Red Dead Revolver, The House of the Dead: Overkill, Shank, RAGE, Shadows of the Damned and Zombie Hunter are several examples of video games that serve as homages to the grindhouse movies.
The author Jacques Boyreau released the book Portable Grindhouse: The Lost Art of the VHS Box in 2009 about the history of the genre. The field is the focus of the 2010 documentary American Grindhouse; the Syfy TV show Blood Drive takes inspiration from grindhouse, with each episode featuring a different theme. The novel Our Lady of the Inferno is both written as an homage to grindhouse films and features several chapters that take place in a grindhouse theater. Church, David. Grindhouse Nostalgia: Memory, home video and exploitation film fandom. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-9910-0. Retrieved 24 March 2017. Fisher, Austin. Grindhouse—Cultural Exchange on 42nd Street, Beyond. New York, New York: Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN 978-1-6289-2747-4. Retrieved 24 March 2017. Grindhouse Cinema Database The Grindhouse Schoolhouse: Exploring Classic Adult Cinema A review of Grindhouse: The Forbidden World of "Adults Only" Cinema, by Eddie Muller and Daniel Faris. Grindhouse.com "The Original Grindhouse Theatres.
Located On 42nd Street, New York". Grindhouse Therapy. Retrieved 24 March 2017
Routledge is a British multinational publisher. It was founded in 1836 by George Routledge, specialises in providing academic books, journals, & online resources in the fields of humanities, behavioural science, education and social science; the company publishes 1,800 journals and 5,000 new books each year and their backlist encompasses over 70,000 titles. Routledge is claimed to be the largest global academic publisher within humanities and social sciences. In 1998, Routledge became a subdivision and imprint of its former rival, Taylor & Francis Group, as a result of a £90 million acquisition deal from Cinven, a venture capital group which had purchased it two years for £25 million. Following the merger of Informa and T&F in 2004, Routledge become a publishing unit and major imprint within the Informa'academic publishing' division. Routledge is headquartered in the main T&F office in Milton Park, Abingdon and operates from T&F offices globally including in Philadelphia, New Delhi and Beijing.
The firm originated in 1836, when the London bookseller George Routledge published an unsuccessful guidebook, The Beauties of Gilsland with his brother-in-law W H Warne as assistant. In 1848 the pair entered the booming market for selling inexpensive imprints of works of fiction to rail travellers, in the style of the German Tauchnitz family, which became known as the "Railway Library"; the venture was a success as railway usage grew, it led to Routledge, along with W H Warne's Brother Frederick Warne, to found the company, George Routledge & Co. in 1851. The following year in 1852, the company gained lucrative business through selling reprints of Uncle Tom's Cabin, which in turn enabled it to pay author Edward Bulwer-Lytton £20,000 for a 10-year lease allowing sole rights to print all 35 of his works including 19 of his novels to be sold cheaply as part of their "Railway Library" series; the company was restyled in 1858 as Routledge, Warne & Routledge when George Routledge's son, Robert Warne Routledge, entered the partnership.
Frederick Warne left the company after the death of his brother W. H. Warne in May 1859. Gaining rights to some titles, he founded Frederick Warne & Co in 1865, which became known for its Beatrix Potter books. In July 1865, George Routledge's son Edmund Routledge became a partner, the firm became George Routledge & Sons. By 1899 the company was running close to bankruptcy. Following a successful restructuring in 1902 by scientist Sir William Crookes, banker Arthur Ellis Franklin, William Swan Sonnenschein as managing director, others, however, it was able to recover and began to acquire and merge with other publishing companies including J. C. Nimmo Ltd. in 1903. In 1912 the company took over the management of Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. the descendant of companies founded by Charles Kegan Paul, Alexander Chenevix Trench, Nicholas Trübner, George Redway. These early 20th-century acquisitions brought with them lists of notable scholarly titles, from 1912 onward, the company became concentrated in the academic and scholarly publishing business under the imprint "Kegan Paul Trench Trubner", as well as reference and mysticism.
In 1947, George Routledge and Sons merged with Kegan Paul Trench Trubner under the name of Routledge & Kegan Paul. Using C. K Ogden and Karl Mannheim as advisers the company was soon known for its titles in philosophy and the social sciences. In 1985, Routledge & Kegan Paul joined with Associated Book Publishers, acquired by International Thomson in 1987. Under Thomson's ownership, Routledge's name and operations were retained, and, in 1996, a management buyout financed by the European private equity firm Cinven saw Routledge operating as an independent company once again. Just two year Cinven and Routledge's directors accepted a deal for Routledge's acquisition by Taylor & Francis Group, with the Routledge name being retained as an imprint and subdivision. In 2004, T&F became a division within Informa plc after a merger. Routledge continues as a primary publishing unit and imprint within Informa's'academic publishing' division, publishing academic humanities and social science books, reference works and digital products.
Routledge has grown as a result of organic growth and acquisitions of other publishing companies and other publishers' titles by its parent company. Humanities and social sciences titles acquired by T&F from other publishers are rebranded under the Routledge imprint; the famous English publisher Fredric Warburg was a commissioning editor at Routledge during the early 20th century. Novelist Nina Stibbe, author of Love, worked at the company as a commissioning editor in the 1990s. Routledge has published many of the greatest thinkers and scholars of the last hundred years, including Adorno, Butler, Einstein, Freud, Jung, Levi-Strauss, McLuhan, Popper, Russell and Wittgenstein; the republished works of these authors have appeared as part of the Routledge Classics and Routledge Great Minds series. Competitors to the series are Verso Books' Radical Thinkers, Penguin Classics and Oxford World's Classics. Taylor and Francis closed down the Routledge print encyclopaedia division in 2006; some of its publications were: Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy, by Edward Craig, in 10 volumes, but now online.
Encyclopedia of Ethics, by Lawrence C. Becker and Charlotte B. Becker, in three volumes. Reference Works by Europa Publications, published by Routledge: Europa World Year Book. International Who's Who. Europ