The rupiah is the official currency of Indonesia. Issued and controlled by the Bank of Indonesia, the ISO 4217 currency code for the Indonesian rupiah is IDR; the name "Rupiah" is derived from the Sanskrit word for rupyakam. Informally, Indonesians use the word "perak" in referring to rupiah; the rupiah is subdivided into 100 sen, although inflation has rendered all coins and banknotes denominated in sen obsolete. Introduced in 1946 by Indonesian nationalists fighting for independence, the currency replaced a version of the Netherlands Indies gulden, introduced during the Japanese occupation in World War II. In its early years the rupiah was used in conjunction with other currencies, including a new version of the gulden introduced by the Dutch; the Riau islands and the Indonesian half of New Guinea had their own variants of the rupiah in the past, but these were subsumed into the national rupiah in 1964 and 1971 respectively. The current rupiah consists of coins from 50 rupiah up to 1000 rupiah and banknotes of 1000 rupiah up to 100,000 rupiah.
With US$1 worth 14,356 rupiah, the largest Indonesian banknote is therefore worth US$6.97. There are presently two series of coins in circulation: aluminium and nickel coins dated between 1991 and 2010; these come in denominations of 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 rupiah. The older series of coins has been disappearing. Due to the low value and general shortage of small denomination coins, it is common to have amounts rounded up or to receive sweets in lieu of the last few rupiah of change in supermarkets and stores.. A new series of coins featuring Indonesia's national heroes were issued in 2016 in denominations of 100 -, 200-, 500 and 1000 rupiah. Circulating Indonesian banknotes date from 2000, 2001, 2004, 2005, 2009, 2010, 2011; the 1998–1999 notes have not been legal tender since 31 December 2008. Earlier notes are no longer legal tender, due to the lack of security features and association with the Suharto regime, but could be exchanged in Bank Indonesia offices until 20 August 2010; as the smallest current note is worth US$0.08 small transactions such as bus fares are conducted with notes, the 1,000-rupiah coin is far more common than the 1,000-rupiah note.
The government announced that this would change, with a 2,000-rupiah note to replace the 1,000-rupiah, with that denomination replaced by a coin. After a long delay, this proposal was revised so that the 2,000-rupiah banknotes were launched by BI on 9 July 2009, with the banknotes circulating as legal tender from 10 July 2009, but without withdrawing the 1,000-rupiah note. Due to the low value of the notes below 1000 rupiah, although they are no longer being circulated, some remain in use in poor condition, as low denomination'uang pasar', outside the banking system for use in informal transactions. Following the issuance of Presidential Decree No. 31 of 5 September 2016, Bank Indonesia introduced seven new banknote designs featuring national heroes: The basic materials of the banknotes are long fibres from any kind of wood, or a mix of different types of wood. However, the preferable material is abacá fibre, plentiful in Indonesia and is believed to increase the durability of the banknotes.
The banknotes are heat-processed to create a unique type of pulp. The minimum security features visible to the naked eye are watermarks and security threads with colour fibres. Extra features may be included, such as holograms, iridescent stripes, clear windows, metameric windows and gold patches. Watermark and electrotype are made by controlling the gap of density of the fibres which create certain images for the banknotes; this is done to raise the aesthetic quality of the notes. Security threads are inserted into the note so that horizontal and vertical lines are shown from top to bottom; the threads can be varied in the materials, size and design. Intaglio printing is used for the denomination numbers in the banknote, to help blind people recognise genuine notes and their denomination; the 10,000-rupiah note of 2010 and the 20,000-, 50,000- and 100,000-rupiah notes of 2011 introduced several new security features: use of EURion constellation rings, rainbow printing designed to change colour when viewed from different angles, tactile features for blind people and those with visual difficulties to recognise the different denominations of the notes.
During colonial times, the currency used in what is now Indonesia was the Netherlands Indies gulden. The country was invaded in 1942 by Japan, which began printing its own version of the gulden, which remained in use until March 1946; the Netherlands authorities and the Indonesian nationalists, who were fighting for independence, both introduced rival currencies in 1946 with the Dutch printing a new gulden, the Indonesians issuing the first version of the rupiah on 3 October 1946. Between 1946 and 1950 a large number of currencies circulated in Indonesia, with the Japanese gulden still remaining prevalent alongside the two new currencies and various local variants; this situation ended when the federal government, now in complete control following the Dutch recognition of its independence, initiated
In many national currencies, the cent represented by the cent sign is a monetary unit that equals 1⁄100 of the basic monetary unit. Etymologically, the word cent derives from the Latin word "centum" meaning hundred. Cent refers to a coin worth one cent. In the United States, the 1¢ coin is known by the nickname penny, alluding to the British coin and unit of that name. In the European Union, coins designs are chosen nationally, while the reverse and the currency as a whole is managed by the European Central Bank. In Canada, production of the 1¢ coin was ended in 2012. A cent is represented by the cent sign, a minuscule letter "c" crossed by a diagonal stroke or a vertical line: ¢. Cent amounts from 1 cent to 99 cents can be represented as one or two digits followed by the appropriate abbreviation, or as a subdivision of the base unit. Back in the days of typewriters, the cent sign appeared as the shift of the 6 key; the cent sign has not survived the changeover from typewriters to computer keyboards.
There are alternative ways, however, to create the character in most common code pages, including Unicode and Windows-1252: On DOS- or Windows-based computers, hold Alt while typing 0162 or 155 on the numeric keypad. If there is no numeric keypad, as on many laptops, type A2 in Windows Wordpad followed by Alt+X and copy/paste the resulting ¢ into the target document. For the US International keyboard: <Right Alt> <Shift> c. On Macintosh systems, hold ⌥ Option and press 4 on the number row. On Unix/Linux systems with a compose key, Compose+|+C and Compose+/+C are typical sequences; the cent sign has Unicode code point: U+00A2 ¢ CENT SIGN, U+FFE0 ￠ FULLWIDTH CENT SIGN. When written in English, the cent sign follows the amount, in contrast with a larger currency symbol, placed before the amount. For example, 2¢ and $0.02, or 2c and €0.02. Examples of currencies around the world featuring centesimal units called cent, or related words from the same root such as céntimo, centésimo, centavo or sen, are: Argentine peso Aruban florin Australian dollar Barbadian dollar Bahamian dollar Belize dollar Bermudian dollar Bolivian boliviano Brazilian real Brunei dollar Canadian dollar Cayman Islands dollar Chilean peso.
Centavos exist and are considered in financial transactions. Cook Islands dollar Cuban peso East Caribbean dollar Eritrean nakfa Estonian kroon European Union's euro – the coins bear the text "EURO CENT". Greek coins have ΛΕΠΤΑ on the obverse of the others; the actual usage varies depending on the language. Fijian dollar Guyanese dollar Indonesian rupiah Jamaican dollar Kenyan shilling Lesotho loti Liberian dollar Malaysian ringgit Mauritian rupee Mexican peso Moroccan dirham Namibian dollar Netherlands Antillean gulden New Zealand dollar Panamanian balboa Peruvian nuevo sol Philippine peso Seychellois rupee Sierra Leonean leone Singapore dollar South African rand Sri Lankan rupee Surinamese dollar Swazi lilangeni New Taiwan dollar Tanzanian shilling Tongan paʻanga Trinidad and Tobago dollar Ugandan shilling United States dollar Uruguayan peso Zimbabwean dollarExamples of currencies featuring centesimal units not called cent British pound – divided into 100 pence since 1971 Bulgarian lev (as stotinka, Bulgarian: стотинка Chinese Yuan/Renminbi – divided into 100 fēn.
Croatian kuna – divided into 100 lipa Danish krone – divided into 100 øre Estonian mark – divided into 100 penni Indian rupee – divided into 100 paise Israeli new shekel – divided into 100 agorot Macao pataca – divided into 100 avos Macedonian denar – divided into 100 deni Norwegian krone – divided into 100 øre Pakistani rupee – divided into 100 paise Polish złoty – divided into 100 groszy Romanian and Moldovan leu – divided into 100 bani Russian ruble – divided into 100 kopeks Saudi riyal. Examples of currencies which do not feature centesimal units: Costa Rican colón – no fractional denomination in circulation since the 1980s divided into 100 céntimos. Czech koruna – no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 hellers Japanese yen – no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 sen and 1000 rin. South Korean Won no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 jeon. Icelandic króna – no fractional denomination in circulation divided into 100 eyrir. Kuwaiti dinar – divided into 1000 fils Omani rial – divided into 1000 baisa Mauritanian ouguiya – divided into 5 khoums Malagasy ariary – divided into 5 iraimbilanjaExamples of currencies which use the cent symbol for other purpose: Costa Rican colón – The common symbol'¢' is used locally to represent'₡', the proper
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
East African rupee
The rupee was the currency of Britain's East African colonies and protectorates between 1906 and 1920. It was divided into 100 cents; the rupee replaced the Indian rupee, which had circulated. In 1920, the rupee was revalued against sterling to a peg of 1 rupee. In East Africa, this was followed in the same year by the replacement of the rupee with the East African florin at par; the currency is noteworthy for including the 1907 1 cent coin. Silver coins were introduced for 25 and 50 cents in 1906, followed by the aluminium 1 cent and cupro-nickel 10 cent coins in 1907, the aluminium ½ cent coin in 1908 and the cupro-nickel 5 cent coin in 1913. Cupro-nickel replaced aluminium in 1909. In 1906, notes were introduced by the government of the East Africa Protectorate in denominations of 5, 10, 20, 40, 100 and 500 rupees. In 1920, the East African Currency Board issued 1 rupee notes shortly. Global Financial Data currency histories table Tables of modern monetary history: Kenya Tables of modern monetary history: Tanzania Tables of modern monetary history: Uganda
The Maldivian rufiyaa is the currency of the Maldives. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the Maldives Monetary Authority; the most used symbols for the rufiyaa are MRF and Rf. The ISO 4217 code for Maldivian rufiyaa is MVR; the rufiyaa is subdivided into 100 laari. The name "rufiyaa" is derived from the Sanskrit रूप्य; the midpoint of exchange rate is 12.85 rufiyaa per US dollar and the rate is permitted to fluctuate within a ±20% band, i.e. between 10.28 rufiyaa and 15.42 rufiyaa as of 10 April 2011. The earliest form of currency used in the Maldives was cowry shells and historical accounts of travellers indicate that they were traded in this manner during the 13th century; as late as 1344, Ibn Batuta observed that more than 40 ships loaded with cowry shells were exported each year. A single gold dinar was worth 400,000 shells. During the 17th and 18th centuries, lārin were traded as currency; this form of currency was used in the Persian Gulf, India and the Far East during this time.
Historians agree that this new form of currency was most exchanged for cowry shells and indicates Maldives’ lucrative trade with these countries. The first Sultan to imprint his own seal onto this currency was Ghaazee Mohamed Thakurufaanu Al Auzam; the seal was much broader than the wires hence it was legible. The first known of coins were introduced by Sultan Ibrahim Iskandar. Compared to the previous forms of money, these coins were much neater and minted in pure silver; the coins were minted in the capital city of a fact which it acknowledged on the reverse. The legend "King of Land and Sea, Iskandhar the Great" is found on the edge. After this period, gold coins replaced the existing silver ones during the reign of Sultan Hassan Nooruddin in 1787, he used two different qualities of gold in his coins. How this gold was obtained is uncertain. Throughout the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, bronze coins were issued denominated in laari. Sultan Mohamed Imaadhudheen IV introduced what historians believe to be the first machine struck coins, judging the superior quality of the engravements.
His successor Sultan Mohamed Shamshudeen III made the last of these coins, 1 and 4 laari denominations, which were struck in the United Kingdom by Heaton's Mint, England in 1913. Following the end of coin production for the Maldives, the Sultanate came to use the Ceylonese rupee; this was supplemented in 1947 by issues of banknotes denominated in rufiyaa, equal in value to the rupee. In 1960, coins denominated in laari, now worth one hundredth of the rufiyaa, were introduced. In 1960, Sultan Mohamed Fareed; the new issue consisted of denominations of 2, 5, 10, 25 and 50 laari. Unlike his predecessors, Sultan Fareed did not embellish his title on the coins; the currency was put into circulation in February 1961 and all the traded coins, with the exception of Shamshudeen III's 1 and 4 laari, were withdrawn from circulation on 17 June 1966. The newly established central bank, the Maldives Monetary Authority, introduced the 1 rufiyaa coin on 22 January 1983; the coin was minted in West Germany. In 1984, a new series of coins was introduced.
In 1995, 2 rufiyaa coins were introduced. Coins in circulation are 1 laari, 2 laari, 5 laari, 10 laari, 25 laari, 50 laari, 1 rufiyaa, 2 rufiyaa. In 1945, the People's Majlis passed bill number 2/66 on the "Maldivian Bank Note". Under this law, notes for 1⁄2, 1, 2, 5 and 10 rufiyaa were printed and put into circulation on 5 September 1948. In 1951, 50 and 100 rufiyaa notes were introduced; the current series of banknotes was issued in 1983 in denominations of 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 100 rufiyaa. 500 rufiyaa notes were added in 1990, with the 2 rufiyaa replaced by a coin in 1995. In October 2015, the Maldives Monetary Authority issued a 5,000 rufiyaa banknote in polymer to commemorate the 50th anniversary of independence, issued a new family of notes in polymer that included a new denomination of 1,000 rufiyaa. A 5 rufiyaa banknote printed in polymer was revealed in May 2017 and was issued in July 2017, it was planned that this denomination was to be replaced by a coin of the same denomination, but public input convinced the Maldives Monetary Authority to go for the note.
Illustrations on the bank notes were done by Maizan Hassan Manik and Abbaas. Currency of Maldives Economy of Maldives Currency in Circulation, Maldives Monetary Authority Official Exchange Rates Banknotes of the Maldives
French Indian rupee
The roupie or rupee was the currency of French India. It was equal to the Indian rupee issued by the British and Indian governments; until 1871 it was issued as coins with the roupie divided into 8 fanons, each of 3 doudous or 20 cash. From 1871, banknotes were issued by France's Banque de l'Indochine, which circulated alongside coins issued by British India. Puducherry French India Madras fanam Annuaire statistique des établissements français dans l'Inde By Pierre-Constant Sicé, 1843. French Indian rupee at the currency museum of the Reserve Bank of India
The Pakistani Rupee (Urdu: روپیہ / ALA-LC: Rūpiyah. The issuance of the currency is controlled by the State Bank of Pakistan, the central bank of the country; the most used symbol for the rupee is Rs, used on receipts when purchasing goods and services. In Pakistan, the rupee is spelled as "rupees", "rupaya" or "rupaye"; as standard in Pakistani English, large values of rupees are counted in terms of thousands. The word rūpiya is derived from the Sanskrit word rūpya, which means "wrought silver, a coin of silver", in origin an adjective meaning "shapely", with a more specific meaning of "stamped, impressed", whence "coin", it is` derived from the noun rūpa "shape, image". Rūpaya was used to denote the coin introduced by Sher Shah Suri during his reign from 1540 to 1545 CE; the Pakistani Rupee was put into circulation in Pakistan after the dissolution of the British Raj in 1947. Pakistan used British Indian coins and notes over-stamped with "Pakistan". New coins and banknotes were issued in 1948.
Like the Indian rupee, it was divided into 16 annas, each of 4 pice or 12 pie. The currency was decimalised on 1 January 1961, with the rupee subdivided into 100 pice, renamed paise the same year. However, coins denominated in paise have not been issued since 1994. In 1948, coins were introduced in denominations of 1 pice, 1⁄2, 1 and 2 annas, 1⁄4, 1⁄2 and 1 rupee. 1 pie coins were added in 1951. In 1961, coins for 1, 5 and 10 pice were issued, followed the same year by 1 paisa, 5 and 10 paise coins. In 1963, 10 and 25 paise coins were introduced, followed by 2 paise the next year. 1 rupee coins were reintroduced in 1979, followed by 2 rupees in 1998 and 5 rupees in 2002. 2 paise coins were last minted in 1976, with 1 paisa coins ceasing production in 1979. The 5, 10, 25 and 50 paise all ceased production in 1996. There are two variations of 2 rupee coins: most have clouds above the Badshahi Masjid but many do not; the one and two rupee coins were changed to aluminium in 2007. Paisa denominated coins ceased to be legal tender in 2013, leaving the 1 Rupee coin as the minimum legal tender.
On 15 October 2015, the Pakistan government introduced a revised 5 rupee coin with a reduced size and weight and having a golden color, made from a composition of copper-nickel-zinc, in 2016 a Rs.10 coin was introduced into circulation. On 1 April 1948, provisional notes were issued by the Reserve Bank of India and the Government of India on behalf of the Government of Pakistan, for use within Pakistan, without the possibility of redemption in India. Printed by the India Security Press in Nasik, these notes consist of Indian note plates engraved with the words GOVERNMENT OF PAKISTAN in English and "Hukumat-e-PAKISTAN" in Urdu added at the top and bottom of the watermark area on the front only. Regular government issues commenced in 1948 in denominations of 5, 10 and 100 rupees; the government continued to issue 1 rupee notes until the 1980s but other note issuing was taken over by the State Bank of Pakistan in 1953, when 2, 5, 10 and 100 rupees notes were issued. Only a few 2 rupees notes were issued.
50 rupees notes were added in 1957, with 2 rupees notes reintroduced in 1985. In 1986, 500 rupees notes were introduced, followed by 1000 rupees the next year. 2 and 5 rupees notes were replaced by coins in 1998 and 2002. 20 rupee notes were added in 2005, followed by 5000 rupees in 2006. Until 1971, Pakistan banknotes were bilingual, featuring Bengali translation of the Urdu text, since Bengali was the state language of East Pakistan. All banknotes other than the 1 and 2 rupees feature a portrait of Muhammad Ali Jinnah on the obverse along with writing in Urdu; the reverses of the banknotes have English text. The only Urdu text found on the reverse is the Urdu translation of the Prophetic Hadith, "Seeking honest livelihood is worship of God." Which is حصول رزق حلال عبادت ہے. The banknotes vary with larger denominations being longer than smaller ones. All contain multiple colours. However, each denomination does have one colour. All banknotes feature a watermark for security purposes. On the larger denomination notes, the watermark is a picture of Jinnah, while on smaller notes, it is a crescent and star.
Different types of security threads are present in each banknote. The State Bank has started a new series of banknotes, phasing out the older designs for new, more secure ones. Due to the large number of pilgrims to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the 1950s, the State Bank of Pakistan provided simple exchange facilities for Hajj pilgrims; the issue of special notes for the express use of the pilgrims was introduced. Although other means of exchange were considered, the high level of illiteracy amongst the Pakistani pilgrims and the additional costs that would be incurred through the need to purchase such means prevented the government from these methods of exchange; the State Bank Order to allow the issue of these "Hajj notes" was made in May 1950. The use of Hajj notes continued until 1978; until this date, stocks of notes were used without the necessity of printing new notes with the signatures of the Governors. It is believed that, once the