Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
The Ministry of Economy and Industry or METI, is a ministry of the Government of Japan. It was created by the 2001 Central Government Reform when the Ministry of International Trade and Industry merged with agencies from other ministries related to economic activities, such as the Economic Planning Agency. METI has jurisdiction over a broad policy area, containing Japan's industrial/trade policies, energy security, control of arms exports, "Cool Japan", etc. METI is known for its liberal atmosphere and officials of METI have been well known for their excellence, it is called "human resource agency" for its leaders of politics and academia. METI is organized into the following bureaus, departments and 3 agencies: Economic and Industrial Policy Bureau Economic and Industrial Policy Division Macro Economic Affairs Division Industrial Structure Policy Division Industrial Organization Division Industrial Revitalization Division Industrial Finance Division Corporate Affairs Division Research and Statistics Department Regional Economic and Industrial Policy Division Business Environment Promotion Division Industrial Facilities Division Regional Technology Division Trade Policy Bureau Multilateral Trade System Department Trade Policy Division Research and Analysis Division Economic Partnership Division Americas Division Europe, Middle East, Africa Division Asia and Pacific Division Northeast Asia Division Trade and Economic Cooperation Bureau Trade Control Department Trade Control Policy Division Trade Licensing Division Security Export Control Policy Division Security Export Licensing Division Trade and Investment Facilitation Division Trade Financial and Economic Cooperation Division Financial Cooperation Division Technical Cooperation Division Trade Insurance Division Industrial Science and Technology Policy and Environment Bureau Industrial Science and Technology Policy Division Technology Evolution and Research Division Academia-Industry Cooperation Promotion Division Technology Promotion Division Research and Development Division Technical Regulations and Conformity Assessment Policy Division Measurement and Intellectual Infrastructure Division Environmental Policy Division Recycling Promotion Division Manufacturing Industries Bureau Infrastructure and Advanced Systems Promotion Office Creative Industries Promotion Office Water Industry and Infrastructure Systems Promotion Office Monodzukuri Policy Planning Office Office for Intellectual Property Right Infringement and International Trade Iron and Steel Division Iron and Steel Technology Office Nonferrous Metals Division Chemical Management Policy Division Chemical Safety Office Chemical Weapon and Drug Materials Control Policy Office Fluoride Gases Management Office Chemical Risk Assessment Office Chemicals Division Fine Chemicals Office Alcohol Office Bio-Industry Division Bio-Business Promotion Office Housing Industry and Construction Materials Division Fine Ceramics and Advanced Materials Policy Planning Office Industrial Machinery Division Robot Industry Office International Projects Promotion Office Machine Parts and Tooling Industries Office Automobile Division Electric Vehicle and Advanced Technology Office ITS Promotion Office Automobile Recycling Policy Office Aerospace and Defense Industry Division Space Industry Office Vehicle Division Textile and Clothing Division Fashion Policy Office International Textile and Clothing Trade Office Paper Industry and Recreational Goods Division Consumer Goods Office Traditional Craft Industry Office Design Policy Office Commerce and Information Policy Bureau Information Policy Division IT Project Office Information and International Policy Office Office for IT Security Policy Information and Communication Electronics Division Device Industry Strategy Office Environmental Affairs and Recycling Office Digital Consumer Electronics Strategy Office Information Service Industry Division Local Informatization and Human Resource Development Office Service Affairs Policy Division Service Industries Office Healthcare Industries Division Medical and Assistive Device Industries Office Creative Industries Division Fashion Policy Office Cool Japan Promotion Office Design Policy Office Consumer Goods Office Traditional Craft Industry Office Media and Content Industry Division Agency for Natural Resources and Energy Small and Medium Enterprise Agency Japan Patent Office Minister's Secretariat Regional Bureaus & Industrial Safety and Inspection Department Incorporated Administrative Agencies The Information-Technology Promotion Agency is an Independent Administrative Institution, created in January 2004 in order to better carry out on behalf of METI certain provisions of the Act on Facilitation of Information Processing.
The agency was created from a former Incorporated Administrative Agency of the same name within the ministry. Its primary role is to promote the development and effective use of Japanese made Information Technology at home and abroad, in addition help ensure IT's positive effect on both society and the national economy; as of the late 2000s, the agency was concentrating on improving the competitiveness of Japanese created software in the global marketplace, though the ongoing development of advanced hardware is still considered to be of importance. The former includes the nurturing of the next generation of Japanese software developers; as part of this, it for a long time played a major role in setting and enforcing standards in the Japanese IT industry, in particular in the area of software development. In 2010 however, in a reorganizati
Japanese economic miracle
The Japanese economic miracle is known as Japan's record period of economic growth between the post-World War II era to the end of the Cold War. During the economic boom, Japan became the world's second largest economy. By the 1990s, Japan's demographics began stagnating and the workforce was no longer expanding as it did in previous decades, despite per-worker productivity remaining high; this economic miracle was the result of post-World War II Japan and West Germany benefiting from the Cold War. It occurred chiefly due to the economic interventionism of the Japanese government and due to the aid and assistance of the U. S. Marshall Plan. After World War II, the U. S. established a significant presence in Japan to slow the expansion of Soviet influence in the Pacific. The U. S. was concerned with the growth of the economy of Japan because there was a risk after World War II that an unhappy and poor Japanese population would turn to communism and by doing so, it can ensure that the Soviet Union would control the Pacific.
The distinguishing characteristics of the Japanese economy during the "economic miracle" years included: the cooperation of manufacturers, suppliers and banks in knit groups called keiretsu. The Japanese financial recovery continued after SCAP departed and the economic boom propelled by the Korean War abated; the Japanese economy survived from the deep recession caused by a loss of the U. S. continued to make gains. By the late 1960s, Japan had risen from the ashes of World War II to achieve an astoundingly rapid and complete economic recovery. According to Mikiso Hane, the period leading up to the late 1960s saw "the greatest years of prosperity Japan had seen since the Sun Goddess shut herself up behind a stone door to protest her brother Susano-o's misbehavior." The Japanese government contributed to the post-war Japanese economic miracle by stimulating private sector growth, first by instituting regulations and protectionism that managed economic crises and by concentrating on trade expansion.
Japanese economic miracle refers to the significant increase in the Japanese economy during the time between the end of World War II and the end of the Cold War. The economical miracle can be divided into four stages: the recovery, the high increase, the steady increase, the low increase. Though destroyed by the nuclear bombardment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, other Allied air raids on Japan, Japan was able to recover from the trauma of WWII, managed to become the second largest economic entity of the world by the 1960s. However, after three decades, Japan had experienced the so-called "recession in growth", as the United States had been imposing economic protection policy in oppressing Japanese production and forcing the appreciation of the Japanese yen. In preventing further oppression, Japan improved its technological advances and raised the value of the yen, since to devalue, the yen would have brought further risk and a possible depressing effect on trade; the appreciation of the yen led to significant economic recession in the 1980s.
To alleviate the influence of recession, Japan imposed a series of economical and financial policy to stimulate the domestic demand. The bubble economy that took place in the late 1980s and early 1990s and the subsequent deflationary policy destroyed the Japanese economy. After the deflationary policy, the Japanese economy has been through a time of low increase period which has lasted until today. For more detailed information regarding this period, see Economic history of Japan and Lost Decade. Japan was harmed in WWII. For instance, during wartime, "the Japanese cotton industry was brought to its knees by the end of the Second World War. Two-thirds of its prewar cotton spindles were scrapped by wartime administrators, bombing and destruction of urban areas had caused a further loss of 20 percent of spinning and 14 percent of weaving capacity". Nonetheless, the ability of recovery astonished the world, earning the title of "Japanese Economic Miracle". By and large, every country has experienced some degree of industrial growth in the postwar period, those countries that achieved a heavy drop in industrial output due to war damage such as Japan, West Germany and Italy, have achieved a most rapid recovery.
In the case of Japan, industrial production decreased in 1946 to 27.6% of the pre-war level, but recovered in 1951 and reached 350% in 1960. One reason for Japan's quick recovery from war trauma was the successful economic reform by the government; the government body principally concerned with industrial policy in Japan was the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. One of the major economic reforms was to adopt the "Inclined Production Mode"; the "Inclined Production Mode" refers to the inclined production that focus on the production of raw material including steel and cotton. Textile production occupied more than 23.9% of the total industrial production. Moreover, to stimulate the production, Japanese government supported the new recruitment of labour female labour. By enhancing the recruitment of female labour, Japan managed to recover from the destruction; the legislation on recruitment contains three components: the restriction placed on regional recruitment and relocation of workers, the banning of the direct recruitment of new school leavers, the direct recruitment of non-school leave
Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates
Simultaneous recruiting of new graduates or periodic recruiting of new graduates is the custom that companies hire new graduates all at once and employ them. This custom was unique to South Korea. A 2010 age discrimination law enforced in South Korea bans employers from discriminating against job-seekers who have not graduated from high school or university. Japan is now the only country practising this custom. In Japan, entry-level jobs are classified further into three categories, that is, entry-level positions for students who have not graduated from high school or university yet, entry-level positions for job-seekers who have graduated and entry-level positions for those who have less than 3 years' work experience, however few employers post jobs for entry-level positions for job-seekers who have graduated; that is why job-seekers who have graduated want to apply for entry-level positions for students who have not graduated from high school or university yet. In Japan, most students hunt for jobs before graduation from university or high school, seeking "informal offers of employment" one year before graduation, which will lead to "formal offer of employment" six months securing them a promise of employment by the time they graduate.
Japanese university students begin job hunting all at once in their third year. The government permits companies to begin the selection process and give out informal offers beginning April 1, at the start of the fourth year; these jobs are set to begin on April 1 of the following year. Due to this process, attaining a good position as a regular employee at any other time of year, or any in life, is difficult. Since companies prefer to hire new graduates, students who are unsuccessful in attaining a job offer upon graduating opt to stay in school for another year. According to a survey conducted by Mynavi, nearly 80% of job-seekers who had graduated from university had difficulty applying for entry-level positions in Japan; this is in contrast to other countries, where companies do not discriminate against those who have graduated. By contrast, potential employees in Japan are judged by their educational background; the prestige of the university and high school that a student attends has a marked effect on their ability to find sought-after jobs as adults.
Large companies in particular, prefer to hire new graduates of prestigious universities "in bulk" to replace retiring workers and groom in-house talent, the numbers can vary from year to year. Employers tend to hire a group of people in a mechanical fashion every year. One example is Toyota; the company may offer more jobs on, but those who missed out on the current round of hiring will have a slim chance of gaining a position because they will be overshadowed by fresh graduates. This practice leaves thousands of young Japanese sidelined in extended studies, part-time jobs, or on unemployment benefits instead of participating in the domestic economy and contributes to producing a great number of freeters and neets in Japan. According to the nonprofit group Lifelink's survey conducted in July, 2013, one in five Japanese college students thought about committing suicide during the job-hunting process; this custom has been seen to cause many social problems in modern Japan. Students who do not reach a decision about their employment before graduating from university face great hardships searching for a job after the fact, as the majority of Japanese companies prefer to hire students scheduled to graduate in the spring.
In recent years, an increasing number of university seniors looking for jobs have chosen to repeat a year to avoid being placed in the "previous graduate" category by companies. Under the current system, Japanese companies penalize students who study overseas or have graduated. Reiko Kosugi, a research director at the Japan Institute for Labor Policy and Training, criticized this process in a 2006 essay in The Asia-Pacific Journal, saying, "If business is in a slump at the point of one's graduation and he cannot get a job, this custom produces inequality of opportunity, people in this age bracket tend to remain unemployed for a long time." Nagoya University professor Mitsuru Wakabayashi has stated, "If this custom is joined to permanent employment, it produces closed markets of employment, where outplacement is hard, the employees tend to obey any and all unreasonable demands made by their companies so as not to be fired.". Yuki Honda, a professor at the University of Tokyo's Graduate School of Education, has said "Whether they get a job when they graduate decides their whole life".
Ken Mogi, a Japanese brain scientist, points out that limiting job opportunities would lead to a human rights issue and that Japanese companies cannot secure non-traditional competent people in the current job hunting system. Salaryman Japanese work environment Japan's New Recruits: Victims of the Japanese-Style Family and Japanese-Style Employment In Bleak Economy, Japanese Students Grow Frustrated With Endless Job Hunt More universities allowing students to delay graduation due to job shortage Japanese Graduates Finding Few Jobs Ph. D.’s in Japan can’t find work: Little recognition for high expertise, says Mainichi Communications Survey Economic and Social Data Rankings Hiring practices in Japan Once drawn to U. S. universities, more Japanese students staying home Japan offers a lifetime j
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who invent, analyze and test machines, systems and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin words ingenium; the foundational qualifications of an engineer include a four-year bachelor's degree in an engineering discipline, or in some jurisdictions, a master's degree in an engineering discipline plus four to six years of peer-reviewed professional practice and passage of engineering board examinations. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. In 1961, the Conference of Engineering Societies of Western Europe and the United States of America defined "professional engineer" as follows: A professional engineer is competent by virtue of his/her fundamental education and training to apply the scientific method and outlook to the analysis and solution of engineering problems.
He/she is able to assume personal responsibility for the development and application of engineering science and knowledge, notably in research, construction, superintending, managing and in the education of the engineer. His/her work is predominantly intellectual and varied and not of a routine mental or physical character, it requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical and administrative work of others. His/her education will have been such as to make him/her capable of and continuously following progress in his/her branch of engineering science by consulting newly published works on a worldwide basis, assimilating such information and applying it independently. He/she is thus placed in a position to make contributions to the development of engineering science or its applications. His/her education and training will have been such that he/she will have acquired a broad and general appreciation of the engineering sciences as well as thorough insight into the special features of his/her own branch.
In due time he/she will be able to give authoritative technical advice and to assume responsibility for the direction of important tasks in his/her branch. Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems and narrowing research, analyzing criteria and analyzing solutions, making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, including 14% searching for information. Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements and needs, their crucial and unique task is to identify and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, test output to maintain quality.
They estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, recombining the components, they may analyze risk. Many engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs, to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates, to generate specifications for parts, to monitor the quality of products, to control the efficiency of processes. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines. Numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic and polymer engineering.
Mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics. Engineers may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials. Several recent studies have investigated. Research suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers' work: technical work, social work, computer-based work and information behaviours. Among other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study found that engineers spend 62.92% of their time engaged in technical work, 40.37% in social work, 49.66% in computer-based work. Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending 24.96% of their time engaged in technical and social work, 37.97% in technical and non-social, 15.42% in non-technical and social, 21.66% in non-technical and non-social. Engineering is an information-intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend 55
Junichiro Koizumi is a Japanese politician, the 56th Prime Minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. He retired from politics when his term in parliament ended in 2009, is the sixth longest serving PM in Japanese history. Seen as a maverick leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, he became known as an economic reformer, focusing on Japan's government debt and the privatization of its postal service. In 2005, Koizumi led the LDP to win one of the largest parliamentary majorities in modern Japanese history. Koizumi attracted international attention through his deployment of the Japan Self-Defense Forces to Iraq, through his visits to Yasukuni Shrine that fueled diplomatic tensions with neighboring China and South Korea, he is a member of the Nippon Kaigi nationalist organization. Although Koizumi maintained a low profile for several years after he leaving office, he returned to national attention in 2013 as an advocate for abandoning nuclear power in Japan, in the wake of March 2011 Fukushima nuclear disaster, which contrasted with the pro-nuclear views espoused by the LDP governments both during and after Koizumi's term in office.
Koizumi is a third-generation politician of the Koizumi family. His father, Jun'ya Koizumi, was director general of the Japan Defense Agency and a member of the House of Representatives, his grandfather, Koizumi Matajirō, called "Tattoo Minister" because of the big tattoo on his body, the leader of Koizumi Gumi in Kanagawa, was Minister of Posts and Telecommunications under Prime Ministers Hamaguchi and Wakatsuki and an early advocate of postal privatization. Born in Yokosuka, Kanagawa on January 8, 1942, Koizumi was educated at Yokosuka High School, he graduated with a Bachelor of Economics degree from Keio University. He attended University College London before returning to Japan in August 1969 upon the death of his father, he stood for election to the lower house in December. In 1970, he was hired as a secretary to Takeo Fukuda, Minister of Finance at the time and was elected as Prime Minister in 1976. In the general elections of December 1972, Koizumi was elected as a member of the Lower House for the Kanagawa 11th district.
He joined Fukuda's faction within the LDP. Since he has been re-elected ten times. Koizumi gained his first senior post in 1979 as Parliamentary Vice Minister of Finance, his first ministerial post in 1988 as Minister of Health and Welfare under Prime Minister Noboru Takeshita, he held cabinet posts again in 1992 and 1996–1998. In 1994, with the LDP in opposition, Koizumi became part of a new LDP faction, made up of younger and more motivated parliamentarians led by Taku Yamasaki, Koichi Kato and Koizumi, a group popularly dubbed "YKK" after the zipper manufacturer YKK. After Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa resigned in 1994 and the LDP returned to power in a coalition government and Hosokawa teamed up with Shusei Tanaka of New Party Sakigake in a strategic dialogue across party lines regarding Japan becoming a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Although this idea was not popular within the LDP and never came to fruition and Hosokawa maintained a close working relationship across party lines, with Hosokawa tacitly serving as Koizumi's personal envoy to China during times of strained Sino-Japanese relations.
Koizumi competed for the presidency of the LDP in September 1995 and July 1998, but he gained little support losing decisively to Ryutaro Hashimoto and Keizō Obuchi, both of whom had broader bases of support within the party. However, after Yamasaki and Kato were humiliated in a disastrous attempt to force a vote of no confidence against Prime Minister Yoshirō Mori in 2000, Koizumi became the last remaining credible member of the YKK trio, which gave him leverage over the reform-minded wing of the party. On April 24, 2001, Koizumi was elected president of the LDP, he was considered an outside candidate against Hashimoto, running for his second term as Prime Minister. However, in the first poll of prefectural party organizations, Koizumi won 87 to 11 percent, he defeated Hashimoto by a final tally of 298 to 155 votes. He was made Prime Minister of Japan on April 26, his coalition secured 78 of 121 seats in the Upper House elections in July. Within Japan, Koizumi pushed for new ways to revitalise the moribund economy, aiming to act against bad debts with commercial banks, privatize the postal savings system, reorganize the factional structure of the LDP.
He spoke of the need for a period of painful restructuring. See "Honebuto Hoshin". In the fall of 2002, Koizumi appointed Keio University economist and frequent television commentator Heizō Takenaka as Minister of State for Financial Services and head of the Financial Services Agency to fix the country's banking crisis. Bad debts of banks were cut with the NPL ratio of major banks approaching half the level of 2001; the Japanese economy has been through a slow but steady recovery, the stock market has rebounded. The GDP growth for 2004 was one of the highest among G7 nations, according to the International Monetary Fund and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Takenaka was appointed as a Postal Reform Minister in 2004 for the privatization of Japan Post, operator of the country's Postal Savings system. Koizumi moved the LDP away from its traditional rural agrarian base