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The Shabak people are a people with a disputed origin. While some scholars argue that Shabaks are an ethnic Kurdish group, their origin is disputed, they speak Shabaki, a Northwestern Iranian language of the Zaza -- Gorani group. The Shabaks live in a religious community in the Nineveh Plains; the ancestors of Shabaks were followers of the Safaviyya order, founded by the Kurdish mystic Safi-ad-din Ardabili in the early 14th century. The primary Shabak religious text is called the Buyruk or Kitab al-Manaqib, written in Turkmen. Members of the three Kurdish tribes of Bajalan and Dawoody live in the same villages as the Shabaks and are mistaken for being Shabak; the origins of the word Shabak are not clear. One view maintains that Shabak is an Arabic word شبك meaning intertwine, indicating that the Shabak people originated from many different tribes. Austin Henry Layard considered Shabak to be descendants of Kurds originating from Iran, believed they might have affinities with the Ali-Ilahis. Anastas Al-Karmali argued that Shabaks were ethnic Kurds.

Another theory suggest that Shabaks originated from Anatolian Turkomans, who were forced to settle in the Mosul area after the defeat of Ismail I at the battle of Chaldiran. After the 1987 census, the Iraqi regime started a revenge campaign against those Shabaks who chose to declare themselves Kurdish; the campaign included both deportation and forced assimilation and many of them were relocated to concentration camps located in the Harir area of Kurdistan Region. An estimated 1,160 Shabaks were killed during this period. In addition, increasing efforts have been made to force the Shabak to suppress their own identity in favour of being Arab; the Iraqi government's efforts of forced assimilation and religious persecution put the Shabaks under increasing threat. As one Shabak told a researcher: "The government said we are Arabs, not Kurds. Shabak politician Salim al-Shabaki, a representative of Shabaks in the Iraqi parliament, said "The Shabaks are part of the Kurdish nation", emphasizing that Shabaks are ethnically Kurdish.

On 21 August 2006, Shabak Democratic Party leader Hunain Qaddo proposed the creation of a separate province within the borders of the Nineveh Plain to combat the Kurdification and Arabization of Iraqi minorities. On 20 December 2006, ten Shabak representatives unanimously voted for the non-inclusion of Shabak inhabited areas of the Mosul region into the Kurdistan Regional Government. A number of Shabak village aldermans noted that they were threatened into signing the incorporation petition by Kurdish authorities. On 30 June 2011, the Nineveh provincial council distributed 6,000 lots of land to state employees. According to the head of the Shabak Advisory Board Salem Khudr al-Shabaki, the majority of those lots were deliberately given to Arabs. Hunain al-Qaddo, a Shabak politician, was quoted by Human Rights Watch that: "The Peshmerga have no genuine interest in protecting his community, that Kurdish security forces are more interested in controlling Shabaks and their leaders than protecting them."

A majority of Shabaks regard themselves as Shia Muslims, a minority identify as Sunni. The Shabak people go on pilgrimages to Shia holy cities such as Najaf and Karbala, follow many Shiite teachings. Shabaks combine elements of Sufism with their own interpretation of divine reality. According to Shabaks, divine reality is more advanced than the literal interpretation of Qur'an, known as Sharia. Shabak spiritual guides are known as Pirs, they are well versed in the prayers and rituals of the sect. Pirs are under the leadership of Baba. Pirs act as mediators between ordinary Shabaks, their beliefs form a syncretic faith similar to the beliefs of Yarsanism. Shabaks consider the poetry of Ismail I to be revealed by God, they recite Ismail's poetry during religious meetings. List of Shabak–majority settlements in the Nineveh Plains: As of March 2019, all of the above–mentioned settlements are under federal control and part of the Disputed territories of Northern Iraq. Ali, Salah Salim. ‘Shabak: A Curious sect in Islam’.

Revue des études islamiques 60. 2: 521-528. Ali, Salah Salim. ‘Shabak: A Curious sect in Islam’. Hamdard Islamicus 23. 2: 73-78


Fleta is a treatise, written in Latin, with the sub-title seu Commentarius juris Anglicani, on the common law of England. The anonymous author of the book is sometimes referred to as "Fleta", although this is not in fact a person's name; the book acquired its common title because its preface contains a remark that it could be called "Fleta" as it was written in "Fleta": however, the meaning of this comment is unclear. From internal evidence, the work appears to have been written in the reign of Edward I, to have been completed shortly after the year 1290; this book is one of those listed by Blackstone as being authoritative statements of the law at the time at which they were written. Edward Coke cites Fleta as authority in his Institutes in a number of places; the article on Fleta in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition says that it "is for the most part a poor imitation of" De Legibus et Consuetudinibus Angliae by Henry de Bracton. O. Hood Phillips described it as an "epitome of" that book.

G. O. Sayles was able to show that the author of Fleta had a copy of Bracton to hand, but that it was defective in places, that he was obliged to make many additions and improvements of his own; the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography describes Fleta as "abridging" Bracton. One complete manuscript copy of this book survives from the fourteenth century, it is held by the British Library where its reference is Cotton MS Julius B.viii. A few passages of this book survive in another manuscript; this is held by the British Library, where its reference is BL, Cotton MS Nero Because few copies survive, it is thought that this book was "not read by medieval lawyers." It has been assumed that the statement that the book was "written in Fleta" means that it was written during the author's confinement in the Fleet prison. It has been conjectured that the author was one of those judges who were imprisoned for malpractices by Edward I. Noël Denholm-Young and Paul Brand have proposed as an alternative candidate one Matthew of the Exchequer, a yeoman of the royal household and lawyer, convicted of forgery in 1290 and committed to the Fleet for two years.

However, the element "fleet" is found in other place names in England. The first printed edition of Fleta was published by John Selden in 1647, it included a dissertation written by Selden, the title of, "Joannis Seldeni ad Fletam dissertatio". A second edition was published, with corrections, in 1685. A new edition of the first of the six books of Fleta was published in 1735, edited by Thomas Clarke, a future Master of the Rolls: however, he published no more; the next edition appeared in France in 1776, edited by David Hoüard: this was based on the previous printed editions, was abridged in places. All these editions are regarded, for various reasons, as imperfect; the standard modern edition was edited by H. G. Richardson and G. O. Sayles, published in three volumes by the Selden Society between 1955 and 1984. A projected fourth volume, intended to include editorial apparatus, never appeared: this would have been nominally volume 1, so the three published volumes are numbered 2–4. Volume 4 does include a 17-page "Introduction" by Sayles, which represents the fullest synopsis of scholarly knowledge about the work to date.

The book known as Britton was based on this book. Books of authority Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Fleta". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Seipp, David J.. "Fleta". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/9716. Modern editionRichardson, H. G.. Fleta: Volume II. Selden Society. 72. London: Selden Society. Richardson, H. G.. Fleta: Volume III. Selden Society. 89. London: Selden Society. Sayles, G. O. ed.. Fleta: Volume IV. Selden Society. 99. London: Selden Society

Kori Schake

Kori N. Schake is the Deputy-Director General of the International Institute for Strategic Studies, she has held several high positions in the U. S. Defense and State on the National Security Council, she was a foreign-policy adviser to the McCain-Palin 2008 presidential campaign. Schake is a contributing writer at The Atlantic. Schake obtained her PhD in government from the University of Maryland, where she was a student of George Quester, Thomas Schelling, Catherine Kelleher, she holds MA degrees from the School of Public Affairs. She did her undergraduate studies including studying under Condoleezza Rice. Schake's first government job was with U. S. Department of Defense as a NATO Desk Officer in the Joint Staff's Strategic Plans and Policy Division, where from 1990–1994 she worked military issues of German unification, NATO after the Cold War, alliance expansion, she spent 2 years in the Office of the Secretary of Defense as the special assistant to the Assistant Secretary for Strategy and Requirements.

During President George W. Bush's first term, she was the director for Defense Strategy and Requirements on the National Security Council, she was responsible for interagency coordination for long-term defense planning and coalition maintenance issues. Projects she contributed to include conceptualizing and budgeting for continued transformation of defense practices, the most significant realignment of U. S. military forces and bases around the world since 1950, creating NATO's Allied Command Transformation and the NATO Response Force, recruiting and retaining coalition partners for operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Schake was the Deputy Director for Policy Planning in the U. S. State Department from December 2007 to May 2008, her responsibilities included staff management as well as resourcing and organizational effectiveness issues, including a study of State Department reforms that enable integrated political and military strategies. Schake left the State Department in order to serve as a senior policy adviser to the McCain-Palin 2008 presidential campaign, where she was responsible for policy development and outreach in the areas of foreign and defense policy.

Earlier in the campaign, she had been an adviser to Rudy Giuliani. She has held the Distinguished Chair of International Security Studies at West Point, served in the faculties of the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies, the University of Maryland's School of Public Policy, the National Defense University, she was a research fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution. She blogs for Shadow Government on Foreign Policy and is on the editorial board of Orbis and the board of Centre for European Reform, she is commonly featured on the Deep State Radio podcast. Schake advises Spirit of a 501 organization that supports US troops. Schake was raised in a small town in Sonoma County, California, by her parents Cecelia and Wayne, a former Pan Am pilot. Kori has a sister. Kristina Schake, her 8-year-younger sister, has worked in the White House, played key roles in presidential campaigns, but on the Democratic side, working with Michelle Obama and Hillary Clinton's 2016 campaign.

Kori is a Republican. Despite their political differences, they remain close. America vs the West: Can the Liberal World Order be preserved?, ISBN 978-0-1437-9536-0. Mattis, Jim. Warriors and Citizens: American Views of Our Military. Stanford, California: Hoover Institution. ISBN 978-0-8179-1934-4. Retrieved November 28, 2016. State of Disrepair: Fixing the Culture and Practices of the State Department, ISBN 978-0-8179-1454-7. "Choices for the Quadrennial Defense Review", Summer 2009. Managing American Hegemony: Essays on Power in a Time of Dominance, ISBN 978-0-8179-4902-0; the US Elections and Europe: The Coming Crisis of High Expectations. “Dealing with a Nuclear Iran,” Policy Review. “Jurassic Pork,” The New York Times, 9 February 2006. “An American Eulogy for European Defence,” in Anne Deighton, ed. Securing Europe? ISBN 978-3-905696-11-0. “National Security: A Better Approach,” with Bruce Berkowitz, Hoover Digest. “NATO Strategy and the German-American Relationship,” in Detlef Junker, ed. The United States and Germany in the Era of the Cold War ISBN 978-0-521-83420-9.

The Berlin Wall Crisis, edited with John Gearson ISBN 978-0-333-92960-5. “How America Should Lead,”, Policy Review. Constructive Duplication: Reducing EU Reliance on US Military Assets; the Strategic Implications of a Nuclear-Armed Iran, with Judith S. Yaphe, McNair Paper 64. “Arms Control After the Cold War: The Challenge of Diverging Security Agendas,” in S. Victor Papacosma, Sean Kay, Mark R. Rubin, eds. NATO After Fifty Years ISBN 978-0-8420-2886-8. Do European Union Defense Initiatives Threaten NATO?. Evaluating NATO’s Efficiency in Crisis Management, Les Notes de L’IFRI, No 21. “NATO’s ‘Fundamental Divergence’ Over Proliferation,” in Ted Galen Carpenter, ed. The Journal of Strategic Studies, special issue on NATO Enters the 21st Century. "Building A European Defense Capability," with Charles Grant, in Survival. “NATO Chronicle: New World Di

Omer Yankelevich

Omer Yankelevich is an Israeli attorney and social activist. She is a co-founder of the "Just Begun Foundation", which sponsors social initiatives to help integrate peripheral and marginalized populations in Israel, with an emphasis on the Haredi sector. In 2019, she joined the Israel Resilience Party, part of the Blue and White political alliance, was placed #23 on the faction's list for the April 2019 Knesset election; the Blue and White alliance gained 35 seats in the election, resulting in Yankelevich becoming a Member of the Knesset. Omer Galinsky was born on 25 May 1978 and was named for her birthdate on the Jewish calendar, which coincided that year with the holiday of Lag BaOmer, she has one younger brother. Her father, Yaakov Galinsky, was an actor in the Habima Theatre, became a baal teshuva. During her youth, her parents volunteered in the Jewish community in the Soviet Union, at age 16, she taught Hebrew and Judaism in Moscow and Ukraine, she attended Bais Yaakov for her elementary schooling, went on to attend the Rabbi Wolf Teachers Seminary in Bnei Brak.

She received her teaching certificate at the Gateshead seminary for women. She received her bachelor's of law from Ono Academic College and master's of law from Bar-Ilan University. Yankelevich has taught at the Gateshead seminary for women in England, the Takhkemoni School in Rehovot, the Bat-Zion high school in Jerusalem, she has practiced law since 2007. After receiving her law degrees, she worked as a legal assistant to a judge in the Jerusalem District Court for 13 years, she became the CEO of a government ministry that assists marginalized populations. In her legal practice, she specializes in copyright. Yankelevich is a co-founder of the "Just Begun Foundation", which sponsors social initiatives to help integrate peripheral and marginalized populations, with an emphasis on the Haredi sector. Among the group's initiatives are the opening of an art gallery showcasing Haredi artists in a Tel Aviv flea market, projects in theatre and media, plastics and visual arts. Yankelevich has defended the Haredi population against the Israel Women's Network and other liberal feminist groups that vilify it for its enactment of gender separation in institutes of higher learning and at public events.

In 2019, Yankelevich was chosen by Benny Gantz to be a member of his Israel Resilience Party, part of the Blue and White political alliance for the April 2019 Israeli legislative election. She was placed #23 on the faction's list, her appointment was seen as an attempt by Gantz to present the party's political orientation as centrist, rather than left, although her presence was not expected to pull in Haredi votes. With the Blue and White alliance gaining 35 seats in the election, Yankelevich became a Member of the Knesset. Yankelevich is a Haredi Jew, she and her husband, have five children, reside in Beit Shemesh. She speaks both English. Omer Yankelevich on the Knesset website

Guam Congress Building

The Guam Congress Building known as the Guam Legislature Building, is the seat of the Legislature of Guam and is located in Chalan Santo Papa in Hagåtña, Guam. It was built in 1949 of Brown & Root Pacific Bridge & Maxon, it has served as a courthouse building. It is a Modern Movement-style building, listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places in 2007, it is significant for its role in the history of the Chamorro people and their effort to end the dominant military rule of the United States Navy in 1950. The legislature moved to a new location in 1989 and two wings of the building were taken down. In December 2016, a restoration and energy efficiency upgrade of the Congress Building was completed, allowing the Legislature of Guam to reconvene in the building from January 2017 onwards, returning Senators to the historic structure full-time after a 27-year absence. National Register of Historic Places listings in Guam

John Bērziņš

John Bērziņš is bishop of Caracas and South America for the Russian Orthodox Church Outside of Russia and head of the church's Old-Rite parishes. Pēteris Bērziņš was born on 16 March 1956 in Cooma, Australia, of Latvian Orthodox refugees and Margarita Bērziņš, who were forced to leave their homeland during the Second World War, he grew up in Cooma and graduated with a philological degree from the Australian National University. He was fluent in Latin. In 1982, he entered Holy Trinity Monastery in Jordanville, New York, enrolled in Holy Trinity Seminary, he graduated from the seminary in 1985. On 16 March 1985, he was tonsured to the mantle on by Archbishop Laurus of Syracuse and Holy Trinity, and on 12 April 1987 he was ordained hierodeacon by Archbishop Laurus. From 1992 to 1997, he served as father-confessor at Gethsemane Convent in the Holy Land. In 1994, he was awarded the gold pectoral cross by Archbishop Laurus. From 2002 to 2005, he served again as father-confessor at Gethsemane Convent in the Holy Land.

On 5 September 2005, during the Celebrations of the 75th Anniversary of Holy Trinity Monastery he was elevated to the rank of hegumen by Metropolitan Laurus. From 2005 to 2008, he ministered to Ss. Sergius and German of Valaam Community of the Diocese of Chicago and Mid-America. From May 7 to 20, 2008, the Council of Bishops of the ROCOR designated him as candidate for the South America diocese. On May 7/20, 2008, Council of Bishops of the ROCOR decreed to send the curriculum vitae of Hegumen John along with a corresponding appeal to Patriarch Alexy II of Moscow and All Russia with the request to confirm his candidacy for episcopal consecration. Upon the confirmation of his candidacy by the Holy Synod of the Moscow Patriarchate, to determine the time and place of his consecration. After consulting with the members of the Holy Synod of the Moscow Patriarchate, Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia confirmed the selection of Hegumen John on June 19. Hegumen John was consecrated Bishop of Caracas on 21 June 2008, at the Old-Rite Church of the Nativity in Erie, Pennsylvania.

Officiating at the consecration were Metropolitan Hilarion of New York and Eastern America, Bishop Daniel of Erie, Bishop Peter of Cleveland. On 26 October 2010, he was appointed head of the Old-Rite parishes of the ROCOR, he speaks Russian, Latvian and Latin languages, is studying the Argentine dialect of Spanish. Bishop John of Caracas: Many Years! "The Caribbean Bishop" bishop John of Caracas and South America gives an interview to "Neskuchny sad" Bishop John of Caracas and South America: “My Chief Goal is to Heal Schism and Return the Flock to Our Churches”This article incorporates text from John of Caracas at OrthodoxWiki, licensed under the CC-BY-SA and GFDL