Main Hall (Japanese Buddhism)
Main hall is the term used in English for the building within a Japanese Buddhist temple compound which enshrines the main object of veneration. Because the various denominations deliberately use different terms, this single English term translates several Japanese words, among them Butsuden, Butsu-dō, kondō, konpon-chūdō, hondō. Hondō is its exact Japanese equivalent, while the others are more specialized words used by particular sects or for edifices having a particular structure; the term kondō "golden hall", started to be used during the Asuka and Nara periods. A kondō is the centerpiece of an ancient Buddhist temple's garan in Japan; the origin of the name is uncertain, but it may derive from the perceived preciousness of its content, or from the fact that the interior was lined with gold. This is the name used by the oldest temples in the country. A kondō, for example Hōryū-ji's is a true two-story building with a 3x2 bay central core surrounded by a 1-bay wide aisles (hisashi making it 5x4 bays, surrounded by an external 1-bay wide mokoshi, for a total of 9x7 bays.
The second story has the same dimensions as the temple's core at the first story, but has no mokoshi. Some temples, for example Asuka-dera or Hōryū-ji, have more than one kondō, but only one exists and is the first building to be built; because of its limited size, worshipers were not allowed to enter the building and had to stand outside. The kondō and a pagoda were surrounded by a corridor called kairō; the use of kondō declined after the 10th century, when it was replaced by a hondō divided in naijin and gejin. The term remained in some use up to the Edo period, but its frequency decreased drastically after the appearance of the term hon-dō in the Heian period; the term hondō means "main hall" and it enshrines the most important objects of veneration. The term is thought to have evolved during the 9th century to avoid the early term kondō, at the time used by six Nara sects called the Nanto Rokushū, it became common after the introduction of the two Mikkyo sects to Japan. Various new types of temple buildings, including the hondō, were built during the Heian period, in response to the requirements of new doctrines.
Different buildings were called hondō depending on the sect, for example: the kondō, the chudō, mieidō, the Amida-dō. A notable evolution of the hondō during this period is the inclusion of a space for worshipers inside the hondō itself, called gejin. Other names such as Konpon-chūdō "cardinal central hall" are used as well, for example for the main hall at Mount Hiei's Enryaku-ji; the Tokugawa funeral temple of Kan'ei-ji, built explicitly to imitate Enryaku-ji had one, though it has not survived. Yama-dera in Yamagata is another example of a temple using this name; the Butsuden or Butsu-dō "Buddha Hall", is the main hall of Zen temples of schools such as the Sōtō 曹洞 and Rinzai 臨済. This architectonic style arrived together with Zen during the Kamakura period. There are following types of Butsuden or Butsu-dō: The simplest is a 3x3 bay square building with no mokoshi (a mokoshi being an enclosure circling the core of the temple covered by a pent roof one bay in width; the second type is 3x3 bay square, but has a 1 bay wide mokoshi all around the core of the temple, making it look like a two-story, 5x5 bay building as in the case of the butsuden, visible in the photo on the right.
It is known that during the 13th and 14th centuries large butsuden measuring 5x5 bays square having a mokoshi were built, but none survives. Large size 3x3 bay butsuden with a mokoshi however still exist, for example at Myōshin-ji. In the case of the Ōbaku Zen school that arrived late in Japan, the architecture retained the Ming Chinese style; the hondō of Ōbaku Zen temples is called daiyū-hōden ‘the Treasured Hall of the Mahāvīra ’. An example can be found at Mampuku-ji. Shichidō garan for details about the main hall's position within a temple compound; the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism for terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture. Mahavira Hall, the common Main Hall of Chinese and Korean Buddhist temples Iwanami Kōjien Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition, DVD version Iwanami Nihonshi Jiten, CD-Rom Version. Iwanami Shoten, 1999-2001; the Evolution of Buddhist Architecture in Japan by Alexander Soper 1978, ISBN 9780878171965 Japanese Art Net User System Dictionary of Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology, Kondou, Hondou entries.
Accessed on May 6, 2009 Watanabe, Hiroshi. The Architecture of Tokyo. Edition Axel Menges. ISBN 978-3-930698-93-6
The rōmon is one of two types of two-storied gate used in Japan. Though it was developed by Buddhist architecture, it is now used at both Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines, its otherwise normal upper story therefore offers no usable space. It is in this respect similar to the tahōtō and the multi-storied pagoda, neither of which offers, in spite of appearances, usable space beyond the first story. In the past, the name used to be sometimes applied to double-roof gates; this common single-roof gate was developed from the double-roofed nijūmon, replacing the flanking roof above the first floor with a shallow balcony with a balustrade that skirts the entire upper story. Therefore, while the nijūmon has a series of brackets supporting the roof's eaves both at the first and at the second story, in the rōmon at the first floor these brackets just support the balcony, have a different structure; the tokyō are three-stepped, but at the first floor they don't have tail rafters. Rōmon structure can vary in its details.
The upper area behind the balustrade for example can have muntined windows or a single window in the center bay. Side bays can be covered with white plaster. Rōmon but not always, have a hip-and-gable roof. Dimensions go from Tōdai-ji's 5 bays to the more common 3-bays, down to one bay. Iwanami Nihonshi Jiten, CD-Rom Version. Iwanami Shoten, 1999-2001 "Roumon". JAANUS – Japanese Architecture and Art Net User System. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Fujita Masaya, Koga Shūsaku, ed.. Nihon Kenchiku-shi. Shōwa-dō. ISBN 4-8122-9805-9. Young, David; the art of Japanese architecture. Architecture and Interior Design. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3838-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11
Hōryū-ji is a Buddhist temple, once one of the powerful Seven Great Temples, in Ikaruga, Nara Prefecture, Japan. Its full name is Hōryū Gakumonji, or Learning Temple of the Flourishing Law, the complex serving as both a seminary and monastery; the temple's pagoda is acknowledged to be the oldest wooden building existing in the world, underscoring Hōryū-ji's place as one of the most celebrated temples in Japan. In 1993, Hōryū-ji was inscribed together with Hokki-ji as a UNESCO World Heritage site under the name Buddhist Monuments in the Hōryū-ji Area; the Japanese government lists several of its structures and artifacts as National Treasures. A 2001 study of its shinbashira, the central wooden column suspended inside the Tō, concluded the building to be a century older than thought; the temple was commissioned by Prince Shōtoku. This first temple is believed to have been completed by 607. Hōryū-ji was dedicated in honor of the prince's father. Excavations done in 1939 confirmed that Prince Shotoku's palace, the Ikaruga-no-miya, occupied the eastern part of the current temple complex, where the Tō-in sits today.
Discovered were the ruins of a temple complex, southwest of the prince's palace and not within the present temple complex. The original temple, named by modern historians and archaeologists Wakakusa-garan, was lost burned to the ground after being hit by lightning in 670; the temple was reconstructed but reoriented in a northwest position, believed to have been completed by around 711. The temple was repaired and reassembled in the early twelfth century, in 1374, 1603. In 1950 the maintainers of the temple broke away from the Hossō sect; the owners call the temple the headquarters of the "Shōtoku" sect. The current temple is made up of the Sai-in in the west and the Tō-in in the east; the western part of the temple contains the temple's five-story pagoda. The Tō-in area sits 122 meters east of the Sai-in area; the complex contains monk's quarters, lecture halls and dining halls. The reconstructed buildings embrace significant cultural influences from the Three Kingdoms of Korea those of Baekje, as well as from Eastern Han to Northern Wei of China.
The Chinese influence came through Baekje, since Baekje had a permanent trading relationship with China at the time. The reconstruction has allowed Hōryū-ji to absorb and feature a unique fusion of early Asuka period style elements, added with some distinct ones only seen in Hōryū-ji, such as the small proportions of the fifth story of the pagoda, which buildings constructed in years lack, it is home to unique examples of early Japanese architecture, such as the Tamamushi Shrine. There are many features that suggest the current precinct of Hōryu-ji is not related to the Asuka period style in the same way as other works from the period. Scholars note that the style of Hōryū-ji is more "conservative" than other examples from the period, such as Yakushiji; the five-story pagoda, located in Sai-in area, stands at 32.45 meters in height and is one of the oldest extant wooden buildings in the world. The wood used in the central pillar or axis mundi of the pagoda is estimated through a dendrochronological analysis to have been felled in 594.
The axis mundi rests three meters below the surface of the massive foundation stone, stretching into the ground. At its base, a relic believed to be a fragment of the bones of the Buddha is enshrined. Around it, four sculpted scenes from the life of the Buddha face in the four cardinal directions; the pagoda is five-storied but, as is customary for pagodas, there is no access to the interior. The kondō, located side-by-side to the Pagoda in Sai-in, is another one of the oldest wood buildings extant in the world; the hall measures 18.5 meters by 15.2 meters. The hall has two stories, with roofs curved in the corners. Only the first story has a double roof; this was added in the Nara period with extra posts to hold up the original first roof because it extended more than four meters past the building. Due to a fire that broke out on January 26, 1949, severe damage was caused to the building its first floor, the murals; as a result of the restoration, it is estimated that about fifteen to twenty percent of the original seventh century Kondo materials is left in the current building, while the charred members were removed and rebuilt to a separate fireproof warehouse for future research.
Through a recent dendrochronological analysis carried out using the materials preserved during the restorations done in the 1950s, it has turned out that some of them were felled prior to 670, suggesting a possibility that the current kondō was under construction when "the fire in 670", as recorded in the Nihon Shoki, burned the former Wakakusa-garan down. The hall holds the famous Shaka Triad, together with a bronze Yakushi and Amida Nyorai statues, other national treasures; the wall paintings shown today in the Kondō are a reproduction from 1967. Yumedono is one of the main constructions in the Tō-in area, built on the ground, once Prince Shōtoku's private palace, Ikaruga no miya; the present incarnation of this hall was built in 739 to assuage the Prince's spirit. The hall acquired its present-day common name in the Heian period, after a legend that says a Buddha arrived as Prince Shōtoku and meditated in a hall that existed here; the hall contains the famous Yume
Sumiyoshi-zukuri is an ancient Shinto shrine architectural style which takes its name from Sumiyoshi Taisha's honden in Ōsaka. As in the case of the taisha-zukuri and shinmei-zukuri styles, its birth predates the arrival in Japan of Buddhism. Ancient shrines were constructed according to the style of storehouses; the buildings had gabled roofs, raised floors, plank walls, were thatched with reed or covered with hinoki cypress bark. Such early shrines did not include a space for worship. Three important forms of ancient shrine architectural styles exist: taisha-zukuri, shinmei-zukuri and sumiyoshi-zukuri They are exemplified by Izumo Taisha, Nishina Shinmei Shrine and Sumiyoshi Taisha and date to before 552. According to the tradition of Shikinen sengū-sai, the buildings or shrines were faithfully rebuilt at regular intervals adhering to the original design. In this manner, ancient styles have been replicated through the centuries to the present day; the honden on the grounds at Sumiyoshi Taisha has been designated as a national treasure on the grounds that it is the oldest example of this style of architecture.
The four identical honden buildings that compose it are 4 ken wide and 2 ken deep and have an entrance under one of the gables (a characteristic called tsumairi-zukuri. The roof is simple, doesn't curve upwards at the eaves and is decorated with purely ornamental poles called chigi and katsuogi; the building is surrounded by a fence called mizugaki, in its turn surrounded by another called tamagaki. There is no veranda, a short stairway leads to the door; the interior is divided in two sections, one at the front and one at the back with a single entrance at the front. The structure is simple, but brightly colored: supporting pillars are painted in vermilion and walls in white; this style is supposed to have its origin in old palace architecture Another example of this style is Sumiyoshi Jinja, part of the Sumiyoshi Sanjin complex in Fukuoka Prefecture. JAANUS, Shinmei-zukuri accessed on December 1, 2009 History and Typology of Shrine Architecture, Encyclopedia of Shinto accessed on November 29, 2009 Kishida, Hideto.
Japanese Architecture. READ BOOKS. ISBN 1-4437-7281-X. Retrieved 2009-11-11. Young, David; the art of Japanese architecture. Architecture and Interior Design. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 0-8048-3838-0. Retrieved 2009-11-11
Hiyoshi-zukuri or hie-zukuri called shōtei-zukuri / shōtai-zukuri or sannō-zukuri is a rare Shinto shrine architectural style presently found in only three instances, all at Hiyoshi Taisha in Ōtsu, hence the name. They are the Sessha Usa Jingū Honden, it is characterized by a hip-and gable roof with verandas called hisashi on the sides. It has a hirairi structure, that is, the building has its main entrance on the side which runs parallel to the roof's ridge; the building is composed of a 3x2 ken core called moya surrounded on three sides by a 1-ken wide hisashi, totaling 5x3 ken. The three-sided hisashi is typical of this style; the gabled roof extends in small porticos on the two gabled sides. The roof on the back has a characteristic shape
A hōkyōintō is a Japanese pagoda, so called because it contained the Hōkyōin dharani sūtra. A Chinese variant of the Indian stūpa, it was conceived as a cenotaph of the King of Wuyue – Qian Liu. Made in stone and metal or wood, hōkyōintō started to be made in their present form during the Kamakura period. Like a gorintō, they are divided in five main sections called kaeribanaza, or "inverted flower seat", kiso, or base, tōshin, or body, kasa, or umbrella, sōrin, or pagoda finial; the tōshin is carved with a Sanskrit letter. The'sōrin has the same shape as the tip of a five-storied pagoda; the kasa can be called yane, or roof. It's decorated with four characteristic wings called sumikazari. Different structures exist, the hōkyōintō property of the Yatsushiro Municipal Museum in Kyushu for example is divided in just four parts, with no kaeribanaza; the sūtra contain all the pious deeds of a Tathagata Buddha, the faithful believe that praying in front of a hōkyōintō their sins will be canceled, during their lives they will be protected from disasters and after death they will go to heaven.
The hōkyōintō tradition in Japan is believed to have begun during the Asuka period. They started to be made in stone only during the Kamakura period, it is during this period that they started to be used as tombstones and cenotaphs. Iwanami Kōjien Japanese dictionary Sixth Edition, DVD Version Shinkō no Katachi - Hōkyōintō, Yatsushiro Municipal Museum, accessed on September 18, 2008 "Nihon Rekishi Chimei Taikei, online version". Hatakeyama Shigeyasu no Haka. Heibonsha. Retrieved 2008-09-18
East Asian hip-and-gable roof
In East Asian architecture, the hip-and-gable roof consists of a hip roof that slopes down on all four sides and integrates a gable on two opposing sides. It is constructed with two large sloping roof sections in the front and back while each of the two sides is constructed with a smaller roof section; the style has spread across East Asia. The original style and similar styles are found in the traditional architecture of Japan, Vietnam, Tibet, Sri Lanka and Kalmykia, it influenced the style of the bahay na bato of the Philippines. It is known as xiēshān in Chinese, irimoya in Japanese, paljakjibung in Korean. Irimoya arrived from China to Japan in the 6th century; the style was used in the main and lecture halls of a Buddhist temple compound. It started to be used for the honden at shrines during the Japanese Middle Ages, its gable is right above the moya, or core, while the hip covers the hisashi, a veranda-like aisle surrounding the core on one or more sides. It is still in wide use in Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines in Japan, in palaces and folk dwellings.
In the last case, it is called moya-zukuri. In Sri Lanka, a style known as the Kandyan roof bears many similarities to the original East Asian hip-and-gable roof; the Kandyan roof is used for religious, royal buildings. Its roots however lie in the traditions of the "Sri Lankan village". Gablet roof