Sexuality in Japan developed separately from that of mainland Asia, as Japan did not adopt the Confucian view of marriage, in which chastity is valued. Monogamy in marriage is less important in Japan, married men seek pleasure from courtesans. Prostitution in Japan has a long history, became popular during the Japanese economic miracle, as evening entertainments were tax-deductible. Decreased sex drive in the 21st century has been blamed for the low Japanese birth rate and declining growth of the Japanese population. Pornography in Japan may have begun as early as the Edo period as erotic artwork referred to as shunga, done on woodblock prints. Between the 1920s and'30s in Japan there was a literary and artistic movement known as ero guro which focused on eroticism, sexual corruption and decadence. Softcore pornographic theatrical films known as pink films dominated the domestic cinema in Japan from the mid-1960s through the mid-1980s. In contemporary times Japanese pornography has gained a worldwide following and is translated and exported to other cultures because of its large spectrum of themes and media.
Pornography in Japan has in recent times expanded into new mediums such as manga and video games in addition to the more common film and historic mediums. Most shunga are a type of the main artistic genre of woodblock printing in Japan. Although scarce, there are however extant erotic painted handscrolls which predate the Ukiyo-e movement. Translated the Japanese word shunga means picture of spring; the ukiyo-e movement as a whole sought to express an idealisation of contemporary urban life and appeal to the new chōnin class. Following the aesthetics of everyday life, Edo period shunga varied in its depictions of sexuality. In the Edo period it was enjoyed by rich and poor and women, despite being out of favour with the shogunate. All ukiyo-e artists made shunga at some point in their careers, it did not detract from their prestige as artists. Classifying shunga as a kind of medieval pornography can be misleading in this respect. In the years since the end of World War II, eroticism has made its way into Japanese cinema.
The first kiss to be seen in Japanese film—discreetly half-hidden by an umbrella—caused a national sensation in 1946. Foreign films throughout the 1950s introduced female nudity into international cinema and were imported to Japan without problem; until the early 1960s, graphic depictions of nudity and sex in Japanese film could only be seen in single-reel "stag films," made illegally by underground film producers such as those depicted in Imamura's film The Pornographers. Mainstream pornography did not arrive in Japan until the advent of Pink film. Pink film was theatrical film which featured soft core, suggestive themes and full-on nudity and sexual acts; the first wave of the Pink film in Japan was contemporary with the similar U. S. sexploitation film genres, the "nudie-cuties" and "roughies". Nudity and sex entered Japanese cinema with Satoru Kobayashi's controversial and popular independent production Flesh Market, considered the first true pink film. In the 1970s, some of Japan's major studios, facing the loss of their theatrical audience, took over the pink film.
With their access to higher production-values and talent, some of these films became critical and popular successes. When ownership of VCRs first became widespread in the early 1980s, AVs made their appearance and became popular; as early as 1982 the AVs had attained an equal share of the adult entertainment market with theatrical erotic films. Since the market for pink films has decreased tremendously and a majority of Japanese seeking pornography go to AVs. Although the pink film genre has declined since the advent of AVs on VCR the genre is significant in that it paved the way for true pornography in Japan as well as for multiple other genres of Japanese pornographic film including: hamedori and Japanese bondage. Other Japanese pornography genres include: group sex and fetishes. Lotion play is a popular element in Japanese pornography; the genre of erotica known to the West as hentai was invented in Japan. The word "hentai" has a negative connotation in Japanese and means "sexually perverted", with those in Japan more referring to hentai as "seijin" or "adult" manga/anime.
The adult manga/anime medium carries its own distinct subgenres as well. Futanari or sexual attraction to androgynous people is an extensive subgenre of seijin manga. Bakunyū is the subgenre that features females with large breasts. In Japan lolicon refers to an attraction to underage girls. Outside Japan lolicon refers to the genre of seijin manga wherein childlike female characters are depicted in an erotic manner. Lolicon's male equivalent, shotacon is used in the West to refer to the genre of manga and anime in which pre-pubescent or pubescent male characters are depicted in a suggestive or erotic manner. Japanese pornography has gained a worldwide following and is translated and exported to other cultures because of its large spectrum of themes and media. However, critics state that the lolicon genre of seijin manga, wherein childlike females are depicted in an erotic way, contributes to sexual abuse of children. Several countries have attempted to criminalize lolicon's sexually explicit forms as a type of child pornography, Canada
A'arab Zaraq – Lucid Dreaming is the sixth full-length musical album by Swedish heavy metal band Therion released in the year that the band celebrated their tenth anniversary. The record contains a few unused songs from Theli, a few cover songs the band had made, plus a full soundtrack Christofer Johnsson had made independently for the film called The Golden Embrace. "In Remembrance" – 6:28 "Black Fairy" – 5:56 "Fly to the Rainbow" – 8:14 "Children of the Damned" – 4:30 "Under Jolly Roger" – 4:36 "Symphony of the Dead" – 3:39 "Here Comes the Tears" – 3:21Therion modified versions of soundtrack to The Golden Embrace: "Enter Transcendental Sleep" – 4:22 "The Quiet Desert" – 3:52 "Down the Qliphothic Tunnel" – 2:53 "Up to Netzach / Floating Back" – 4:08"The Golden Embrace" soundtrack: "The Fall Into Eclipse" – 3:44 "Enter Transcendental Sleep II" – 3:51 "The Gates to A'Arab Zaraq Are Open" – 1:25 "The Quiet Desert II" – 3:51 "Down the Qliphothic Tunnel II" – 2:53 "Up to Netzach II" – 2:53 "Floating Back II" – 0:49 Christofer Johnsson – guitar, bass guitar, Hammond organ, grand piano Piotr Wawrzeniuk – drums, Vocals Jonas Mellberg – guitar, keyboards Lars Rosenberg – bass guitar Dan Swanö – vocals Tobias Sidegard – vocals Peter Tägtgren – second and fourth lead guitar Gottfried Koch – acoustic guitar, grand piano Bettina Stumm – soprano Raphaela Mayhaus – soprano Marie-Therese Kubel – alto Ergin Onat – tenor Klaus Bulow – bass Joachim Gebhardt – bass Art, design and layout are made by Peter Grøn.
"19 Somethin'" is a song written by David Lee and Chris DuBois, recorded by American country music singer Mark Wills. It was released in September 2002 as the first single from his Greatest Hits compilation album; the song spent six weeks at number one on the Hot Country Songs chart in early 2003. It reached number 23 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart and was the longest-lasting of Wills's Number One hits; the song would go on to become the number two country song of the Decade on Billboard's Hot Country Songs Chart. The song begins with singer's reminiscence of the 1970s and 1980s. In the first verse and chorus, various 1970s-related bits of pop culture are referenced, such as Farrah Fawcett, eight track, Stretch Armstrong; the first chorus begins with the line "It was 1970-somethin' / In the world that I grew up in". Verse two references 1980s pop culture, such as the Rubik's Cube, black Pontiac Trans Ams and MTV; the second chorus begins with "It was 1980-somethin'". In the song's bridge, the singer expresses his desire to escape to his childhood years.
An uncredited article in the Charlotte Observer said that the success of "19 Somethin'" was "doubly great" because it was a number-one single, because it was an up-tempo, in comparison to the ballads that Wills had hits with earlier in his career, such as "Don't Laugh at Me" and "Wish You Were Here". "19 Somethin'" was nominated for Single of the Year at the 38th annual Academy of Country Music awards in May 2003. "19 Somethin'" debuted at number 56 on the U. S. Billboard Hot Country Singles & Tracks for the week of October 5, 2002, it was his second number one, the first being "Wish You Were Here" in late 1999. According to liner notes. Tim Akers – keyboards J. T. Corenflos – electric guitar Eric Darken – percussion Aubrey Haynie – fiddle Wes Hightower – background vocals Jimmie Lee Sloas – bass guitar Biff Watson – acoustic guitar Mark Wills – lead vocals Lonnie Wilson – drums Country music parodist Cledus T. Judd parodied the song as "270 Somethin'" on his 2003 EP A Six Pack of Judd. Judd's parody tells of an obese person.
Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
In computing, a hash table is a data structure that implements an associative array abstract data type, a structure that can map keys to values. A hash table uses a hash function to compute an index called a hash code, into an array of buckets or slots, from which the desired value can be found. Ideally, the hash function will assign each key to a unique bucket, but most hash table designs employ an imperfect hash function, which might cause hash collisions where the hash function generates the same index for more than one key; such collisions are always accommodated in some way. In a well-dimensioned hash table, the average cost for each lookup is independent of the number of elements stored in the table. Many hash table designs allow arbitrary insertions and deletions of key-value pairs, at constant average cost per operation. In many situations, hash tables turn out to be on average more efficient than search trees or any other table lookup structure. For this reason, they are used in many kinds of computer software for associative arrays, database indexing and sets.
The idea of hashing is to distribute the entries across an array of buckets. Given a key, the algorithm computes an index that suggests where the entry can be found: index = f Often this is done in two steps: hash = hashfunc index = hash % array_size In this method, the hash is independent of the array size, it is reduced to an index using the modulo operator. In the case that the array size is a power of two, the remainder operation is reduced to masking, which improves speed, but can increase problems with a poor hash function. A basic requirement is. A non-uniform distribution increases the number of the cost of resolving them. Uniformity is sometimes difficult to ensure by design, but may be evaluated empirically using statistical tests, e.g. a Pearson's chi-squared test for discrete uniform distributions. The distribution needs to be uniform only for table sizes. In particular, if one uses dynamic resizing with exact doubling and halving of the table size the hash function needs to be uniform only when the size is a power of two.
Here the index can be computed as some range of bits of the hash function. On the other hand, some hashing algorithms prefer to have the size be a prime number; the modulus operation may provide some additional mixing. For open addressing schemes, the hash function should avoid clustering, the mapping of two or more keys to consecutive slots; such clustering may cause the lookup cost to skyrocket if the load factor is low and collisions are infrequent. The popular multiplicative hash is claimed to have poor clustering behavior. Cryptographic hash functions are believed to provide good hash functions for any table size, either by modulo reduction or by bit masking, they may be appropriate if there is a risk of malicious users trying to sabotage a network service by submitting requests designed to generate a large number of collisions in the server's hash tables. However, the risk of sabotage can be avoided by cheaper methods. A drawback of cryptographic hashing functions is that they are slower to compute, which means that in cases where the uniformity for any size is not necessary, a non-cryptographic hashing function might be preferable.
If all keys are known ahead of time, a perfect hash function can be used to create a perfect hash table that has no collisions. If minimal perfect hashing is used, every location in the hash table can be used as well. Perfect hashing allows for constant time lookups in all cases; this is in contrast to most chaining and open addressing methods, where the time for lookup is low on average, but may be large, O, for instance when all the keys hash to a few values. A critical statistic for a hash table is the load factor, defined as load factor = n k, where n is the number of entries occupied in the hash table. K is the number of buckets; as the load factor grows larger, the hash table becomes slower, it may fail to work. The expected constant time property of a hash table assumes that the load factor be kept below some bound. For a fixed number of buckets, the time for a lookup grows with the number of entries, therefore the desired constant time is not achieved. In some implementations, the solution is to automatically grow the size of the table when the load factor bound is reached, thus forcing to re-hash all entries.
As a real-world example, the default load factor for a HashMap in Java 10 is 0.75, which "offers a good trade-off between time and space costs."Second to the load factor, one can examine the variance of number of entries per bucket. For example, two tables both have 1,000 buckets; the hashing is not working in the second one. A low load factor is not beneficial; as the load factor approaches 0, the proportion of unused areas in the hash table increases, but there is not any reduction in search cost. This results in wasted memory. Hash collisions are unavoidable when hashing a random subset of a large set of possible keys. For example, if 2,450 keys are hashed into a million buckets with a uniform random distribution, according to the birt
Mary Whiteford is an American politician from Michigan. Whiteford is a Republican member of Michigan House of Representatives from District 80. In 1986, Whiteford earned a BS degree in Registered Nursing from Northern Illinois University. In 1986, Whiteford started her career as a staff nurse at Children's Memorial Medical Center. Whiteford left the medical center in 1999. In 1997, Whiteford became a co-owner of Whiteford Wealth Management. After the removal of Cindy Gamrat, the seat for District 80 was vacated. On November 3, 2015, Whiteford won the special primary election. On March 8, 2016, Whiteford won the special general election and became a Republican member of Michigan House of Representatives for District 80. Whiteford defeated Arnie Davidsons with 64.0 % of the votes. On November 6, 2018, Whiteford won the election and continued serving District 80. Whiteford defeated Mark Ludwig with 63.65% of the votes. Whiteford's husband is Kevin, they have 3 children. Whiteford and her family live in Michigan.
2014 Michigan House of Representatives election 2016 Michigan House of Representatives election 2018 Michigan House of Representatives election Mary Whiteford at ballotpedia.org Lt. Gov Brian Calley announces election dates to fill seats
This is a list of episodes from the eighth season of Happy Days. Henry Winkler as Arthur "Fonzie" Fonzarelli Marion Ross as Marion Cunningham Anson Williams as Warren "Potsie" Weber Erin Moran as Joanie Cunningham Al Molinaro as Alfred "Al" Delvecchio Scott Baio as Chachi Arcola Lynda Goodfriend as Lori Beth Allen Tom Bosley as Howard Cunningham Cathy Silvers as Jenny Piccalo Ted McGinley as Roger Phillips Ellen Travolta as Louisa Arcola Denis Mandel as Eugene Belvin Harris Kal as Bobby Kevin Sullivan as Tommy The season aired Tuesdays at 8:00-8:30 pm