Sexually transmitted infections referred to as sexually transmitted diseases, are infections that are spread by sexual activity vaginal intercourse, anal sex and oral sex. Many times STIs do not cause symptoms; this results in a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. Symptoms and signs of disease may include vaginal discharge, penile discharge, ulcers on or around the genitals, pelvic pain. STIs can be transmitted to an infant before or during childbirth and may result in poor outcomes for the baby; some STIs may cause problems with the ability to get pregnant. More than 30 different bacteria and parasites can be transmitted through sexual activity. Bacterial STIs include chlamydia and syphilis. Viral STIs include genital herpes, HIV/AIDS, genital warts. Parasitic STIs include trichomoniasis. While spread by sex, some STIs can be spread by non-sexual contact with donor tissue, breastfeeding, or during childbirth. STI diagnostic tests are easily available in the developed world, but this is not the case in the developing world.
The most effective way of preventing STIs is by not having sex. Some vaccinations may decrease the risk of certain infections including hepatitis B and some types of HPV. Safer sex practices such as use of condoms, having a smaller number of sexual partners, being in a relationship where each person only has sex with the other decreases the risk. Circumcision in adult males may be effective to prevent some infections. During school, comprehensive sex education may be useful. Most STIs are curable. Of the most common infections, gonorrhea and trichomoniasis are curable, while herpes, hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS, HPV are treatable but not curable. Resistance to certain antibiotics is developing among some organisms such as gonorrhea. In 2015, about 1.1 billion people had STIs other than HIV/AIDS. About 500 million were infected with either syphilis, chlamydia or trichomoniasis. At least an additional 530 million people have genital herpes and 290 million women have human papillomavirus. STIs other than HIV resulted in 108,000 deaths in 2015.
In the United States there were 19 million new cases of sexually transmitted infections in 2010. Historical documentation of STIs date back to at least the Ebers papyrus around 1550 BC and the Old Testament. There is shame and stigma associated with these infections; the term sexually transmitted infection is preferred over sexually transmitted disease or venereal disease, as it includes those who do not have symptomatic disease. Not all STIs are symptomatic, symptoms may not appear after infection. In some instances a disease can be carried with no symptoms, which leaves a greater risk of passing the disease on to others. Depending on the disease, some untreated STIs can lead to chronic pain or death; the presence of an STI in prepubescent children may indicate sexual abuse. A sexually transmitted infection present in a pregnant woman may be passed on to the infant before or after birth. Chancroid Chlamydia Gonorrhea, colloquially known as "the clap" Granuloma inguinale or Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma hominis Syphilis Ureaplasma infection Candidiasis Viral hepatitis —saliva, venereal fluids.
Herpes simplex skin and mucosal, transmissible with or without visible blisters HIV —venereal fluids, breast milk, blood HPV —skin and mucosal contact.'High risk' types of HPV cause all cervical cancers, as well as some anal and vulvar cancer. Some other types of HPV cause genital warts. Molluscum contagiosum —close contact Crab louse, colloquially known as "crabs" or "pubic lice" The infestation and accompanying inflammation is Pediculosis pubis Scabies Trichomoniasis, colloquially known as "trich" Sexually transmitted infections include: Chlamydia is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis. In women, symptoms may include abnormal vaginal discharge, burning during urination, bleeding in between periods, although most women do not experience any symptoms. Symptoms in men include pain when urinating, abnormal discharge from their penis. If left untreated in both men and women, Chlamydia can infect the urinary tract and lead to pelvic inflammatory disease.
PID can cause serious problems during pregnancy and has the potential to cause infertility. It can cause a woman to have a deadly ectopic pregnancy, in which the egg implants outside of the uterus. However, Chlamydia can be cured with antibiotics; the two most common forms of herpes are caused by infection with herpes simplex virus. HSV-1 is acquired orally and causes cold sores, HSV-2 is acquired during sexual contact and affects the genitals, however either strain may affect either site; some people are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Those that do experience symptoms notice them 2 to 20 days after exposure which last 2 to 4 weeks. Symptoms can include small fluid-filled blisters, backaches, itching or tingling sensations in the genital or anal area, pain during urination, Flu like symptoms, swollen glands, or fever. Herpes is spread through skin co
Woodland Township is one of twenty-six townships in Fulton County, Illinois, USA. As of the 2010 census, its population was 415 and it contained 195 housing units. According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 38.19 square miles, of which 37.96 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles is water. Beaty at 40.275044°N 90.245955°W / 40.275044. U. S. Route 24 Illinois Route 100 Curless Airport Izaac Walton Park-private property Astoria Community Unit School District 1 Lewistown School District 97 Illinois' 17th congressional district State House District 94 State Senate District 47 "Woodland Township, Fulton County, Illinois". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2010-01-16. United States Census Bureau 2007 TIGER/Line Shapefiles United States National Atlas City-Data.com Illinois State Archives
The Restionaceae called restiads and restios, are a family of annual or perennial rush-like flowering plants native to the Southern Hemisphere. Following the APG IV: the family now includes the former families Anarthriaceae and Lyginiaceae, as such includes 51 genera with 572 known species. Based on evidence from fossil pollens, the Restionaceae originated more than 65 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous period, when the southern continents were still part of Gondwana; the family consists of tufted or rhizomatous, herbaceous plants, rush-like or bamboo-like in overall appearance. They belong to a group of monocotyledons that includes several similar families, such as the sedges and true grasses, they have green, photosynthetic leaves that have been reduced to sheaths. Their flowers are small and in spikelets, which in turn make up the inflorescences. Male and female flowers are on separate plants and, like grasses, are wind-pollinated. Plants in the family are distributed on all the southern continents - South America, Africa south of the Equator and including Madagascar and Australia - in New Zealand and distributed in Southeast Asia.
They are dominant elements of the flora in the Mediterranean climates of South Africa and Western Australia. They are the defining family in the Western Cape fynbos plant community; the South American species is similar to one of the New Zealand species, leading to the conjecture that it might have crossed the Pacific in the last 30 million years. The distribution of restios in Africa is irregular, with the same single species occurring in Madagascar, the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Malawi, while a different species is found in the Chimanimani Mountains of eastern Zimbabwe. Four species are found in the Natal Drakensberg, one of which spills over into Mpumalanga and Limpopo provinces; the vast majority of species, are to be found in the Cape Floristic Region and plentiful on hard sandstone formations. The center of diversity lies in the Kogelberg, where more than a third of all Restionaceae may be found. Restionacea can be found in Cape Town's National Botanical Gardens. A number of the largest African species have become popular as garden ornamentals in many parts of the world, some being useful as accent plants similar to small species of bamboo, but with pendant stems of greater delicacy.
Many smaller species offer a great variety of decorative features and deserve horticultural attention. The Restionaceae family has been recognized by most taxonomists; the AP-Website assumes 520 species, which agrees well with the Flora of China. The APG II system of 2003, recognizes this family and assigns it to the order Poales, in the clade commelinids of the monocots; the Cronquist system of 1981 recognized this family and placed it in the order Restionales, in the subclass Commelinidae in class Liliopsida in division Magnoliophyta. The genera in the Restionaceae are: Alexgeorgea, Anthochortus, Apodasmia, Baloskion, Cannomois, Ceratocaryum, Chordifex, Dapsilanthus, Dielsia, Empodisma, Gaimardia, Hopkinsia, Hypodiscus, Lepidobolus, Lepyrodia, Lyginia, Meeboldina, Nevillea, Platycaulos, Rhodocoma, Staberoha, Thamnochortus and Winifredia. Florabase