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Sextus Julius Africanus

For the first century orator, see Julius Africanus. For others with this name, see Africanus. Sextus Julius Africanus was a Christian traveler and historian of the late second and early third centuries, he is important chiefly because of his influence on Eusebius, on all the writers of Church history among the Church Fathers, on the whole Greek school of chroniclers. The Suidas claims. Julius called himself a native of Jerusalem – which some scholars consider his birthplace – and lived at the neighbouring Emmaus, his chronicle indicates his familiarity with the topography of historic Judea. Little of Africanus's life is known and all dates are uncertain. One tradition places him under the Emperor Gordianus III, others mentions him under Severus Alexander, he appears to have known Abgar VIII.. Africanus may have served under Septimius Severus against the Osrhoenians in 195, he went on an embassy to the emperor Severus Alexander to ask for the restoration of Emmaus, which had fallen into ruins. His mission succeeded, Emmaus was henceforward known as Nicopolis.

Africanus traveled to Greece and Rome and went to Alexandria to study, attracted by the fame of its catechetical school about the year 215. He knew Greek and Hebrew, he had been a pagan. Whether Africanus was a layman or a cleric remains controversial. Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont argued from Africanus's addressing the priest Origen as "dear brother" that Julius must have been a priest himself but Gelzer points out that such an argument is inconclusive. Africanus wrote a history of the world in five volumes; the work covers the period from Creation to the year AD 221. He calculated the period between Creation and Jesus as 5500 years, placing the Incarnation on the first day of AM 5501; this method of reckoning led to several Creation eras being used in the Greek Eastern Mediterranean, which all placed Creation within one decade of 5500 BC. The history, which had an apologetic aim, is no longer extant, but copious extracts from it are to be found in the Chronicon of Eusebius, who used it extensively in compiling the early episcopal lists.

There are fragments in George Syncellus and the Chronicon Paschale. Eusebius gives some extracts from his letter to one Aristides, reconciling the apparent discrepancy between Matthew and Luke in the genealogy of Christ by a reference to the Jewish law of Levirate marriage, which compelled a man to marry the widow of his deceased brother, if the latter died without issue, his terse and pertinent letter to Origen impugning the authority of the part of the Book of Daniel that tells the story of Susanna, Origen's wordy and uncritical answer, are both extant. The ascription to Africanus of an encyclopaedic work entitled Kestoi, treating of agriculture, natural history, military science, etc. has been disputed on account of its secular and credulous character. August Neander suggested that it was written by Africanus before he had devoted himself to religious subjects. A fragment of the Kestoi was found in the Oxyrhynchus papyri. According to the New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, the Kestoi "appears to have been intended as a sort of encyclopedia of the material sciences with the cognate mathematical and technical branches, but to have contained a large proportion of curious, trifling, or miraculous matters, on which account the authorship of Julius has been questioned.

Among the parts published are sections on agriculture, liturgiology and medicine." Only fragments of his religious writings have been preserved. One fragment deals with eschatology. Prophecy of Daniel 8After referring to the standard interpretation of the'ram' and the'he-goat', as symbolizing Persia and Greece, Africanus suggested that the 2300 days might be taken form months, totaling about 185 years which he applied to the time from the Capture of Jerusalem to the 20 year of Artaxerxes, he seems to be the only one. The 70th weekAfricanus begins the seventy weeks Daniel 9 with the twentieth year of Artaxerxes, in Olympiad 83, year 4, ends the period in Olympiad 202, year 2, or 475 solar years inclusive, which would be equivalent to 490 uncorrected lunar years; this work does not survive except in fragments, chiefly those preserved by Eusebius and Georgius Syncellus. In turn Africanus preserves fragments of the work of Polemon of Athens' Greek History. FRAGMENT 13: From Georgius Syncellus, Chron.

Third Book. In Euseb. Præpar. X. 40: 6. And from Moses to the first Olympiad there are 1020 years, as to the first year of the 55th Olympiad from the same are 1237, in which enumeration the reckoning of the Greeks coincides with us. Polemo, for instance, in the first book of his Greek History, says: In the time of Apis, king of Argos, son of Phoroneus, a division of the army of the Egyptians left Egypt, settled in the Palestine called Syrian, not far from Arabia: these are evidently those who were with Moses. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Julius Africanus". Catholic Encyclopedia. 8. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Gelzer, H.. Sextus Julius Africanus und die Byzantinische Chronographie. Leipzig. Wallraff, M.. Die Kestoi des Julius Africanus und ihre Überlieferung. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter. 395 S. (Texte und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der alt

CMOS

Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor known as complementary-symmetry metal–oxide–semiconductor, is a type of MOSFET fabrication process that uses complementary and symmetrical pairs of p-type and n-type MOSFETs for logic functions. CMOS technology is used for constructing integrated circuit chips, including microprocessors, memory chips, other digital logic circuits. CMOS technology is used for analog circuits such as image sensors, data converters, RF circuits, integrated transceivers for many types of communication. Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng invented the MOSFET at Bell Labs in 1959, demonstrated the PMOS and NMOS fabrication processes in 1960; these processes were combined and adapted into the complementary MOS process by Chih-Tang Sah and Frank Wanlass at Fairchild Semiconductor in 1963. RCA commercialized the technology with the trademark "COS-MOS" in the late 1960s, forcing other manufacturers to find another name, leading to "CMOS" becoming the standard name for the technology by the early 1970s.

CMOS overtook NMOS as the dominant MOSFET fabrication process for large-scale integration chips in the 1980s, has since remained the standard fabrication process for MOSFET semiconductor devices in VLSI chips. As of 2011, 99% of IC chips, including most digital and mixed-signal ICs, are fabricated using CMOS technology. Two important characteristics of CMOS devices are high noise immunity and low static power consumption. Since one transistor of the MOSFET pair is always off, the series combination draws significant power only momentarily during switching between on and off states. CMOS devices do not produce as much waste heat as other forms of logic, like NMOS logic or transistor–transistor logic, which have some standing current when not changing state; these characteristics allow CMOS to integrate a high density of logic functions on a chip. It was for this reason that CMOS became the most used technology to be implemented in VLSI chips; the phrase "metal–oxide–semiconductor" is a reference to the physical structure of MOS field-effect transistors, having a metal gate electrode placed on top of an oxide insulator, which in turn is on top of a semiconductor material.

Aluminium was once used but now the material is polysilicon. Other metal gates have made a comeback with the advent of high-κ dielectric materials in the CMOS process, as announced by IBM and Intel for the 45 nanometer node and smaller sizes. "CMOS" refers to both a particular style of digital circuitry design and the family of processes used to implement that circuitry on integrated circuits. CMOS circuitry dissipates less power than logic families with resistive loads. Since this advantage has increased and grown more important, CMOS processes and variants have come to dominate, thus the vast majority of modern integrated circuit manufacturing is on CMOS processes. CMOS logic consumes over 7 times less power than NMOS logic, about 100,000 times less power than bipolar transistor-transistor logic. CMOS circuits use a combination of p-type and n-type metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor to implement logic gates and other digital circuits. Although CMOS logic can be implemented with discrete devices for demonstrations, commercial CMOS products are integrated circuits composed of up to billions of transistors of both types, on a rectangular piece of silicon of between 10 and 400 mm2.

CMOS always uses all enhancement-mode MOSFETs. The MOSFET was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959. There were two types of MOSFET fabrication processes, PMOS and NMOS. Both types were developed by Atalla and Kahng when they invented the MOSFET, fabricating both PMOS and NMOS devices with a 20 μm process in 1960. While the MOSFET was overlooked and ignored by Bell Labs in favour of bipolar transistors, the MOSFET invention generated significant interest at Fairchild Semiconductor. Based on Atalla's work, Chih-Tang Sah introduced MOS technology to Fairchild with his MOS-controlled tetrode fabricated in late 1960. A new type of MOSFET logic combining both the PMOS and NMOS processes was developed, called complementary MOS, by Chih-Tang Sah and Frank Wanlass at Fairchild. In February 1963, they published the invention in a research paper. Wanlass filed US patent 3,356,858 for CMOS circuitry in June 1963, it was granted in 1967. In both the research paper and the patent, the fabrication of CMOS devices was outlined, on the basis of thermal oxidation of a silicon substrate to yield a layer of silicon dioxide located between the drain contact and the source contact.

CMOS was commercialised by RCA in the late 1960s. RCA adopted CMOS for the design of integrated circuits, developing CMOS circuits for an Air Force computer in 1965 and a 288-bit CMOS SRAM memory chip in 1968. RCA used CMOS for its 4000-series integrated circuits in 1968, starting with a 20 μm semiconductor manufacturing process before scaling to a 10 μm process over the next several years. CMOS technology was overlooked by the American semiconductor industry in favour of NMOS, more powerful at the time. However, CMOS was adopted and further advanced by Japanese semiconductor manufacturers due to its low power consumption, leading to the rise of the Japanese semiconductor industry. Toshiba developed C²MOS, a circuit technology with lower p

Cases for reporting on Ergenekon

There have been a number of trials arising from reporting on Ergenekon, with journalists accused of "violating the confidentiality of the investigation" into Ergenekon, or violating the judicial process of the Ergenekon trials. The European Commission said in 2010 that the number of cases was "a cause for concern."Convictions for reporting include Şamil Tayyar, for his book Operasyon Ergenekon. Acquittals include the news coordinator of the daily Radikal, Ertuğrul Mavioğlu, journalist Ahmet Şık, for a book entitled Kırk Katır, Kırk Satır; the Ministry of Justice announced that by November 2009 court cases had been opened against 15 journalists on the grounds of "violating the confidentiality of the investigation". The Ministry furthermore declared that since 31 July 2009 3,845 investigations had been launched against journalists. 358 trials were pending and 15 cases resulted in convictions. In its 2010 report on progress for the accession of Turkey to the European Union the European Commission stated inter alia: "The high number of cases initiated against journalists who have reported on the Ergenekon case is a cause for concern.

They face prosecutions and trials for violating the principle of confidentiality of an ongoing judicial process. This could result in self-censorship." The footnote 17 stated: "4,091 investigations have been initiated against journalists for breaches of the confidentiality of investigations or attempts to influence a fair trial, following their reporting on the Ergenekon case."In December 2009 Şamil Tayyar and journalist with the daily Star was sentenced to 20 months' imprisonment for his book Operasyon Ergenekon on the grounds that he had violated the duty to observe secrecy of an investigation and tried to influence a fair trial. Istanbul Penal Court 2 ruled that the defendant might not commit another crime and the announcement of the sentence could be suspended under the condition that the defendant is put under five years of supervision. In April 2010 it was reported that over 180 cases had been opened against the daily Vakit for reporting on the Ergenekon investigations. Of these cases, 120 are related to not observing the secrecy of investigation.

In 17 cases the charges are influencing fair trial. In connection with an article on the killing of Üzeyir Garih, committed by Ergenekon the editor-in-chief Ahmet Can Karahasanoğlu was sentenced to 15 months' imprisonment according to Article 285/1 of the Turkish Penal Code for having violated the duty to observe secrecy; the article had been published on 1 October 2008. Relating to the attack of PKK militants on the gendarmerie station Dağlıca in Yüksekova district, Hakkâri Province on 21 October 2007 Bakırköy Penal Code 2 once again sentenced Ahmet Can Karahasanoğlu to 15 months' imprisonment for having violated the duty to observe secrecy; the news coordinator of the daily Radikal, Ertuğrul Mavioğlu and journalist Ahmet Şık were put on trial for a book entitled Kırk Katır, Kırk Satır on allegations of having violated the duty to observe secrecy. Kadıköy Penal Court acquitted the defendants on 13 May 2011 stating that the crime had not materialized. Another reporter of Radikal, İsmail Saymaz, was charged for an article of 8 June 2010 entitled "Love games at Ergenekon".

He was violating the duty to observe secrecy. The hearing was to start on 28 January 2011 at Bakırköy Penal Court 2. In a separate case Erzurum Penal Court 2 decided in April 2011 not to be responsible to hear the complaint of Prosecutor Osman Şanal that the journalists Ali Dağlar, İsmail Saymaz and İlhan Taşçı had insulted him and sent the case to Istanbul, where they should be tried for insulting a civil servant and influencing a fair trial. Radikal reporter İsmail Saymaz is charged in at least seven cases. Case 7 was launched for "violating the secrecy of an investigation" because of an article published in Radikal on 19 March 2008 entitled "The generals in their summer residences agree that Balbay is the left-wing leader". Saymaz was facing imprisonment of up to 60 years in total; the first hearing of this trial was held on 3 June 2010 at Bakırköy Penal Court 2 according to Article 285 of the Turkish Criminal Code. A further six trials were filed against Saymaz for his article about the interrogations of İlhan Cihaner, detained Chief Public Prosecutor of Erzincan and İbrahim Şahin, former Deputy Head of the Special Operations Department.

Another reason for the prosecution of Saymaz was the article entitled "The most reckless state of Ergenekon is in Erzincan" related to the defence of former İliç Public Prosecutor Bayram Bozkurt, sent to the Ministry of Justice. Bozkurt is tried at the Erzincan High Criminal Court under allegations of "misconduct in office". Editor-in-chief of the daily Akşam, Mustafa Dolu and former editor Semra Pelek were indicted, because they had published the testimony of Ergenekon defendant, retired General İbrahim Fırtına on 5 January 2010. Bakırköy Penal Court held hearings on 1 November 2010 and 29 March 2011; the next hearing was scheduled for 11 August 2011. After previous trials against İsmail Saymaz, Serkan Ocak and Ertan Kılıç on the grounds of reporting about the Ergenekon investigation and related hearings, now Pelek and Dolu are faci

Prewitt operator

The Prewitt operator is used in image processing within edge detection algorithms. Technically, it is a discrete differentiation operator, computing an approximation of the gradient of the image intensity function. At each point in the image, the result of the Prewitt operator is either the corresponding gradient vector or the norm of this vector; the Prewitt operator is based on convolving the image with a small and integer valued filter in horizontal and vertical directions and is therefore inexpensive in terms of computations like Sobel and Kayyali operators. On the other hand, the gradient approximation which it produces is crude, in particular for high frequency variations in the image; the Prewitt operator was developed by Judith M. S. Prewitt. In simple terms, the operator calculates the gradient of the image intensity at each point, giving the direction of the largest possible increase from light to dark and the rate of change in that direction; the result therefore shows how "abruptly" or "smoothly" the image changes at that point, therefore how it is that part of the image represents an edge, as well as how that edge is to be oriented.

In practice, the magnitude calculation is more reliable and easier to interpret than the direction calculation. Mathematically, the gradient of a two-variable function is at each image point a 2D vector with the components given by the derivatives in the horizontal and vertical directions. At each image point, the gradient vector points in the direction of largest possible intensity increase, the length of the gradient vector corresponds to the rate of change in that direction; this implies that the result of the Prewitt operator at an image point, in a region of constant image intensity is a zero vector and at a point on an edge is a vector which points across the edge, from darker to brighter values. Mathematically, the operator uses two 3×3 kernels which are convolved with the original image to calculate approximations of the derivatives - one for horizontal changes, one for vertical. If we define A as the source image, G x and G y are two images which at each point contain the horizontal and vertical derivative approximations, the latter are computed as: G x = ∗ A and G y = ∗ A where ∗ here denotes the 2-dimensional convolution operation.

Since the Prewitt kernels can be decomposed as the products of an averaging and a differentiation kernel, they compute the gradient with smoothing. Therefore, it is a separable filter. For example, G x can be written as = The x-coordinate is defined here as increasing in the "left"-direction, the y-coordinate is defined as increasing in the "up"-direction. At each point in the image, the resulting gradient approximations can be combined to give the gradient magnitude, using: G = G x 2 + G y 2 Using this information, we can calculate the gradient's direction: Θ = atan2 ⁡ where, for example, Θ is 0 for a vertical edge, darker on the right side. Sobel operator Laplace operator Roberts Cross Edge detection Feature detection Digital image processing Computer vision Feature extraction Image gradient Image derivatives Gabor filter

Moon Hee-joon

Moon Hee-joon is a South Korean pop rock singer-songwriter signed under SidusHQ. He rose to fame as the leader of former boy band H. O. T. under SM Entertainment. Being the second member to join H. O. T. after auditioning, Moon made his debut as a singer as the leader of the boy group. The group debuted with their first album, We Hate All Kinds of Violence in September 1996, accused of being plagiarized and lawsuits were placed against them. Despite their controversial debut, the group rose to fame with their first hit, Candy and We Are the Future, which the latter won them a MTV award for Best International Video. During his time as part of the group, Moon composed and wrote music for the group and with fellow member, Jang Woo-hyuk, he choreographed the group's dance routine. Despite H. O. T.'s success, after releasing their last album, Outside Castle in September 2000, the group disbanded in May 2001. After the disbandment of the group, Moon stayed on in S. M. Entertainment with Kangta, part of H. O.

T. and debuted as a solo artist. Moon attempted to establish a rock music career with his first album, but received criticism from the public, his second album, was tinted with controversy as one of the songs, was banned from all 3 major broadcasting stations in South Korea, for attacking mass media. After the release of his third album, Legend, in 2003, Moon released The Best: Soaring for a Dream, his last album under S. M. Entertainment and created PS Entertainment. After Moon released his fourth album, Triple X, he enlisted in the army in 2005. Before entering the army, Moon had signed a contract with SidusHQ and during his time in the army, he hosted the KFN Korean Army Broadcast "Music Talk Show", which received recognition from various Korean artistes. In 2008, Moon released his fifth album, Special Album, which included songs from H. O. T. Previous albums. Moon released his first mini album, Last Cry, in 2009. In the same year, Moon appeared in sitcom Taehee, Hyegyo and took a break from the music scene.

Despite being absent from the music scene, Moon took up hosting in several variety programs such as, Immortal Songs: Singing the Legend, Mnet's'Wide Celebrity News' and other programs. In 2013, Moon released his second mini album, after being away from the music scene from 3 years, it was released on January 18, 2013. Moon, his H. O. T. Bandmate Tony An and three members of disbanded or inactive fellow first-generation idol groups Eun Ji-won of Sechs Kies, Danny Ahn of g.o.d and Chun Myung-hoon of NRG starred in their own variety-reality television show Handsome Boys of the 20th Century. He had conceived the idea following the success of Reply 1997 and invited the four other entertainers, all of whom were born in the same year, to star in a reality version of the show, they called their "group" HOTSechgodRG, made up of each of their idol group names. They have since appeared on shows such as KBS's Happy Together SBS's Running Man. Due to the reuniting of Eun's group Sechs Kies and Danny Ahn's group g.o.d, they have not appeared as a five-some since the 2014 show Where is My Superhero?, which aired on OnStyle, due to busy schedules but remain close friends.

The group, except Eun, most met at Moon's bachelor party, shown on Mom's Diary - My Ugly Duckling, the reality show that Tony An was participating in. In 2015, Moon signed an exclusive contract with KOEN Stars. On November 25, 2016, Moon announced that he would be marrying fellow entertainer, Soyul of Crayon Pop; the wedding was held on February 2017 in Seoul. The pair welcomed their first child, a daughter, on May 12. 2004 Winter Letter H. O. T. Korean rock K-pop SidusHQ Star Page

Sulfinyl halide

Sulfinyl halide groups occur when a sulfinyl functional group is singly bonded to a halogen atom. They have the general formula R-S-X, where X is a halogen, are intermediate in oxidation level between sulfenyl halides, R-S-X, sulfonyl halides, R-SO2-X; the best known examples are sulfinyl chlorides, moisture-sensitive compounds, which are useful intermediates for preparation of other sufinyl derivatives such as sulfinamides, sulfinates and thiosulfinates. Unlike the sulfur atom in sulfonyl halides and sulfenyl halides, the sulfur atom in sulfinyl halides is chiral, as shown for methanesulfinyl chloride. Sulfinic acid chlorides, or sulfinyl chlorides, are sulfinyl halides with the general formula R-S-Cl. Methanesulfinyl chloride, CH3SCl, is prepared by chlorination of dimethyl disulfide in acetic anhydride at −10 to 0 °C. A general approach to the formation of sulfinyl chlorides is by reaction of the corresponding thiol with sulfuryl chloride, SO2Cl2. If the nucleophile is water the product is a sulfinic acid, if it is an alcohol the product is a sulfinic ester, if it is a primary or secondary amine the product is a sulfinamide, if it is a thiol the product is a thiosulfinate, while if it is a Grignard reagent the product is a sulfoxide.

Because of their reactivity and instability, alkanesulfinyl chlorides are used without purification after their synthesis. Storage is not recommended since pressure develops within the container due to hydrogen chloride release. Treatment of alkanesulfinyl chlorides having α-hydrogens with tertiary amine bases gives thiocarbonyl S-oxides as isolable compounds. Thus, treatment of n-propanesulfinyl chloride with triethylamine gives syn-propanethial-S-oxide, the lachrymatory agent of the onion. Treatment of methanesulfinyl chloride or ethane-1,2-bis-sulfinyl chloride, ClSCH2CH2SCl, with a tertiary amine in the presence of the chiral glucose-derived secondary alcohol diacetone-D-glucose affords optically pure sulfinate esters by a process of Dynamic kinetic resolution. Sulfinyl chlorides undergo Friedel–Crafts reactions with arenes giving sulfoxides. Room temperature hydrolysis of CF3SF3 gives the sulfinyl fluoride CF3SF in a few hours in quantitative yield. Treatment of CF3SF with hydrogen bromide at -78 °C gives the sulfinyl bromide CF3SBr, unstable at room temperature and disproportionates.

Sulfinyl iodides are unknown compounds