British Columbia Coast
The British Columbia Coast or BC Coast is Canada's western continental coastline on the North Pacific Ocean. The usage is synonymous with the term West Coast of Canada. In a sense excluding the urban Lower Mainland area adjacent to the Canada–United States border, considered "The Coast," the British Columbia Coast refers to one of British Columbia's three main regions, the others being the Lower Mainland and The Interior; the aerial distance from Victoria on the Strait of Juan de Fuca to Stewart, British Columbia on the Alaska border at the head of the Portland Canal is 965 kilometres in length. However, because of its many deep inlets and complicated island shorelines—and 40,000 islands of varying sizes, including Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii —the total length of the British Columbia Coast is over 25,725 kilometres, making up about 10% of the Canadian coastline at 243,042 kilometres; the coastline's geography, shared with Southeast Alaska and adjoining parts of northwest Washington, is most comparable to that of Norway and its indented coastline of fjords, a landscape found in southern Chile.
The dominant landforms of the BC Coast are the Insular Mountains, comprising most of Vancouver Island and Haida Gwaii, the Coast Mountains, which extend beyond into Alaska and the Yukon. The British Columbia Coast is part of the Pacific temperate rain forests ecoregion as defined by the World Wide Fund for Nature. In the system used by Environment Canada, established by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, the area is defined as the Pacific Maritime Ecozone. In the geoclimatic zones system used by the British Columbia Ministry of Forests the bulk of the region comprises the Coastal Western Hemlock biogeoclimatic zone, although small areas flanking the Strait of Georgia at the coast's southern extremity are classed in the Coastal Douglas-fir zone; the great fjords of the British Columbia Coast rival those of Norway in length and depth but have higher mountain scenery with a more alpine flavour. Many of the islands offshore are much larger than those along the Norwegian coast, many large enough to have major fjords of their own, as well as their own mountain ranges.
This is of course more true of the large islands farther offshore, Vancouver Island and Graham and Moresby Islands in Haida Gwaii, which together form the Insular Mountains, distinct from the Coast Mountains of the mainland. Here are the most important fjords, inlets and sounds, including those important for reasons other than their size, listed south to north: The many fjord-like waterways between the coast and the islands, within the archipelago, cannot be listed here, there are many more others that are not so much fjord-like as flooded valleys between what had been mountain peaks many thousands of years ago, when the shoreline was lower; the waterway route through these islands between Vancouver and Prince Rupert, between Seattle and Alaska, is known as the Inside Passage. It has played a role in U. S.-Canada relations more than once, from the Klondike Gold Rush to the Salmon War of the 1990s. Major and important waterways are: Vancouver Island Haida Gwaii Graham Island Moresby Island Louise Island Lyell Island Kunghit Island Porcher Island Pitt Island McCauley Island Banks Island Gil Island Gribbell Island Hawkesbury Island Princess Royal Island Aristazabal Island Price Island Swindle Island Campbell Island Denny Island Hunter Island King Island Calvert Island Caamano Island Malcolm Island Broughton Archipelago Broughton Island Gilford Island Knight Inlet West/East Cracroft Islands Knight Inlet Hardwicke Island Johnstone Strait Discovery Islands East Thurlow Island West Thurlow Island Sonora Island Maurelle Island Read Island Raza Island Quadra Island Cortes Island East Redonda Island West Redonda Island Hernando Island Stuart Island Rendezvous Islands Nelson Island Northern Gulf Islands: Savary Island Texada Island Lasqueti Island Hornby Island Denman Island The above list ends at the northern Strait of Georgia, the last several forming a group known as the northern Gulf Islands.
The southern Gulf Islands are as follows: Gabriola Island Valdes Island Thetis Island Kuiper Island Saltspring Island Prevost Island Galiano Island Mayne Island North Pender Island South Pender Island Saturna Island Sidney Island James IslandThe Gulf Islands continue southeast across the Haro Straits as the San Juan Islands. The islands of Howe Sound are classed among the southern Gulf Islands, but they adjoin the mainland rather than Vancouver Island and are considered separately, they are: Bowen Island Gambier Island Anvil Island Keats island Bowyer IslandThe islands of the Fraser River estuary are: Barnston Island Lulu Island Sea Island Westham Island Iona Island Deas Island Annacis Island Research from the 1990s has indicated that the Ice Age-era coastline of the British Columbia Coast was lower by about 100 metres. The effect of the waterlevel on the coastline was such that the Queen Charlotte Strait, between Haida Gwaii and the northern end of Vancouver Island, was a coastal plain, as were all the straits inland from it, except for those that were mountain valleys.
Underwater archaeology has shown the presence of permanent human habitations and other activity at the 100-metre contour, the Ice Age existence of such a coastal plain has put a new light on Ice Age populations in North America as well as on the strong likeli
Victoria, British Columbia
Victoria is the capital city of the Canadian province of British Columbia, located on the southern tip of Vancouver Island off Canada's Pacific coast. The city has a population of 85,792, while the metropolitan area of Greater Victoria has a population of 367,770, making it the 15th most populous Canadian metropolitan area. Victoria is the 7th most densely populated city in Canada with 4,405.8 people per square kilometre, a greater population density than Toronto. Victoria is the southernmost major city in Western Canada, is about 100 kilometres from British Columbia's largest city of Vancouver on the mainland; the city is about 100 km from Seattle by airplane, ferry, or the Victoria Clipper passenger-only ferry which operates daily, year round between Seattle and Victoria, 40 kilometres from Port Angeles, Washington, by ferry Coho across the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Named after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom and, at the time, British North America, Victoria is one of the oldest cities in the Pacific Northwest, with British settlement beginning in 1843.
The city has retained a large number of its historic buildings, in particular its two most famous landmarks, Parliament Buildings and the Empress hotel. The city's Chinatown is the second oldest in North America after San Francisco's; the region's Coast Salish First Nations peoples established communities in the area long before non-native settlement several thousand years earlier, which had large populations at the time of European exploration. Known as "The Garden City", Victoria is an attractive city and a popular tourism destination with a thriving technology sector that has risen to be its largest revenue-generating private industry. Victoria is according to Numbeo; the city has a large non-local student population, who come to attend the University of Victoria, Camosun College, Royal Roads University, the Victoria College of Art, the Canadian College of Performing Arts, high school programs run by the region's three school districts. Victoria is popular with boaters with its rugged beaches.
Victoria is popular with retirees, who come to enjoy the temperate and snow-free climate of the area as well as the relaxed pace of the city. Prior to the arrival of European navigators in the late 1700s, the Victoria area was home to several communities of Coast Salish peoples, including the Songhees; the Spanish and British took up the exploration of the northwest coast, beginning with the visits of Juan Pérez in 1774, of James Cook in 1778. Although the Victoria area of the Strait of Juan de Fuca was not penetrated until 1790, Spanish sailors visited Esquimalt Harbour in 1790, 1791, 1792. In 1841 James Douglas was charged with the duty of setting up a trading post on the southern tip of Vancouver Island, upon the recommendation by George Simpson a new more northerly post be built in case Fort Vancouver fell into American hands. Douglas founded Fort Victoria on the site of present-day Victoria in anticipation of the outcome of the Oregon Treaty in 1846, extending the British North America/United States border along the 49th parallel from the Rockies to the Strait of Georgia.
Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site called Camosun known as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in November 1843, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort; the Songhees' village was moved north of Esquimalt. The crown colony was established in 1849. Between the years 1850-1854 a series of treaty agreements known as the Douglas Treaties were made with indigenous communities to purchase certain plots of land in exchange for goods; these agreements contributed to a town being laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony, though controversy has followed about the ethical negotiation and upholding of rights by the colonial government. The superintendent of the fort, Chief Factor James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony, would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864; when news of the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland reached San Francisco in 1858, Victoria became the port, supply base, outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 within a few days.
Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy was established in Esquimalt and today is Canada's Pacific coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster – an unpopular move on the Mainland – and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871. In the latter half of the 19th century, the Port of Victoria became one of North America's largest importers of opium, serving the opium trade from Hong Kong and distribution into North America. Opium trade was legal and unregulated until 1865 the legislature issued licences and levied duties on its import and sale; the opium trade was banned in 1908. In 1886, with the completion of the Canadian Pacific Railway terminus on Burrard Inlet, Victoria's position as the commercial centre of British Columbia was irrevocably lost to the city of Vancouver, British Columbia.
The city subsequently began culti
A peninsula is a landform surrounded by water on the majority of its border while being connected to a mainland from which it extends. The surrounding water is understood to be continuous, though not named as a single body of water. Peninsulas are not always named as such. A point is considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water, less prominent than a cape. A river which courses through a tight meander is sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the loop of water. In English, the plural versions of peninsula are peninsulas and, less peninsulae. List of peninsulas Isthmus
Frederick Seymour was a colonial administrator. After receiving little education and no inheritance from his father, Prince Albert offered Seymour a junior appointment in the colonial service. Seymour held positions in various British colonies from 1842 until 1863. From 1864 to 1866, he served as the second Governor of the Colony of British Columbia, succeeding Sir James Douglas, he would enter government at a time of unrest, with the Fraser River gold rush causing violence within the colony, as well as dealing with large debts left over from Douglas' time as governor. During his time as Governor, he was involved in the aftermath of the Chilcotin Uprising, during which he made better relations with local indigenous groups of British Columbia, he believed the colony would endure as its own entity and invested in different initiatives he hoped would further the economic growth of the colony, from the construction of roads to bringing infrastructure to British Columbia. Though opposed to it, Seymour played a major role in the development of the constitution that would be used to unite of British Columbia and Vancouver Island.
Seymour continued to serve as the first governor of the union of the two colonies named the Colony of British Columbia from 1866 to 1869. Further, Seymour was a key player in developing and cementing a relationship with BC Indigenous nations such as the sto:lo. Frederick Seymour was born on 6 September 1820 to Henry Augustus Seymour and Margaret Williams, in Belfast, Northern Ireland, he was the fourth, younger son to Henry and Margaret. Henry Augustus Seymour was the illegitimate son of son of Francis Seymour-Conway, 2nd Marquess of Hertford, received his education at Harrow, Pembroke College and the Inns of Court, he was given family property in Ireland, a secured private income, as well as a position in the customs service. However, this all ended with the succession of the 3rd Marquis of Hertford in 1822, Henry Seymour was forced to take his family to Brussels, Belgium to reside. Frederick's eldest brother, was successful and distinguished, he had a successful military career and had established a friendship with Prince Albert in 1838, resided at Kensington Place until his death in 1890.
Frederick Seymour was just two years old when his father lost his fortune, as result, he did not receive a good education or inheritance, unlike his older siblings. In 1842, Prince Albert intervened on his behalf, Frederick Seymour obtained a junior appointment in the Colonial Service, he was given the title of Assistant Colonial Secretary of Van Diemen's Land, which marked the beginning of Seymour's life spent in colonies. The colonies Seymour worked in were "all in a traditional stage of development and which were all torn by political strife and encumbered with serious economic problems." Seymour worked as the Assistant Colonial Secretary of Van Diemen's Land until his position was dissolved. In 1848, he was appointed Special Magistrate at Antigua in the Leeward Islands, he faced challenges with labour due to the abolition of slavery, with sugar planting over disputes over trade policies. He became President of Nevis in 1853, where he supported free trade despite opposition from the leading families in that area.
As a reward for his good service and hard work, he was promoted to Superintendent of British Honduras in 1857, Lieutenant-Governor of the Bay Islands, to Lieutenant-Governor of Honduras. In 1863, Seymour spent some time in England, on his return to Belize he received a letter from the Duke of Newcastle Colonial Secretary. In the letter, the Duke offered Seymour the promotion to the governorship of British Columbia, had informed Sir James Douglas that he had recommended Seymour to Queen Victoria as "a man of much ability and energy who has shown considerable aptitude for the management of savage tribes." Seymour accepted this offer, the transition to a more moderate climate pleased him. "It is gratifying to me, to accept this important trust from the Secretary of State to whom I owe my introduction to the Colonial Service. The prospect of a change from the swamps of Honduras to a fine country is inexpressibly attractive to me, I trust, in the bracing of air of North America to prove myself worthy of your Grace's confidence and kindness."Seymour returned to England for a short visit, when he left for North America, he was accompanied by Arthur Nonus Birch, a junior clerk in the Colonial Office, to remain in British Columbia for two to three years, taking up the position of Seymour's Colonial Secretary.
Newcastle had hoped to create a Maritime region in the west, expanding on the success of the gold trade and the previous presence of the British Royal Navy during the gold rushes. This would require the union of the Vancouver Island Colony and British Columbia, but the extreme rivalry between the two colonies would continue to prevent this. With the retirement of Sir James Douglas who served as Governor of both colonies, Capitan Arthur Edward Kennedy was appointed Governor of Vancouver Island on 11 December 1863. Seymour was soon after appointed Governor of mainland British Columbia on January 11, 1864. With the increase in the local economy because of the gold rush, the Imperial Office hoped that British Columbia could become a self-sustaining colony with Seymour spearheading the local legislation. With Seymour's commitment to become Governor, Newcastle promised him a personal residence to be paid for by the colony as well as a yearly salary of £3,000; when Seymour arrived the settlers of the area greeted him with enthusiasm, his passion towards bettering
Tidal race or tidal rapid is a natural occurrence whereby a fast-moving tide passes through a constriction, resulting in the formation of waves and hazardous currents. The constriction can be a passage where the sides narrow, for example the Gulf of Corryvreckan and the Saltstraumen maelstrom, or an underwater obstruction, such as is found at the Portland Race. In extreme cases, such as Skookumchuck Narrows in British Columbia, through which tides can travel at more than 17 knots large whirlpools develop, which can be hazardous to navigation. Cape Reinga in New Zealand Skookumchuck Narrows in British Columbia, Canada The Bitches in Wales, United Kingdom Falls of Lora in Scotland, United Kingdom Portland Bill on the Isle of Portland, United Kingdom The Alderney Race on Alderney Horizontal Falls in Western Australia, Australia Naruto Strait between Shikoku and Awaji Islands, Japan Reversing Falls in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada Gut – A narrow coastal body of water, a channel or strait one, subject to strong tidal currents, or a small creek Rip current – Narrow current of water which moves directly away from the shore, cutting through the lines of breaking waves Tidal bore – A hydrodynamic phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current
Queen Charlotte Strait
Queen Charlotte Strait is a strait between Vancouver Island and the Mainland of British Columbia, Canada. It connects Queen Charlotte Sound with Johnstone Strait and Discovery Passage and via them to the Strait of Georgia and Puget Sound, it forms part of the Inside Passage from Washington to Alaska. The term Queen Charlotte Strait is used to refer to the general region and its many communities, notably of the Kwakwaka'wakw peoples. Despite its name, Queen Charlotte Strait does not lie between the mainland. According to the BCGNIS, the northern boundary of Queen Charlotte Strait is defined as a line running Cape Sutil, at the north end of Vancouver Island, to Cape Caution on the mainland; the southern end of Queen Charlotte Strait is described as "several narrow channels north and east of Malcolm Island". Queen Charlotte Sound was named by James Strange on August 5, 1786, in honour of Queen Charlotte, the consort of King George III. Strange was the leader of a fur trading expedition of two vessels, the Captain Cook, under Captain Henry Lawrie, the Experiment, under Captain John Guise.
During a boat excursion up Goletas Channel, Strange saw an opening ahead and named it Queen Charlotte Sound. The body of water he named was. For some time Queen Charlotte Strait was called Queen Charlotte Sound, until 1920 when the BCGNIS and Hydrographic Service distinguished between Queen Charlotte Sound and Queen Charlotte Strait. George Vancouver, who used the name in his maps and writings, wrote that the sound was named by Mr. S. Wedgeborough, in command of the Experiment under James Strange, but this is a mistake; the strait lies between the Mainland and Vancouver Island portions of the Mount Waddington Regional District, a form of regional municipal governance with power over zoning and sewer permits and inter-municipal integration. Most communities in the region, are Indian reserve communities of the Kwakwaka'wakw peoples which are outside the jurisdiction of regional district governance; the traditional territories of most of the various Kwakwaka'wakw peoples overlap in the strait, a vital fishery resource and transportation link between their communities.
Kwakwaka'wakw Broughton Archipelago Knight Inlet Fjords of Canada Queen Charlotte Channel Google Map
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000