Magnus Hirschfeld was a German physician and sexologist educated in Germany. An outspoken advocate for sexual minorities, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee. Historian Dustin Goltz characterized this group as having carried out "the first advocacy for homosexual and transgender rights". Hirschfeld was born in Kolberg, in an Ashkenazi Jewish family, the son of a regarded physician and Senior Medical Officer Hermann Hirschfeld. In 1887–1888, he studied philosophy and philology in Breslau from 1888 to 1892 medicine in Strasbourg, Munich and Berlin. In 1892, he earned his doctoral degree. After his studies, he traveled through the United States for eight months, visiting the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, living from the proceeds of his writing for German journals. During his time in Chicago, Hirschfeld became involved with the homosexual sub-culture in that city. Struck by the essential similarities between the homosexual sub-cultures of Chicago and Berlin, Hirschfeld first developed his theory about the universality of homosexuality across the world, as he researched in books and newspaper articles about the existence of gay sub-cultures in Rio de Janeiro and Tokyo.
He started a naturopathic practice in Magdeburg. Hirschfeld first became interested in gay rights when he noticed that many of his gay patients were committing suicide. In the German language, the word for suicide is Selbstmord, which carried more judgemental and condemnatory connotations than its English language equivalent, making the subject of suicide a taboo in 19th century Germany. In particular, Hirschfeld mentioned as a reason for his gay rights activism, the story of one of his patients: a young Army officer suffering from depression, who killed himself in 1896, leaving behind a suicide note saying, despite his best efforts, he could not end his desires for other men, so had ended his life out of his guilt and shame. In his suicide note, the officer wrote that he lacked the "strength" to tell his parents the "truth", spoke of his shame of "that which nearly strangled my heart"; the officer could not bring himself to use the word "homosexuality", instead conspicuously referred to as "that" in his note.
However, the officer mentioned at the end of his suicide note: "The thought that you could contribute a future when the German fatherland will think of us in more just terms sweetens the hour of my death". Hirschfeld had been treating the officer for depression in 1895–96, the use of the term "us" led to speculation that a relationship existed between the two. However, the officer's use of Sie, the formal German word for you, instead of the informal Du, suggests Hirschfeld's relationship with his patient was professional. At the same time, Hirschfeld was affected by the trial of Oscar Wilde, which he referred to in his writings. Hirschfeld was struck by the number of his gay patients who had Suizidalnarben, found himself trying to give his patients a reason to live. Magnus Hirschfeld found a balance between writing about his findings. Between 1 May-15 October 1896, the Grosse Berliner Gewerbeausstellung took place, which featured 9 "human zoos" where people from Germany's colonies in New Guinea and Africa were put on display for the visitors to gawk at.
Such exhibitions of colonial peoples were common at industrial fairs, after Qingdao, the Mariannas and Caroline islands became part of the German empire, Chinese and Micronesians all joined the Africans and New Guineans displayed in the "human zoos". Hirschfeld, keenly interested in sexuality in other cultures, visited the Grosse Berliner Gewerbeastellung and subsequently other exhibitions to inquire of the people in the "human zoos" via interpreters about the status of sexuality in their cultures, it was in 1896, after talking to the people displayed in the "human zoos" at the Grosse Berliner Gewerbeastellung, that Hirschfeld began writing what became his 1914 book Die Homosexualität des Mannes und des Weibes, an attempt to comprehensively survey homosexuality around the globe, as part of an effort to prove that homosexuality occurred in every culture. After several years as a general practitioner in Magdeburg, in 1896 he issued a pamphlet and Socrates, on homosexual love. In 1897, Hirschfeld founded the Scientific Humanitarian Committee with the publisher Max Spohr, the lawyer Eduard Oberg, the writer Franz Joseph von Bülow.
The group aimed to undertake research to defend the rights of homosexuals and to repeal Paragraph 175, the section of the German penal code that, since 1871, had criminalized homosexuality. They argued; the motto of the Committee, "Justice through science", reflected Hirschfeld's belief that a better scientific understanding of homosexuality would eliminate social hostility toward homosexuals. Within the group, some of the members rejected Hirschfeld's view that male homosexuals are, by nature, effeminate. Benedict Friedlaender and some others left the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee and formed another group, the "Bund für männliche Kultur" or Union for Male Culture, which did not exist long, it argued. Under Hirschfeld's leadership, the Scientific-Humanitarian Committee gathered over 5000 signatures from prominent Germans on a petition to overturn Paragraph 175. Signatories included
Polygamy is the practice of marrying multiple spouses. When a man is married to more than one wife at a time, sociologists call this polygyny; when a woman is married to more than one husband at a time, it is called polyandry. If a marriage includes multiple husbands and wives, it can be called a group marriage or mixed-orientation marriage. In contrast, monogamy is marriage consisting of only two parties. Like "monogamy", the term "polygamy" is used in a de facto sense, applied regardless of whether the state recognizes the relationship. In sociobiology and zoology, researchers use polygamy in a broad sense to mean any form of multiple mating. Worldwide, different societies variously encourage, outlaw polygamy. Of societies which allow or tolerate polygamy, in the vast majority of cases the form accepted is polygyny. According to the Ethnographic Atlas, of 1,231 societies noted, 588 had frequent polygyny, 453 had occasional polygyny, 186 were monogamous and 4 had polyandry. From a religious point of view, "The bible shows over 36 named men who had more than one wife."
In cultures which practice polygamy, its prevalence among that population is connected to class and socioeconomic status. From a legal point of view, in many countries, although marriage is monogamous, adultery is not illegal, leading to a situation of de facto polygamy being allowed, although without legal recognition for non-official "spouses". According to scientific studies, the human mating system is considered to be monogamous, with cultural practice of polygamy to be in the minority, based on both surveys of world populations, on characteristics of human reproductive physiology. Polygamy exists in three specific forms: Polygyny, wherein a man has multiple simultaneous wives Polyandry, wherein a woman has multiple simultaneous husbands Group marriage, wherein the family unit consists of multiple husbands and multiple wives of legal age Polygyny, the practice wherein a man has more than one wife at the same time, is by far the most common form of polygamy. Many Muslim-majority countries and some countries with a sizeable Muslim minority accept polygyny and culturally to varying extents.
Polygyny is more widespread in Africa than in any other continent in West Africa, some scholars see the slave trade's impact on the male-to-female sex ratio as a key factor in the emergence and fortification of polygynous practices in regions of Africa. Anthropologist Jack Goody's comparative study of marriage around the world utilizing the Ethnographic Atlas demonstrated an historical correlation between the practice of extensive shifting horticulture and polygamy in the majority of sub-Saharan African societies. Drawing on the work of Ester Boserup, Goody notes that the sexual division of labour varies between the male-dominated intensive plough-agriculture common in Eurasia and the extensive shifting horticulture found in sub-Saharan Africa. In some of the sparsely-populated regions where shifting cultivation takes place in Africa, women do much of the work; this favours polygamous marriages in which men seek to monopolize the production of women "who are valued both as workers and as child bearers".
Goody, observes that the correlation is imperfect and varied, discusses more traditionally male-dominated though extensive farming systems such as those that exist in much of West Africa in the West African savanna, where polygyny is desired by men more for the generation of male offspring, whose labor is valued. Anthropologists Douglas R. White and Michael L. Burton discuss and support Jack Goody's observation regarding African male farming systems in "Causes of Polygyny: Ecology, Economy and Warfare" where these authors note: Goody argues against the female contributions hypothesis, he notes Dorjahn's comparison of East and West Africa, showing higher female agricultural contributions in East Africa and higher polygyny rates in West Africa the West African savanna, where one finds high male agricultural contributions. Goody says, "The reasons behind polygyny are sexual and reproductive rather than economic and productive", arguing that men marry polygynously to maximize their fertility and to obtain large households containing many young dependent males.
Polygynous marriages fall into two types: sororal polygyny, in which the co-wives are sisters, non-sororal, where the co-wives are not related. Polygyny offers husbands the benefit of allowing them to have more children, may provide them with a larger number of productive workers, allows them to establish politically useful ties with a greater number of kin groups. Senior wives can benefit as well when the addition of junior wives to the family lightens their workload. Wives' senior wives', status in a community can increase through the addition of other wives, who add to the family's prosperity or symbolize conspicuous consumption. For such reasons, senior wives sometimes work hard or contribute from their own resources to enable their husbands to accumulate the bride price for an extra wife. Polygyny may result from the practice of levirate marriage. In such cases, the deceased man's heir may inherit his assets and wife; this provides support for the widow and her children and maintains t
Bear (gay culture)
In male gay culture, a bear is a larger or obese hairier man who projects an image of rugged masculinity. Bears are one of many LGBT communities with events, a culture-specific identity. However, in San Francisco in the 1970s any hairy man of whatever shape was referred to as a'bear' until the term was appropriated by larger men and other words had to be used to describe hairy other-shaped men such as otter, cub, or wolf; the word manatee describes a hairless man, i.e. a bear without hair. The term bear was popularized by Richard Bulger, along with his partner Chris Nelson founded Bear Magazine in 1987. There is some contention surrounding whether Bulger originated the term and the subculture's conventions. George Mazzei wrote an article for The Advocate in 1979 called "Who's Who in the Zoo?", that characterized gay men as seven types of animals, including bears. The bear concept can function as an identity or an affiliation, there is ongoing debate in bear communities about what constitutes a bear.
Some bears place importance on presenting a clear masculine image and may disdain or shun men who exhibit effeminacy, while others consider acceptance and inclusiveness of all behavioural types to be an important value of the community. The bear community consists of gay or bisexual men. However, as LGBT culture and modern slang has taken on a wider appeal in modern society, it is possible to call a hairy and burly straight man a bear, although they would not be part of the gay bear community. Transgender men and those who shun labels for gender and sexuality are included within bear communities. However, heterosexual men who have bearish physical traits and are affirming of their gay friends and family may be informally accorded "honorary" bear status. A smaller number of lesbians those portrayed as butch participate in bear culture, referring to themselves with the distinct label of ursula. In Europe after the so-called leather scene evolved from the merger of homosexual motorcyclists with other organizations in the 1970s, some associations of men preferred bearded and hairy men.
Thus, in the early 1980s, the group "Beards meeting Beards" was created in London. Analogous to this, Michael Zgonjanin and Henning Marburger founded the group "Bartmänner Köln" in 1984, which today is the oldest existing bear group in the world. Common to the initiators was the idea of creating a circle of friends for followers of hairy men, not subject to the constraints of the leather and fetish scene - their sometimes strict codes such as fetish orientation and rigid club structures. At the onset of the bear movement, some bears separated from the gay community at large, forming "bear clubs" to create social and sexual opportunities of their own. Many clubs are loosely organized social groups. Bear clubs sponsor large yearly events — "bear runs" or "bear gatherings" like the annual events such as Southern HiBearNation in Melbourne, Bear Pride and Bear Essentials in Sydney, Bearstock in Adelaide, HiBearNation in St. Louis, Missouri, SF Bear Weekend, CBL's Bear Hunt, Bear Pride in Chicago, Texas Bear Round Up in Dallas, Orlando Bear Bash, Summer Bear Week in Provincetown, drawing regional and international visitors.
Many LGBT events attract a significant bear following, such as Southern Decadence in New Orleans. A feature at many bear events is a "bear contest," a sort of masculine beauty pageant awarding titles and sashes to winners. One example of a bear contest was International Mr. Bear held each February at the International Bear Rendezvous in San Francisco, it attracted contestants with local titles, from all over the world. The first International Mr. Bear was held in 1992 and the last in 2011; the contest included Bear, Daddy and Grizzly titles with the contestant who receives the highest score winning the bear title, regardless of what type he is. Example: "Mr. Washington, D. C. Bear, 2006." Gay "leather-bears" have competed in leather contests, "muscle-bears" are another subculture noted by their muscular body mass. The bear community has spread all with bear clubs in many countries. Bear clubs serve as social and sexual networks for their members, who can contribute to their local gay communities through fund-raising and other functions.
Bear events have become common, to include smaller sized cities and many rural areas. Most gay oriented campgrounds now include some type of bear-related event during their operating season; the bear community constitutes a specialty niche in the commercial market. It offers T-shirts and other accessories as well as calendars and porn movies and magazines featuring bear icons, e.g. Jack Radcliffe. Catalina Video has a bear-themed line, the "Furry Features Series." Other adult studios who feature bear-type men are Bear Magazine, 100% BEEF Magazine, BearFilms, Butch Bear, Raging Stallion, Titan Media. There are social media websites and smartphone apps that market to men of the bear community; as the bear community has matured, so has its music and literature, as well as other arts and culture. Examples include a traveling bear music festival; the larger organized bear runs host a "bear market" area where ar
Leontine Sagan was an Austrian-Hungarian theatre director and actress of Jewish descent. She is best known for directing Mädchen in Uniform. Along with directing for both cinema and the stage, Sagan acted in multiple films throughout her lifetime, she died in Pretoria, South Africa in 1974, at the age of 85. Born in either Budapest or Vienna in 1889, Sagan trained with Max Reinhardt, best known for his elaborate and imaginative sets and theatrics. In 1899, as a child, she moved to South Africa with her family just before World War One, she was educated in a German-language school in Johannesburg. In her years, Sagan married publisher and writer Dr. Victor Fleischer. Sagan directed three films, she is best remembered for the first of two films she directed, Mädchen in Uniform. It has an all-female cast and was ground-breaking not only for its portrayal of lesbian and pedagogical eros, but for the production's co-operative and profit-sharing financial arrangements. Whether Sagan herself was a lesbian is unknown.
In her teenage years, she worked as a stage actress in Austria. Some films that Sagan appeared in include Der heilige Berg, Der grosse Sprung, Der Weisse Rausch, Die Nacht der Regisseure, it was not until 1931, when Sagan became involved behind the scenes, that she gained international attention after directing her most significant film Mädchen in Uniform. Following the debut of this film, Sagan moved to England. In England, she directed Men of Tomorrow and worked for the film director Alexander Korda at Korda’s Studios, she worked as a theatre producer in Manchester. She was the first female producer at London's Drury Lane, where she presided over a series of Ivor Novello's musicals in the West End: Glamorous Night, Careless Rapture, Crest of the Wave, The Dancing Years and Arc de Triomphe; the popularity of these shows is credited with saving Drury Lane from potential closure in the 1930s. Towards the end of her career, Sagan moved to South Africa and became an influential director in South African theatre, co-founded the National Theatre in Johannesburg.
In February 1948 she directed the NTO's first English production Dear Brutus by J. M. Barrie, followed by An Inspector Calls. Directed In Theatre Street for the East Rand Theatre Club in 1950. *Mädchen in Uniform Sagan’s most significant film featured an all-female cast. It was the first film in Germany to be produced cooperatively. Mädchen in Uniform is based on the play by Christa Winsloe, it was much censored until the 1970s. Eleanor Roosevelt is credited with helping to revoke its censorship in the US, it was released in its surviving form on video-tape, with English subtitles, in the US in 1994 and in the UK in 2000. The film centers on an all-girls boarding school, it examines various emotional and physical pressures caused by the authoritarian rule and militarism of the Prussian headmistress. It is thought to be an anti-fascist film. Many critics argue that the film is suggesting of feminist notions, since the women characters express their emotions and sexual orientations; the film is among the first to suggest lesbian themes.
Throughout Mädchen in Uniform, girls are depicted holding hands, shown dressing and undressing, in one scene two women are depicted kissing on the lips. The film’s main character Manuela, a 14-year-old girl, develops a crush on her teacher Fräulein von Bernburg, which affects her performance in her class and in the school's theatre production. Manuela has a public and drunken breakdown in which she confesses her love for Fräulein von Bernburg, after which she is sanctioned by the headmistress, but supported by her fellow students; the headmistress forbids Fräulein von Bernburg to speak to Manuela again. Manuela nearly is found and saved; the film was banned by the Nazis as'decadent', but it has left a significant mark on history for its female imagery and anti-militaristic themes. This film was influential at women’s film festivals in the 1970s. Lights and Shadows: The autobiography of Leontine Sagan, Johannesburg 1996 Michael Eckardt: Leontine Sagan. Licht und Schatten. Schauspielerin und Regisseurin auf vier Kontinenten.
Hentrich & Hentrich, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-941450-12-7. Acker, A.. Reel women: Pioneers of the cinema, 1896 to the present. New York: Continuum. Bernard Sachs. South African Personalities and Places. Kayor Publishers, Johannesburg, 1959. Excerpt Foster, Gwendolyn Audrey, Women Film Directors: An International Bio-Critical Dictionary, Greenwood Press, p. 322, ISBN 0-313-28972-7. Foster, G.. Women filmmakers & their films. Detroit: St. James Press. Lespress.de "vermutlich lesbische Regisseurin" Mädchen in Uniform.. Retrieved May 2, 2015, from http://www.filmreference.com/Films-Le-Ma/M-dchen-in-Uniform.html Leontine Sagan on IMDb Literature on Leontine Sagan
A nightclub, music club or club, is an entertainment venue and bar that operates late into the night. A nightclub is distinguished from regular bars, pubs or taverns by the inclusion of a stage for live music, one or more dance floor areas and a DJ booth, where a DJ plays recorded music; the upmarket nature of nightclubs can be seen in the inclusion of VIP areas in some nightclubs, for celebrities and their guests. Nightclubs are much more than pubs or sports bars to use bouncers to screen prospective clubgoers for entry; some nightclub bouncers do not admit people with informal clothing or gang apparel as part of a dress code. The busiest nights for a nightclub are Saturday night. Most clubs or club nights cater to certain music genres, such as hip hop. Many clubs have recurring club nights on different days of the week. Most club nights focus on a particular sound for branding effects. From about 1900 to 1920, working class Americans would gather at honky tonks or juke joints to dance to music played on a piano or a jukebox.
Webster Hall is credited as the first modern nightclub, being built in 1886 and starting off as a "social hall" functioning as a home for dance and political activism events. During Prohibition in the United States, nightclubs went underground as illegal speakeasy bars, with Webster Hall staying open, with rumors circulating of Al Capone's involvement and police bribery. With the repeal of Prohibition in February 1933, nightclubs were revived, such as New York's 21 Club, Copacabana, El Morocco, the Stork Club; these nightclubs featured big bands. In Germany, the first discothèque on record that involved a disc jockey was Scotch-Club, which opened in 1959. In Occupied France and bebop music, the jitterbug dance were banned by the Nazis as "decadent American influences", so as an act of resistance, people met at hidden basements called discothèques where they danced to jazz and swing music, played on a single turntable when a jukebox was not available; these discothèques were patronized by anti-Vichy youth called zazous.
There were underground discothèques in Nazi Germany patronized by anti-Nazi youth called the swing kids. In Harlem, Connie's Inn and the Cotton Club were popular venues for white audiences. Before 1953 and some years thereafter, most bars and nightclubs used a jukebox or live bands. In Paris, at a club named Whisky à Gogo, founded in 1947, Régine in 1953 laid down a dance-floor, suspended coloured lights and replaced the jukebox with two turntables that she operated herself so there would be no breaks between the music; the Whisky à Gogo set into place the standard elements of the modern post World War II discothèque-style nightclub. At the end of the 1950s, several of the coffee bars in Soho introduced afternoon dancing and the most famous was Les Enfants Terribles at 93 Dean St; these original discothèques were nothing like the night clubs, as they were unlicensed and catered to a young public—mostly made up of French and Italians working illegally in catering, to learn English as well as au pair girls from most of western Europe.
While the discothèque swept Europe throughout the 1960s, it did not reach the United States until the 1970s, where the first rock and roll generation preferred rough and tumble bars and taverns to nightclubs until the disco era. In the early 1960s, Mark Birley opened a members-only discothèque nightclub, Annabel's, in Berkeley Square, London. In 1962, the Peppermint Lounge in New York City became popular and is the place where go-go dancing originated. Sybil Burton opened the "Arthur" discothèque in 1965 on East 54th Street in Manhattan on the site of the old El Morocco nightclub and it became the first and hottest disco in New York City through 1969; the first large-scale discothèque in Germany opened in 1967 as the club Blow Up in Munich, which because of its extravagance and excesses gained international reputation. Disco has its roots in the underground club scene. During the early 1970s in New York City, disco clubs were places where oppressed or marginalized groups such as homosexuals, Latinos, Italian-Americans, Jews could party without following male to female dance protocol or exclusive club policies.
Discoteques had a law. This shifted the idea of this post-heterosexist community, as women could be seen as a kind of gateway for men to advance their own experience without fear of being arrested under the male-to-male dancing law; the women sought these experiences to seek safety in a venue that embraced the independent woman — with an eye to one or more of the same or opposite sex or none. Although the culture that surrounded disco was progressive in dance couples, cross-genre music, a push to put the physical over the rational, the role of female bodies looked to be placed in the role of safety net, it brought together people from different backgrounds. These clubs acted as safe havens for homosexual partygoers to dance in peace and away from public scrutiny. By the late 1970s many major U. S. cities had thriving disco club scenes centered on discothèques and private loft parties where DJs would play disco hits through powerful PA systems for the dancers. The DJs played "... a smooth mix of long single records to keep people'dancing all night long'".
Some of the most prestigious clubs had elaborate lighting systems that throbbed to the beat of the music. The genre of disco has changed through the years, it is classified both as a nightclub. This club culture that originated in downtown New York, was attended by a variety of different ethnicities and economic backgrounds, it was an inex
Adolf Brand was a German writer, egoist anarchist, pioneering campaigner for the acceptance of male bisexuality and homosexuality. Adolf Brand was born on 14 November 1874 in Germany, he became a school teacher before establishing a publishing firm and producing a German homosexual periodical, Der Eigene in 1896. This was the first ongoing homosexual publication in the world, ran until 1931; the name was taken from writings of egoist philosopher Max Stirner, who had influenced the young Brand, refers to Stirner's concept of "self-ownership" of the individual. Der Eigene concentrated on cultural and scholarly material, may have had an average of around 1500 subscribers per issue during its lifetime, although the exact numbers are uncertain. Contributors included Erich Mühsam, Kurt Hiller, John Henry Mackay and artists Wilhelm von Gloeden and Sascha Schneider. Brand contributed many articles himself. Brand's writings, together with those of other contributors to Der Eigene, aimed at a revival of Greek pederasty as a cultural model for modern homosexuality.
In 1899/1900 Brand published Elisar von Kupffer's influential anthology of homoerotic literature, Lieblingminne und Freundesliebe in der Weltliteratur. The work was reprinted in 1995. In 1899, he was sentenced to a year in prison for publicly striking Ernst Lieber, a Reichstag delegate and head of the Catholic Church-linked Center Party, with a dog whip. Brand became involved in Magnus Hirschfeld's Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, until there was a split in 1903. To this new group, male-male love, in particular that of an older man for a youth, was viewed as a simple aspect of virile manliness available to all men; the GdE was a sort of scouting movement that echoed the warrior creed of Sparta and the ideals of pederasty in Ancient Greece, the ideas on pedagogic eros of Gustav Wyneken. The GdE was involved with camping and trekking and practised nudism – the latter common as part of the Nacktkultur sweeping Germany. In the 1920s this would develop into the Freikörperkultur under Adolf Koch.
The GdE was similar to other such groups in Germany at the time, such as the Wandervogel. Wilhelm Jansen, co-founder of the Gemeinschaft der Eigenen, was one of the chief financial supporters of the Wandervogel and a leader in it; the writings and theories of the romantic anarchist John Henry Mackay had a significant influence on the GdE from 1906. Mackay had lived in Berlin for a decade and had become a friend of Friedlaender, who did not share the anarchist leanings of Brand and Mackay, favoring instead the thinking on'natural rights' and land reform current in Germany. Long before the advent of the term, Brand was a proponent of "outing" politicians who publicly proclaimed anti-gay positions while practicing homosexuality. In 1904, he claimed in print that Friedrich Dasbach, a Center Party Reichstag delegate, consorted with male prostitutes. Dasbach threatened to sue Brand for libel. In 1907, Brand claimed in print that German chancellor Prince von Bülow had a long-standing homosexual relationship with Privy Councilor Max Scheefer.
This time Brand was brought to court on libel charges and was sentenced to eighteen months in prison. In a justification for outing, Brand stated: "When someone... would like to set in the most damaging way the intimate love contact of others... at that moment his own love life ceases to be a private matter." Brand was sentenced to two months in prison in 1905 for publishing "lewd writings" in Der Eigene. During World War I Brand and the GdE curtailed their activities for the duration. After the war the enforcement of Paragraph 175 declined; the GdE and other groups formed a united'action committee' with Magnus Hirschfeld's group, to formulate a new law. In 1925 more groups joined and the larger Cartel for Reform of the Law against Sexual Offenses was formed. Despite a new law being drafted, it was not voted on, by 1929 there was no further chance to reform Paragraph 175. Adolf Brand gave up homosexual activism in the early 1930s, after constant harassment from the Nazis who silenced Der Eigene, destroyed his life's work and left him in financial ruin.
After the sacking and burning of the Institut für Sexualwissenschaft, he sent a public letter to his followers announcing the end of the movement. He and his wife were killed by an Allied bomb on 2 February 1945, he was 70 years old. James D. Steakley; the Early Homosexual Emancipation Movement in Germany. John Lauritsen and David Thorstad; the Early Homosexual Rights Movement, 1864–1935. Günter Grau. Hidden Holocaust? Gay and Lesbian Persecution in Germany 1933–45. Mark Blasius & Shane Phelan We Are Everywhere: A Historical Source Book of Gay and Lesbian Politics.. Harry Oosterhuis Homosexuality and Male Bonding in Pre-Nazi Germany: The Youth Movement, the Gay Movement, Male Bonding Before Hitler’s Rise. Original Transcripts from "Der Eigene", the First Gay Journal in the World J. S. Hohmann, ed. Der Eigene. Das Beste aus der ersten Homosex