A commander-in-chief, sometimes called supreme commander, is the person that exercises supreme command and control over an armed forces or a military branch. As a technical term, it refers to military competencies that reside in a country's executive leadership – a head of state or a head of government. A commander-in-chief role if held by an official, need not be or have been a commissioned officer or a veteran; such countries follow the principle of civilian control of the military. The formal role and title of a ruler commanding the armed forces derives from Imperator of the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire, who possessed imperium powers. In English use, the term first applied to King Charles I of England in 1639, it continued to be used during the English Civil War. A nation's head of state holds the nominal position of commander-in-chief if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. In a parliamentary system, the executive branch is dependent upon the will of the legislature.
Governors-general and colonial governors are often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces within their territory. A commander-in-chief is sometimes referred to as supreme commander, sometimes used as a specific term; the term is used for military officers who hold such power and authority, not always through dictatorship, as a subordinate to a head of state. The term is used for officers who hold authority over an individual military branch, special branch or within a theatre of operations; this includes heads of states who: Are chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making, including command of the armed forces. Ceremonial heads of state with residual substantive reserve powers over the armed forces, acting under normal circumstances on the constitutional advice of chief executives with the political mandate to undertake discretionary decision-making. According to the Constitution of Afghanistan, The President of Afghanistan is the Commander-in-chief of Afghan Armed Forces.
According to the Constitution of Albania, The President of the Republic of Albania is the Commander-in-chief of Albanian Armed Forces. The incumbent Commander-in-chief is President Ilir Meta. Under part II, chapter III, article 99, subsections 12, 13, 14 and 15, the Constitution of Argentina states that the President of the Argentine Nation is the "Commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Nation", it states that the President is entitled to provide military posts in the granting of the jobs or grades of senior officers of the armed forces, by itself on the battlefield. The Ministry of Defense is the government department that assists and serves the President in the management of the armed forces. Under chapter II of section 68 titled Command of the naval and military forces, the Constitution of Australia states that: The command in chief of the naval and military forces of the Commonwealth is vested in the Governor General as the Queen's representative. In practice, the Governor-General does not play an active part in the Australian Defence Force's command structure, the democratically accountable Australian Cabinet de facto controls the ADF.
The Minister for Defence and several subordinate ministers exercise this control through the Australian Defence Organisation. Section 8 of the Defence Act 1903 states:The Minister shall have the general control and administration of the Defence Force, the powers vested in the Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Navy, the Chief of Army and the Chief of Air Force by virtue of section 9, the powers vested jointly in the Secretary and the Chief of the Defence Force by virtue of section 9A, shall be exercised subject to and in accordance with any directions of the Minister; the commander-in-chief is the president, although executive power and responsibility for national defense resides with the prime minister. The only exception was the first commander-in-chief, General M. A. G. Osmani, during Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971, commander of all Bangladesh Forces, reinstated to active duty by official BD government order, which after independence was gazetted in 1972, he relinquished all authority and duties to the President of Bangladesh.
Article 142 of the Brazilian Constitution of 1988 states that the Brazilian Armed Forces is under the supreme command of the President of the Republic. The President of Belarus is the Commander-in-Chief of the Belarusian Armed Forces; the Sultan of Brunei is the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Brunei Armed Forces. The powers of command-in-chief over the Canadian Armed Forces are vested in the Canadian monarch, are delegated to the Governor General of Canada, who uses the title Commander-in-Chief. In this capacity, the governor general is entitled to the uniform of a general/flag officer, with the crest of the office and special cuff braid serving as rank insignia. By constitutional convention, the Crown's prerogative powers over the armed forces and constitutional powers as commander-in-chief are exercised on the advice of the prime minister and the rest of Cabinet, the governing ministry that commands the confidence of the House of Commons. According to the National Defence Act, t
Agriculture in Seychelles
Seychelles' Ministry of Agriculture and Marine Resources in 1993 gave up the management of five state-owned farms, which were divided into small plots and leased to individuals. In addition, the agricultural sector consisted of state farms of the Seychelles Agricultural Development Company and the outer islands managed by the IDC. Many households raise livestock for home consumption; the total cultivable area of the islands is only about 400 hectares. Although rainfall is abundant and dry seasons are defined. Better irrigation and drainage systems are needed to improve food crops; the government has taken various measures to reduce dependency on imported foods, including deregulating production and marketing and reducing the trades tax on fertilizers and equipment. As a result and fruit production climbed from 505 tons in 1990 to 1,170 tons in 1992; this increase failed to be matched by a commensurate decrease in imports of fruits and vegetables, which reached 3,471 tons in 1992. Local consumption had increased, substitution between imported and domestic foodstuffs was possible only to a limited degree.
In most cases, imported produce is cheaper in spite of air freight, import taxes, other costs, necessitating a high import markup by the SMB to prevent disruption of domestic production. Neither rice, a dietary staple, nor other grains can be grown on the islands; the expansion of livestock production is hampered by encroachment of housing and other development on agricultural land as well as by increased labor and animal feed costs. The number of cattle slaughtered in 1992 was unchanged from five years earlier; the slaughter of pigs was about 45 percent higher than 1987, chicken production had risen by 60 percent. The two traditional export crops of copra and cinnamon have declined because of the high cost of production and pressure from low-cost competitors on the international market. Vanilla important, is produced on a small scale. Tea grown on the misty slopes of Mahé is a more recent plantation crop, serving the local market
The rupee is the currency of the Seychelles. It is subdivided into 100 cents. In the local Seychellois Creole language, it is called the roupi; the international currency code is SCR. The abbreviations SR and SRe are sometimes used. Seychelles is the smallest country. Several other currencies are called rupee; the British Legislative Council authorized the establishment of a Board of Commissioners of Currency through the Paper Currency Ordinance of 1914, enacted by C. R. M. O’Brien, the governor of the Colony of the Seychelles on 10 August 1914. In 1914, the government produced emergency issues of notes for 1, 5 and 10 rupees. Standard issue notes began to be issued in 1918, with notes for 50 cents and 1 rupee, followed by 5, 10 and 50 rupees in 1928; the 50 cents and 1 rupee notes were phased out in favor of the coins. 20- and 100-rupee notes were first introduced in 1968, whilst the 5-rupee note was replaced by a coin in 1972. In 1976, the Seychelles Monetary Authority took over the issuance of paper money, issuing notes for 10, 25, 50 and 100 rupees.
This series featured the first president of the Seychelles, James Mancham and replaced all colonial notes issued prior to independence. In 1979, there was a redesign, featuring a more socialist and modernized theme reminiscent of the René regime; this series was issued by the Central Bank of Seychelles when it took over full responsibility in the same year. In 1989, a new series was introduced with colors. In 1998, another more high-tech series was introduced with a more practical, ergonomic design; this series saw an additional 500-rupee note first introduced in 2005. On June 7, 2011, the Central Bank of Seychelles issued updated 50, 100 and 500 rupees notes with improved security features; each of the three banknotes has a holographic patch instead of a foil sailfish which appears on the notes. On the 50-rupee note, the silver holographic sailfish alternates between the number 50 and an image of the Aldabra rail, a flightless bird. On the 100-rupee note, the gold holographic sailfish alternates between the number 100 and an image of the Seychelles giant tortoise.
On the 500-rupee note, the gold holographic sailfish alternates between the number 500 and an image of the Seychelles scops owl. Additional security upgrades include a 2.5-mm wide fluorescent security thread on the 50-rupee note, a 2.5-mm wide color-shifting security thread on the 100-rupee note, a 3-mm wide color-shifting security thread on the 500-rupee note. The notes are protected by De La Rue’s unique Gemini technology that fluoresces under ultraviolet light but appears normal in daylight; the color schemes of the notes have been revised, with the notes being more green and orange than the notes in circulation. The new notes carry the year of printing, as well as the signature of Pierre Laporte, the bank’s current governor. Existing notes will be removed from circulation as they wear out. In December 2016, the Central Bank of Seychelles issued a new series of banknotes to commemorate 40 years of Seychelles' independence; the theme of this series is "Seychelles' Unique Biodiversity - the backbone of the economy".
Economy of Seychelles The banknotes of Seychelles
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, sometimes called the Emirates, is a country in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north. The sovereign constitutional monarchy is a federation of seven emirates consisting of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Ras Al Khaimah and Umm Al Quwain, their boundaries are complex, with numerous enclaves within the various emirates. Each emirate is governed by a ruler. One of the rulers serves as the President of the United Arab Emirates. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9.2 million, of which 1.4 million are Emirati citizens and 7.8 million are expatriates. Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern humans from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in Mleiha, Sharjah. Burial sites dating back to the Neolithic Age and the Bronze Age include the oldest known such inland site at Jebel Buhais.
Known as Magan to the Sumerians, the area was home to a prosperous Bronze Age trading culture during the Umm Al Nar period, which traded between the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia as well as Iran and the Levant. The ensuing Wadi Suq period and three Iron Ages saw the emergence of nomadism as well as the development of water management and irrigation systems supporting human settlement in both the coast and interior; the Islamic age of the UAE dates back to the expulsion of the Sasanians and the subsequent Battle of Dibba. The UAE's long history of trade led to the emergence of Julfar, in the present day emirate of Ras Al Khaimah, as a major regional trading and maritime hub in the area; the maritime dominance of the Persian Gulf by Emirati traders led to conflicts with European powers, including the Portuguese and British. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the Trucial States with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819, which established the Trucial States as a British Protectorate.
This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971 following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, Ras Al Khaimah, joined the federation on 10 February 1972. Islam is the official religion and Arabic is the official language of the UAE; the UAE's oil reserves are the seventh-largest in the world while its natural gas reserves are the world's seventeenth-largest. Sheikh Zayed, ruler of Abu Dhabi and the first President of the UAE, oversaw the development of the Emirates and steered oil revenues into healthcare and infrastructure; the UAE's economy is the most diversified in the Gulf Cooperation Council, while its most populous city of Dubai is an important global city and an international aviation and maritime trade hub. The country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business; the UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%.
The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and a middle power. It is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, OPEC, the Non-Aligned Movement and the Gulf Cooperation Council; the land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from Africa some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in Mesopotamia and the Harappan culture of the Indus Valley; this contact persisted and became wide-ranging motivated by the trade in copper from the Hajar Mountains, which commenced around 3,000 BCE. Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to Magan people. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the pre-Islamic UAE, which includes the Hafit period from 3,200-2,600 BCE.
From 1,200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive Iron Ages and the Mleiha period, the area was variously occupied by Achaemenid and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the falaj irrigation system. In ancient times, Al Hasa adjoined Greater Oman. From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman; the spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the Arabian Peninsula is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the hijrah. This led to a group of rulers travelling to Medina, converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful u
Danny Faure is a Seychellois politician, President of Seychelles since 16 October 2016. He served as Vice President of Seychelles from 2010 to 2016. Faure is a member of the People's Party. Faure was born to Seychellois parents in the western Ugandan town of Kilembe, he completed his primary and secondary education in Seychelles. He studied at a university in Cuba. In 1985, at the age of 23, Faure started working as an assistant curriculum officer at the Seychelles education ministry, he worked as a lecturer at both the National Youth Service and the Seychelles Polytechnic. In 1993, following the return of multiparty democracy to the island nation, Faure became the leader of government business in the National Assembly, serving in that capacity until 1998; that year, he was appointed as Minister of Education. Over the years, he has served in various ministerial capacities including youth, finance and industries, public administration and information and communication technology. In 2006, he was appointed as Minister of Finance by President James Michel.
During his tenure at finance, Seychelles embarked on a series of economic reforms, recommended by the International Monetary Fund. Faure oversaw the first generation reforms, which ran from October 2008 to October 2013. Faure served as designated minister between 2004 and 2010, he became Vice President on 1 July 2010, while retaining the finance portfolio. President James Michel announced on 27 September 2016 that he would resign, effective on 16 October, transfer power to Vice President Faure; the announcement coincided with the election of an opposition majority in the National Assembly. As there were four years of Michel's term remaining, it was to count as a full term for Faure. Faure was accordingly sworn in on 16 October 2016. Danny Faure is divorced, he is the father of one son. List of foreign ministers in 2017 List of current foreign ministers
Foreign relations of Seychelles
Seychelles follows a policy of what it describes as "positive" nonalignment and supports the principle of reduced superpower presence in the Indian Ocean. The Seychelles government is one of the proponents of the Indian Ocean zone of peace concept and it has promoted an end to the United States presence on Diego Garcia; the country has adopted a pragmatic policy and serves as an important rest and recreation stop for US ships serving in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean. Seychelles' foreign policy position has placed it toward the left of the spectrum within the Non-Aligned Movement. Russia, the United Kingdom, India, the People's Republic of China and Cuba maintain embassies in Victoria; the government of the Seychelles withdrew diplomatic recognition of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic on March 17, 2008, according to an official government source. The Seychelles is a member state of the Commonwealth of Nations. List of diplomatic missions in Seychelles List of diplomatic missions of Seychelles