SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sexual selection in humans

Sexual selection in humans concerns the concept of sexual selection, introduced by Charles Darwin as an element of his theory of natural selection, as it affects humans. Sexual selection is a biological way. Most compete with others of the same sex for the best mate to contribute their genome for future generations; this has shaped our evolution for many years, but reasons why humans choose their mates are hardly understood. Sexual selection is quite different in animals than humans as they feel more of the evolutionary pressures to reproduce and can reject a mate; the role of sexual selection in human evolution has not been established although neoteny has been cited as being caused by human sexual selection. It has been suggested that sexual selection played a part in the evolution of the anatomically modern human brain, i.e. the structures responsible for social intelligence underwent positive selection as a sexual ornamentation to be used in courtship rather than for survival itself, that it has developed in ways outlined by Ronald Fisher in the Fisherian runaway model.

Fisher stated that the development of sexual selection was "more favourable" in humans. Some hypotheses about the evolution of the human brain argue that it is a sexually selected trait, as it would not confer enough fitness in itself relative to its high maintenance costs. Current consensus about the evolutionary development of the human brain accepts sexual selection as a potential contributing factor but maintains that human intelligence and the ability to store and share cultural knowledge would have carried high survival value as well. Sexual selection's role in human evolution cannot be definitively established, as features may result from an equilibrium among competing selective pressures, some involving sexual selection, others natural selection, others pleiotropy. Richard Dawkins argued that "When you notice a characteristic of an animal and ask what its Darwinian survival value is, you may be asking the wrong question, it could be. It may have "come along for the ride", dragged along in evolution by some other characteristic to which it is pleiotropically linked."

Charles Darwin described sexual selection as depending on "the advantage which certain individuals have over others of the same sex and species in respect of reproduction". Darwin noted that sexual selection is of two kinds and concluded that both kinds had operated on humans: "The sexual struggle is of two kinds, he reasoned that since the bodies of females are more nearly hairless, the loss of fur was due to sexual selection of females at a remote prehistoric time when males had overwhelming selective power, that it nonetheless affected males due to genetic correlation between the sexes. He hypothesized that contrasts in sexual selection acting along with natural selection were significant factors in the geographical differentiation in human appearance of some isolated groups, as he did not believe that natural selection alone provided a satisfactory answer. Although not explicit, his observation that in Khoisan women "the posterior part of the body projects in a most wonderful manner" implies sexual selection for this characteristic.

In The Descent of Man, Selection in Relation to Sex, Darwin viewed many physical traits which vary around the world as being so trivial to survival that he concluded some input from sexual selection was required to account for their presence. He noted that variation in these features among the various peoples of the world meant human mate-choice criteria would have to be quite different if the focus was similar, he himself doubted that, citing reports indicating that ideals of beauty did not, in fact, vary in this way around the world; the effects on the human brain formation during puberty is directly linked to hormones changes. The effects of hormones have been studied and have a border understanding than how the direct actions of the sex chromosome gene; the mismatch timing between biological puberty and age of social maturity in western society has a psychological expectation on children. With puberty, men are hairier than women, Darwin was of the opinion that hairlessness was related to sexual selection.

This idea relates to that of the suggested need for increased photoprotection and is part of the most-commonly-accepted scientific explanation for the evolution of pigmentary traits. Indicating that a trait is under sexual selection can be difficult to prove through correlational methods, as characters may result from different selective pressures, some involving sexual selection, others natural selection, some may be accidental and due to pleiotropy. For example, monogamous primates are known to exhibit little sexual dimorphism such as large males armed with huge canines.

Let Her Cry (song)

"Let Her Cry" is a song by American rock band Hootie & the Blowfish. It was released in December 1994 as Cracked Rear View. In 2008, lead singer Darius Rucker stated that he had just listened to the song "She Talks to Angels" by The Black Crowes for the first time and was listening to a record by blues singer Bonnie Raitt and "in one stream of consciousness" wrote the lyrics to the song; the music video was directed by Adolfo Doring. The video was shot in a sepia tone and features the band singing the song intercut with a woman who runs around a city in the rain; the single went on to reach the number two position on the Billboard Pop Songs chart and number nine on the US Billboard Hot 100. It peaked at number four on the Australian Singles Chart; the song received the Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocals in 1996. Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics

The Long Patrol

The Long Patrol is a fantasy novel by Brian Jacques, published in 1997. It is the tenth book published and the twelfth chronologically in the Redwall series, it was a New York Times bestseller. Tamello De Fformelo Tussock, a young hare who lives at Camp Tussock, longs to be part of the Long Patrol at Salamandastron. However, his father, Cornspurrey De Fformelo Tussock, will not hear of it, he believes. Against her husband's wishes, Tammo's mother, Mem Divinia, prepares for him to leave during the night with Russa Nodrey, a wandering squirrel, a friend of the family; the two set off to find the Long Patrol. Along the way, they encounter the ferrets Gromal, they do meet up with the Long Patrol, but Russa is killed saving a baby badger, named Russano by one of the hares, Rockjaw Grang, in Russa's honour. Meanwhile, Gormad Tunn, the rat leader of the Rapscallion army has been dying from mortal wounds; the Rapscallions are in fear of the ruler of Salamandastron. Tunn's two sons, Byral Fleetclaw and Damug Warfang, fight to the death to determine who will be the new commander of the Rapscallions.

Damug kills Byral through treachery and takes over control of the army, which he commands to move inland. At Redwall Abbey, the inhabitants discover that the south wall is mysteriously sinking into the ground. Foremole Diggum and his crew re-build it. During the night, a storm brings a tree down on the wall, making the moles' job easier but leaving the Abbey open to attack; the broken wall reveals a well. Abbess Tansy, Friar Butty, Shad the Gatekeeper and Craklyn the Recorder investigate below. After a harrowing journey, they find the treasure of Verdauga Greeneyes, the long-dead lord of Kotir; the Long Patrol goes to Redwall. At the abbey, the spirit of Martin the Warrior appears to Tammo, instructing him to go in the company of the hare Midge Manycoats to Damug's camp. Disguised as a vermin seer, Midge advises Damug not to attack the vulnerable abbey directly, but suggests an alternate place and time instead, buying the defenders precious time to prepare themselves; when the hare Rockjaw Grang is killed by the Rapscallions, Cregga's dreams direct her to the ridge where Midge has directed the battle to occur.

Meanwhile, the Redwallers have gathered all the allies they can find, with the Long Patrol, they battle a losing effort against the rat hordes. At a crucial point in the battle when it seems Damug might win, Lady Cregga Rose Eyes appears with the rest of the Salamandastron hares, she seizes Damug and strangles him. The hares and Redwallers are victorious, the treasure brought back from Kotir by the Friar Butty is melted down into medals for the creatures that fought in battle; the ridge is named The Ridge of a Thousand after the vermin horde that lost all thousand of their number. In the end, Tammo marries the beautiful Pasque Valerian, the healer of the Long Patrol, travels to Salamandastron. Cregga remains at Redwall Abbey as the new Badger Mother, Russano on, journeys to Salamandastron, with Russa's hardwood stick as his weapon, he will turn out to be one of the only Badger Lords never to be possessed by the Bloodwrath. Tamello De Fformelo Tussock Cornspurrey De Fformelo Tussock Mem Divinia Russa Nodrey Russano the Wise Long Patrol Major Périgord Habile Sinistra Captain Twayblade Sinistra Pasque Valerian Rockjaw Grang Midge Manycoats Drill Sergeant Clubrush Galloper Riffle Swiftback Galloper Algador Swiftback Lance Corporal Ellbrig Shangle Widepad Sergeant Torgoch Lieutenant Morio Corporal Rubbadub Colonel Eyebright Tare and Turry Trowbaggs Deodar Furgale Reeve Starbuck Cheeva Gormad Tunn Byral Fleetclaw Damug Warfang Arven Cregga Rose Eyes Foremole Diggum Abbess Tansy Friar Butty Shad the Gatekeeper Craklyn the Recorder Book 1: The Runaway Recruit Book 2: A Gathering of Warriors Book 3: The Ridge Jänisten kaukopartio Rougemuraille: La Patrouille Tome 1: La Fugue de Tammo Tome 2: Les Pièges de Mousseray Tome 3: Sous les remparts de Rougemuraille Tome 4: La Crête des mille La Pattuglia Delle Dune Långa Patrullen "Дозорный отряд"