Chicago Symphony Orchestra
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra was founded by Theodore Thomas in 1891. The ensemble makes its home at Orchestra Hall in Chicago and plays a summer season at the Ravinia Festival; the music director is Riccardo Muti, who began his tenure in 2010. The CSO is one of five American orchestras referred to as the "Big Five". In 1890, Charles Norman Fay, a Chicago businessman, invited Theodore Thomas to establish an orchestra in Chicago. Under the name "Chicago Orchestra," the orchestra played its first concert October 16, 1891 at the Auditorium Theater, it is one of the oldest orchestras in the United States, along with the New York Philharmonic, the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra. Orchestra Hall, now a component of the Symphony Center complex, was designed by Chicago architect Daniel H. Burnham and completed in 1904. Maestro Thomas served as music director for thirteen years until his death shortly after the orchestra's newly built residence was dedicated December 14, 1904.
The orchestra was renamed "Theodore Thomas Orchestra" in 1905 and today, Orchestra Hall still has "Theodore Thomas Orchestra Hall" inscribed in its façade. In 1905, Frederick Stock became music director, a post he held until his death in 1942; the orchestra was renamed the Chicago Symphony Orchestra in 1913. Subsequent music directors have included Désiré Defauw, Artur Rodziński, Rafael Kubelík, Fritz Reiner, Jean Martinon, Georg Solti, Daniel Barenboim. On May 5, 2008, the CSO Association's president Deborah Rutter announced that the orchestra had named Riccardo Muti as its 10th music director, starting with the 2010–2011 season, for an initial contract of 5 years, his contract has been renewed through the 2020 season. The orchestra has hosted many distinguished guest conductors, including Thomas Beecham, Leonard Bernstein, Aaron Copland, Edward Elgar, Morton Gould, Paul Hindemith, Erich Kunzel, Erich Leinsdorf, Charles Munch, Eugene Ormandy, André Previn, Sergei Prokofiev, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Maurice Ravel, Arnold Schoenberg, Leonard Slatkin, Leopold Stokowski, Richard Strauss, George Szell, Klaus Tennstedt, Michael Tilson Thomas, Bruno Walter, John Williams.
Many of these guests have recorded with the orchestra. Carlos Kleiber made his only symphonic guest appearances in America with the CSO in October 1978 and June 1983; the three principal guest conductors of the orchestra have been Carlo Maria Giulini, Claudio Abbado, Pierre Boulez. The CSO holds an annual fundraiser known as the Chicago Symphony Marathon, more as "Radiothon" and "Symphonython," in conjunction with Chicago radio station WFMT; as part of the event, from 1986 through 2008, the orchestra released tracks from their broadcast archives on double LP/CD collections, as well as two larger sets of broadcasts and rarities. On March 10, 2019, CSO musicians went on strike, claiming that management wanted to cut their pension benefits in addition to reducing overall salary; the players picketed outside of Orchestra Hall for 12 hours the next day, stating that they would continue to do so daily until "a contract, fair to the musicians is reached". On March 12, it was announced. On March 22, the musicians announced.
The Chicago Symphony Orchestra maintains a summer home at the Ravinia Festival in Highland Park, Illinois. The CSO first performed there during Ravinia Park's second season in November 1905 and continued to appear there on and off through August 1931, after which the Park fell dark due to the Great Depression; the CSO helped to inaugurate the first season of the Ravinia Festival in August 1936 and has been in residence at the Festival every summer since. Many conductors have made their debut with the Chicago Symphony at Ravinia, several have gone on to become Music Director at Ravinia, including Seiji Ozawa, James Levine, Christoph Eschenbach; the position of Music Director of the Ravinia Festival is unfilled. The Ravinia Festival created an honorific title for James Levine—"Conductor Laureate"—and signed him to a five-year renewable contract beginning in 2018. On December 4, 2017, after Levine was accused of sexually abusing four males, the Ravinia Festival severed all ties with Levine, terminated his five-year contract to lead the Chicago Symphony there.
The Chicago Symphony has amassed an extensive discography. Recordings by the CSO have earned 62 Grammy Awards from the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences; these include several Classical Album of the Year awards, awards in Best Classical Performance in vocal soloist, instrumental and orchestral categories. On May 1, 1916, Frederick Stock and the orchestra recorded the Wedding March from Felix Mendelssohn's music to A Midsummer Night's Dream for Columbia Records. Stock and the CSO made numerous recordings for Columbia and the Victor Talking Machine Company/RCA Victor; the Chicago Symphony's first electrical recordings were made for Victor in December 1925, including a performance of Karl Goldmark's In Springtime overture. These early electrical recordings were made in Victor's Chicago studios. Stock continued recording for Columbia and RCA Victor until his death in 1942. In 1948, three versions of Aram Khachaturian's "Sabre Dance" reached number one in the Billboard Best-Selling Records by Classical Artists: a CSO version conducted by Artur Rodziński, as well as a New York Philharmonic version conducted by Efrem Kurtz and a version by Oscar L
Shenandoah University is a comprehensive private liberal arts university located in Winchester, Virginia, in the United States. It has an enrollment of 4,000 students across more than 100 programs in seven schools: College of Arts & Sciences, Harry F. Byrd Jr. School of Business, Shenandoah Conservatory, Bernard J. Dunn School of Pharmacy, Eleanor Wade Custer School of Nursing, School of Health Professions and the School of Education & Human Development. Shenandoah University is one of five United Methodist Church-affiliated institutions of higher education in the Commonwealth of Virginia; the university was founded as Shenandoah Seminary in 1875 in Dayton, Virginia, by Dr. Abraham Funkhouser and Professor Jay Fries. Shenandoah Seminary became a junior college in 1924, changing its name to Shenandoah College the following year. Shenandoah Conservatory began granting four-year degrees. In 1960, Shenandoah College and the Shenandoah Conservatory moved to the current 126-acre Winchester campus and began offering four-year degrees in 1974.
Shenandoah obtained university status on January 1, 1991, today the student body represents 43 states plus the District of Columbia and Puerto Rico. The student body and faculty combined represent 73 countries. Ninety-one percent of full-time faculty have an earned doctorate in their fields or a terminal degree; the university operates on six locations: Main Campus East Campus Commons Downtown Winchester Medical Campus Shenandoah River Campus at Cool Spring Battlefield Scholar Plaza, Loudoun Inova Center for Personalized Health, FairfaxThe Main Campus is located in Winchester near Interstate 81, the Medical Campus located near the Winchester Medical Center. The Northern Virginia Campus in Ashburn, Va. has two locations: the Northern Virginia Campus Ashmill Building, located along Route 7, is home to undergraduate nursing programs, as well as graduate programs in education/leadership, occupational therapy, physical therapy and physician assistant studies. The Northern Virginia Campus at George Washington University is the location for doctoral-level programs in pharmacy.
There are a number of satellite offices and facilities located throughout Winchester. In 2013, Shenandoah University accepted stewardship of 195 acres of land along the Shenandoah River, now known as the Shenandoah River Campus at Cool Spring Battlefield. Purchased by the Civil War Trust in 2012, stewardship of the property transferred to the university in spring 2013 to ensure protection and preservation of the former battlefield site; the property now serves as an outdoor classroom and living laboratory for the university community and the general public. Shenandoah offers more than 90 programs of study at the bachelor's-, master's-, doctoral-degree levels in seven schools. Undergraduate and graduate certificate programs are available. College of Arts & Sciences Harry F. Byrd Jr. School of Business Shenandoah Conservatory Bernard J. Dunn School of Pharmacy Eleanor Wade Custer School of Nursing School of Health Professions School of Education & Human Development Shenandoah University's Department of Athletics sponsors 21 intercollegiate sports, 10 for men and 11 for women.
Shenandoah's men's and women's teams are known as the Hornets. All teams compete as members of the Division III of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and the department holds membership in the Old Dominion Athletic Conference. Shenandoah University competed in the USA South Athletic Conference. Shenandoah University has agreements with many international colleges and universities, participates in the British Council's Business Education Initiative and Irish-American Scholars program in conjunction with universities and colleges in Northern Ireland, United Kingdom. Kate Flannery, played Meredith Palmer in the television comedy, The Office Harold Perrineau, played Link in The Matrix Reloaded and The Matrix Revolutions. Carter Beauford, American drummer and founding member of Dave Matthews Band. Tiffany Lawrence, is a former Democratic member of the West Virginia House of Delegates, representing the 65th district. Lawrence is a former Miss West Virginia. Wendy Gooditis, is an American real estate agent and politician.
A Democrat, Gooditis was elected in November 2017 to be the delegate from Virginia's 10th House of Delegates district to the Virginia House of Delegates. Carl Tanner, is an American operatic tenor. Richard Zarou, is a contemporary composer of concert and film music and the host of the new music podcast "No Extra Notes". According to the university's official history page, the name Shenandoah is derived from the Native American legend of Zynodoa, a brave warrior whose life of strength and courage and his appreciation of beauty resulted in having a river and a valley named for him. Popular myth further ascribes translation of the word "Shenandoah" to mean "daughter of the stars." Su.edu, university's official website su.edu/conservatory, Shenandoah Conservatory's module SU Hornets Shenandoah University Athletics webpage
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the most populous city in the U. S. state of New Jersey and the seat of Essex County. As one of the nation's major air and rail hubs, the city had a population of 285,154 in 2017, making it the nation's 70th-most populous municipality, after being ranked 63rd in the nation in 2000. Settled in 1666 by Puritans from New Haven Colony, Newark is one of the oldest cities in the United States, its location at the mouth of the Passaic River has made the city's waterfront an integral part of the Port of New York and New Jersey. Today, Port Newark–Elizabeth is the primary container shipping terminal of the busiest seaport on the American East Coast. In addition, Newark Liberty International Airport was the first municipal commercial airport in the United States, today is one of its busiest. Several leading companies have their headquarters in Newark, including Prudential, PSEG, Panasonic Corporation of North America, Audible.com, IDT Corporation, Manischewitz. A number of important higher education institutions are in the city, including the Newark campus of Rutgers University.
The U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey sits in the city as well. Local cultural venues include the New Jersey Performing Arts Center, Newark Symphony Hall, the Prudential Center and the Newark Museum. Newark is divided into five political wards and contains neighborhoods ranging in character from bustling urban districts to quiet suburban enclaves. Newark's Branch Brook Park is the oldest county park in the United States and is home to the nation's largest collection of cherry blossom trees, numbering over 5,000. Newark was settled in 1666 by Connecticut Puritans led by Robert Treat from the New Haven Colony, it was conceived as a theocratic assembly of the faithful, though this did not last for long as new settlers came with different ideas. On October 31, 1693, it was organized as a New Jersey township based on the Newark Tract, first purchased on July 11, 1667. Newark was granted a Royal charter on April 27, 1713, it was incorporated on February 21, 1798 by the New Jersey Legislature's Township Act of 1798, as one of New Jersey's initial group of 104 townships.
During its time as a township, portions were taken to form Springfield Township, Caldwell Township, Orange Township, Bloomfield Township and Clinton Township. Newark was reincorporated as a city on April 11, 1836, replacing Newark Township, based on the results of a referendum passed on March 18, 1836; the independent Vailsburg borough was annexed by Newark on January 1, 1905. In 1926, South Orange Township changed its name to Maplewood; as a result of this, a portion of Maplewood known. The name of the city is thought to derive from Newark-on-Trent, because of the influence of the original pastor, Abraham Pierson, who came from Yorkshire but may have ministered in Newark, Nottinghamshire, but Pierson is supposed to have said that the community reflecting the new task at hand should be named "New Ark" for "New Ark of the Covenant and some of the colonists saw it as "New-Work", the settlers' new work with God. Whatever the origins, the name was shortened to Newark, although references to the name "New Ark" are found in preserved letters written by historical figures such as David Ogden in his claim for compensation, James McHenry, as late as 1787.
During the American Revolutionary War, British troops made several raids into the town. The city saw tremendous industrial and population growth during the 19th century and early 20th century, experienced racial tension and urban decline in the second half of the 20th century, culminating in the 1967 Newark riots; the city has experienced revitalization since the 1990s. In 2018 the city passed legislation to protect residents from displacement brought about by gentrification. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city had a total area of 26.107 square miles, including 24.187 square miles of land and 1.920 square miles of water. It has the third-smallest land area among the 100 most populous cities in the U. S. behind neighboring Jersey City and Hialeah, Florida. The city's altitude ranges from 0 in the east to 230 feet above sea level in the western section of the city. Newark is a large basin sloping towards the Passaic River, with a few valleys formed by meandering streams. Newark's high places have been its wealthier neighborhoods.
In the 19th century and early 20th century, the wealthy congregated on the ridges of Forest Hill, High Street, Weequahic. Until the 20th century, the marshes on Newark Bay were difficult to develop, as the marshes were wilderness, with a few dumps and cemeteries on their edges. During the 20th century, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey was able to reclaim 68 acres of the marshland for the further expansion of Newark Airport, as well as the growth of the port lands. Newark is surrounded by residential suburbs to the west, the Passaic River and Newark Bay to the east, dense urban areas to the south and southwest, middle-class residential suburbs and industrial areas to the north; the city is the largest in New Jersey's Gateway Region, said to have received its name from Newark's nickname as the "Gateway City"
Alexander Brailowsky was a Russian-born French pianist who specialized in the works of Frédéric Chopin. He was a leading concert pianist in the years between the two World Wars. Brailowsky was born in Kiev, Ukraine part of the Russian Empire to a Jewish family, as a boy, he studied piano with his father, a professional pianist; when he was 8, he studied in Kiev with a pupil of Theodor Leschetizky. At the age of 18, he attended Kiev Conservatory, graduating with a gold medal in 1911, he went on to study with Leschetizky in Vienna until 1914 with Ferruccio Busoni in Zürich, with Francis Planté in Paris. He became a French citizen in 1926. Brailowsky made his concert debut in Paris in 1919. Brailowsky programmed all 160 piano pieces by Frédéric Chopin for playing in a series of six concerts. In 1924, he gave a recital in Paris of the complete cycle of the works of Chopin, the first in history, using the composer's own piano for part of the recital, he went on to present a further thirty cycles of Chopin's music in Paris, Zurich, Mexico City, Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
A successful world tour followed. Brailowsky's American debut was at Aeolian Hall in New York City in 1924, he toured the United States in 1936. During a series of nineteen recitals in Buenos Aires, he never repeated a single work. During World War II, he gave recitals for the USO. In 1960, he played the Chopin cycle again in Paris, in Brussels in honor of the 150th anniversary of Chopin's birth. Between 1925 and 1930 he recorded at least twenty three works for the Ampico reproducing pianos, preserving his earliest recorded legacy in this medium. Brailowsky's first audio recordings were produced in Berlin from 1928 to 1934 and released on 78 rpm discs. In 1938, he recorded in London for HMV. Discs were produced for RCA Victor and, in the 1960s, for CBS. Besides his huge output of Chopin, his repertoire included Rachmaninoff, Saint-Saëns, Liszt and others. Brailowsky died in New York City at the age of 80 from complications brought on by pneumonia and was survived by his wife Felicia Brailowsky. Brailowsky said that the technique used to play Chopin's music should be "fluent, delicate and capable of great variety of color."
Chopin: The Fourteen Waltzes Chopin: The Complete Mazurkas Vol. 1 Chopin: The Complete Mazurkas Vol. 2 A Chopin Recital Chopin Nocturnes Vol. 1 Chopin Nocturnes Vol. 2 Chopin Polonaises Chopin: The 24 Preludes Chopin: Concerto No. 1 in E Minor. Op. 11 Chopin: The Complete Etudes Chopin Concerto No. 1, Liszt: Todtentanz Brailowsky Plays Liszt Liszt: 15 Hungarian Rhapsodies Rachmaninoff Piano Concerto No. 2 Schumann: Etudes Symphoniques Chopin: Sonata in B Minor Op. 58 Chopin: Waltzes *Op. 18 *Op. 34, Nos. 1, 2 and 3 *Op. 42 *Op. 64, Nos. 1, 2 and 3 Brower, Harriette. Piano Mastery: The Harriette Brower Interviews. Dover. P. 224. ISBN 0-486-42781-1. Alexander Brailowsky - The Complete Discography His complete discography and more. All Music Interview with Felicia Karzmar Brailowsky, ca. 1982
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
Juliette Nadia Boulanger was a French composer and teacher. She is notable for having taught many of the leading musicians of the 20th century, she performed as a pianist and organist. From a musical family, she achieved early honours as a student at the Paris Conservatoire but, believing that she had no particular talent as a composer, she gave up writing music and became a teacher. In that capacity, she influenced generations of young composers those from the United States and other English-speaking countries. Among her students were those who became leading composers, soloists and conductors, including Aaron Copland, Roy Harris, Virgil Thomson, Darius Milhaud, Elliott Carter, David Diamond, Dinu Lipatti, Igor Markevitch, İdil Biret, Daniel Barenboim, John Eliot Gardiner, Philip Glass, Lalo Schifrin, Astor Piazzolla, Quincy Jones, Michel Legrand, her female students, whose chances in the 20th century for recognition were lower than that of the men, include notable American women composers, such as Louise Talma, Elaine Bearer, Eugenie Kuffler, Elise Grant Cieslak, Anne Robertson.
Boulanger taught in the US and England, working with music academies including the Juilliard School, the Yehudi Menuhin School, the Longy School, the Royal College of Music and the Royal Academy of Music, but her principal base for most of her life was her family's flat in Paris, where she taught for most of the seven decades from the start of her career until her death at the age of 92. Boulanger was the first woman to conduct many major orchestras in America and Europe, including the BBC Symphony, Boston Symphony, Hallé, New York Philharmonic and Philadelphia orchestras, she conducted several world premieres, including works by Stravinsky. Nadia Boulanger was born in Paris on 16 September 1887, to French composer and pianist Ernest Boulanger and his wife Raissa Myshetskaya, a Russian princess, who descended from St. Mikhail Tchernigovsky. Ernest Boulanger had studied at the Paris Conservatoire and, in 1835 at the age of 20, won the coveted Prix de Rome for composition, he wrote comic operas and incidental music for plays, but was most known for his choral music.
He achieved distinction as a director of choral groups, teacher of voice, a member of choral competition juries. After years of rejection, in 1872 he was appointed to the Paris Conservatoire as professor of singing. Raissa qualified as a home tutor in 1873. According to Ernest, he and Raissa met in Russia in 1873, she followed him back to Paris, she joined his voice class at the Conservatoire in 1876, they were married in Russia in 1877. Ernest and Raissa had a daughter who died as an infant before Nadia was born on her father's 72nd birthday. Through her early years, although both parents were active musically, Nadia would get upset by hearing music and hide until it stopped. In 1892, when Nadia was five, Raissa became pregnant again. During the pregnancy, Nadia's response to music changed drastically. "One day I heard a fire bell. Instead of crying out and hiding, I tried to reproduce the sounds. My parents were amazed." After this, Boulanger paid great attention to the singing lessons her father gave, began to study the rudiments of music.
Her sister, named Marie-Juliette Olga but known as Lili, was born in 1893. When Ernest brought Nadia home from their friends' house, before she was allowed to see her mother or Lili, he made her promise solemnly to be responsible for the new baby's welfare, he urged her to take part in her sister's care. From the age of seven, Nadia studied hard in preparation for her Conservatoire entrance exams, sitting in on their classes and having private lessons with its teachers. Lili stayed in the room for these lessons and listening. In 1896, the nine-year-old Nadia entered the Conservatoire, she studied there with others. She came in third in the 1897 solfège competition, subsequently worked hard to win first prize in 1898, she took private lessons from Alexandre Guilmant. During this period, she received religious instruction to become an observant Catholic, taking her First Communion on 4 May 1899; the Catholic religion remained important to her for the rest of her life. In 1900 her father Ernest died, money became a problem for the family.
Raissa had an extravagant lifestyle, the royalties she received from performances of Ernest's music were insufficient to live on permanently. Nadia continued to work hard at the Conservatoire to become a teacher and be able to contribute to her family's support. In 1903, Nadia won the Conservatoire's first prize in harmony, she studied composition with Gabriel Fauré and, in the 1904 competitions, she came first in three categories: organ, accompagnement au piano and fugue. At her accompagnement exam, Boulanger met Raoul Pugno, a renowned French pianist and composer, who subsequently took an interest in her career. In the autumn of 1904, Nadia began to teach from the family apartment at rue Ballu. In addition to the private lessons she held there, Boulanger started holding a Wednesday afternoon group class in analysis and sightsinging, she continued these to her death. This class was followed by her famous "at homes", salons at which students could mingle with professional musicians and Boulanger's other friends from the arts, such as Igor Stravinsky, Paul Valéry, Fauré, others.
After leaving the Conservatoire in 1904 and before her sister's death in 1918, Boulanger was a keen composer, encouraged