National University of Malaysia
The National University of Malaysia is a public university located in Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor, at south of Kuala Lumpur. Its teaching hospital, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre is located in Cheras and has a branch campus in Kuala Lumpur, it is one of the most prestigious university in Southeast Asia. There are 17,500 undergraduate students enrolled, 5,105 postgraduate students of which 1,368 are foreign students from 35 countries. National University of Malaysia is one of six research universities in the country, it was ranked number 259th in the world by QS World University Rankings in 2014. It is ranked 98th place in the 100 best new universities established within the last 50 years in the world, it is the only university from Malaysia that made it in the 2012 Quacquarelli Symonds Top 50 Universities Under 50 Years Old list ranked in the 31st place. It placed 56th in the QS Top 500 Asian University Rankings in 2014 and 2015 respectively, it is ranked at 184th position in world in the 2019 QS World University Rankings making it a top tier university internationally.
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, the national university of Malaysia was born from the aspirations of the nationalists to uphold the Malay Language as a language of knowledge. The quest for a national university was suggested in 1923 by the writer Abdul Kadir Adabi as a move against British colonisation; this nationalist tide met British suppression. The nationalists never wavered and in 1969 the movement again blossomed. A Sponsoring Committee chaired by Syed Nasir Ismail, a Malay intellectual, was set up to prepare a report recommending the establishment of UKM. Other prominent members of this committee include Dr. Mahathir Mohamed, Malaysia's fourth Prime Minister, the Education Minister, Dr. Mohd Rashdan Haji Baba, who became UKM's first Vice-Chancellor. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia opened its doors on 18 May 1970 to 192 undergraduate students in Jalan Pantai Baru, Kuala Lumpur, a temporary campus housing three main faculties, the Faculties of Science and Islamic Studies. In October 1977, UKM moved to its present premises.
The campus has a size of 1,096 hectares, situated in the metropolis encompassing the Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Kuala Lumpur, the main commercial centre, Putrajaya, the administrative capital. The UKM Bangi Campus is 30 km from Kuala Lumpur and 20 km from Putrajaya. UKM has two health campuses, the Kuala Lumpur campus in Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, the UKM Medical Centre in Cheras; the Kuala Lumpur campus consists of the Faculties of Health Sciences, Pharmacy and the Pre-Clinical Departments of the Medical Faculty. With a size of 20 hectares, the Kuala Lumpur campus was established in 1974; the campus in Cheras consists of the Medical Faculty, the UKM Teaching Hospital and the UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute. The Cheras campus was opened in 1997. Besides these campuses, UKM operates seven research stations. Based on a foundation of 30 years of research, UKM was awarded the status of a Malaysian Research University in October 2006 by the Ministry of Higher Education, a move designed to propel the four public universities into leading research universities in line with the Higher Education Strategic Plan 2007–2020.
The year 2006 saw UKM winning the Prime Minister's Quality Award. This award vindicates UKM's efforts at quality education and management, as outlined by the objectives of the UKM Strategic Plan 2000–2020; the Strategic Plan has been augmented by the newly unveiled UKM Knowledge Ecosystem Transformation Plan, a transformation set to catapult UKM into the league of leading research universities by 2018. Social Science and Humanities Science and Technology Islamic Studies The three above make up the founding faculties. Medicine Health Sciences Dentistry Economics and Management Education Engineering and Built Environment Information Science and Technology Pharmacy Law Graduate School of Business Chancellory Office Department of Registrar Department of Bursary Department of Development & Maintenance Centre for Corporate Communications Centre for Quality Assurance Centre for Research & Instrumentation Management Centre for Collaborative Innovation Centre for Teaching & Learning Technologies Centre for Information Technology Centre for International Relations Centre of Risk Management, Sustainability & Occupational Health Graduate Centre Strategy-UKM Students and Alumni Affairs Sport Centre UKM Library UKM Press UKM Islamic Centre UKM Medical Centre UKM Children's Specialist Hospital PERMATApintar™ National Gifted Center Office of the Legal Advisor and Integrity Fuel Cell Institute Institute for Environment & Development Institute for Malaysian & International Studies Institute of Ethnic Studies Institute of Microengineering & Nanoelectronics Institute of Climate Change Institute of Systems Biology Institute of the Malay World & Civilization Institute of Visual Informatics Institute of Islam Hadhari UKM Medical Molecular Biology Institute Solar Energy Research Institute Institut of
Afghanistan the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located in South-Central Asia. Afghanistan is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east, its territory covers 652,000 square kilometers and much of it is covered by the Hindu Kush mountain range, which experiences cold winters. The north consists of fertile plains, while the south-west consists of deserts where temperatures can get hot in summers. Kabul serves as its largest city. Human habitation in Afghanistan dates back to the Middle Paleolithic Era, the country's strategic location along the Silk Road connected it to the cultures of the Middle East and other parts of Asia; the land has been home to various peoples and has witnessed numerous military campaigns, including those by Alexander the Great, Muslim Arabs, British and since 2001 by the United States with NATO-allied countries. It has been called "unconquerable" and nicknamed the "graveyard of empires"; the land served as the source from which the Kushans, Samanids, Ghaznavids, Khaljis, Hotaks and others have risen to form major empires.
The political history of the modern state of Afghanistan began with the Hotak and Durrani dynasties in the 18th century. In the late 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state in the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire, its border with British India, the Durand Line, was formed in 1893 but it is not recognized by the Afghan government and it has led to strained relations with Pakistan since the latter's independence in 1947. Following the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919 the country was free of foreign influence becoming a monarchy under King Amanullah, until 50 years when Zahir Shah was overthrown and a republic was established. In 1978, after a second coup Afghanistan first became a socialist state and a Soviet Union protectorate; this evoked the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. By 1996 most of Afghanistan was captured by the Islamic fundamentalist group the Taliban, who ruled most of the country as a totalitarian regime for over five years.
The Taliban were forcibly removed by the NATO-led coalition, a new democratically-elected government political structure was formed, but they still control a significant portion of the country. Afghanistan is a unitary presidential Islamic republic with a population of 31 million composed of ethnic Pashtuns, Tajiks and Uzbeks, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Group of 77, the Economic Cooperation Organization, the Non-Aligned Movement. Afghanistan's economy is the world's 108th largest, with a GDP of $64.08 billion. The name Afghānistān is believed to be as old as the ethnonym Afghan, documented in the 10th-century geography book Hudud ul-'alam; the root name "Afghan" was used in reference to a member of the ethnic Pashtuns, the suffix "-stan" means "place of" in Persian. Therefore, Afghanistan translates to land of the Afghans or, more in a historical sense, to land of the Pashtuns. However, the modern Constitution of Afghanistan states that "he word Afghan shall apply to every citizen of Afghanistan."
Excavations of prehistoric sites by Louis Dupree and others suggest that humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago, that farming communities in the area were among the earliest in the world. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites; the country sits at a unique nexus point where numerous civilizations have interacted and fought. It has been home to various peoples through the ages, among them the ancient Iranian peoples who established the dominant role of Indo-Iranian languages in the region. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within large regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Islamic Empire. Many empires and kingdoms have risen to power in Afghanistan, such as the Greco-Bactrians, Hephthalites, Kabul Shahis, Samanids, Ghurids, Kartids, Timurids and the Hotak and Durrani dynasties that marked the political origins of the modern state.
Archaeological exploration done in the 20th century suggests that the geographical area of Afghanistan has been connected by culture and trade with its neighbors to the east and north. Artifacts typical of the Paleolithic, Neolithic and Iron ages have been found in Afghanistan. Urban civilization is believed to have begun as early as 3000 BCE, the early city of Mundigak may have been a colony of the nearby Indus Valley Civilization. More recent findings established that the Indus Valley Civilisation stretched up towards modern-day Afghanistan, making the ancient civilisation today part of Pakistan and India. In more detail, it extended from what today is northwest Pakistan to northwest India and northeast Afghanistan. An Indus Valley site has been found on the Oxus River at Shortugai in northern Afghanistan. There are several smaller IVC colonies to be found in Afghanistan as well. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic
The Maldives the Republic of Maldives, are an Asian country, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea. The country lies southwest of Sri India, about 1,000 kilometres from the Asian continent; the chain of 26 atolls stretches from Ihavandhippolhu Atoll in the north to the Addu City in the south. Comprising a territory spanning 298 square kilometres, the Maldives is one of the world's most geographically dispersed sovereign states as well as the smallest Asian country by land area and population, with around 427,756 inhabitants. Malé is the capital and a populated city, traditionally called the "King's Island" for its central location; the Maldives archipelago is located on the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge, a vast submarine mountain range in the Indian Ocean, which forms a terrestrial ecoregion, together with the Chagos Archipelago and Lakshadweep. With an average ground-level elevation of 1.5 metres above sea level, it is the world's lowest country, with its highest natural point being the lowest in the world, at 5.1 metres.
Due to the consequent risks posed by rising sea levels, the government pledged in 2009 to make the Maldives a carbon-neutral country by 2019. Islam was introduced to the Maldivian archipelago in the 12th century, consolidated as a sultanate, developing strong commercial and cultural ties with Asia and Africa. From the mid-16th-century, the region came under the increasing influence of European colonial powers, with the Maldives becoming a British protectorate in 1887. Independence from the United Kingdom was achieved in 1965 and a presidential republic was established in 1968 with an elected People's Majlis; the ensuing decades have been characterised by political instability, efforts at democratic reform, environmental challenges posed by climate change. The Maldives is a founding member of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation, it is a member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Non Aligned Movement. The World Bank classifies the Maldives as having an upper middle income economy.
Fishing has been the dominant economic activity, remains the largest sector by far, followed by the growing tourism industry. Maldives is rated "high" on the Human Development Index, with its per capita income higher than other SAARC nations; the Maldives was a Commonwealth republic from July 1982 until its withdrawal from the Commonwealth in October 2016 in protest of international criticism of its records in relation to corruption and human rights. The name "Maldives" may derive from මාල දිවයින in Sinhala; the Maldivian people are called Dhivehin. The word theevu means "island", Dhives means "islanders"; the ancient Sri Lankan chronicle Mahawamsa refers to an island called Mahiladiva in Pali, a mistranslation of the same Sanskrit word meaning "garland". Jan S Hogendorn, Grossman Professor of Economics, theorises that the name Maldives derives from the Sanskrit mālādvīpa, meaning "garland of islands". In Tamil, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Malai Theevu. In Malayalam, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Maladweepu.
In Kannada, "Garland of Islands" can be translated as Maaledweepa. None of these names is mentioned in any literature, but classical Sanskrit texts dating back to the Vedic period mention the "Hundred Thousand Islands", a generic name which would include not only the Maldives, but the Laccadives, Aminidivi Islands and the Chagos island groups; some medieval travellers such as Ibn Battuta called the islands Mahal Dibiyat from the Arabic word mahal, which must be how the Berber traveller interpreted the local name, having been through Muslim North India, where Perso-Arabic words were introduced to the local vocabulary. This is the name inscribed on the scroll in the Maldive state emblem; the classical Persian/Arabic name for Maldives is Dibajat. The Dutch referred to the islands as the Maldivische Eilanden, while the British anglicised the local name for the islands first to the "Maldive Islands" and to "Maldives". Garcia da Orta writes in his conversational book first published in 1563 as follows: "I must tell you that I have heard it said that the natives do not call it Maldiva but Nalediva.
In the Malabar language nale means diva island. So that in that language the word signifies "four islands," while we, corrupting the name, call it Maldiva." The first Maldivians did not leave any archaeological artifacts. Their buildings were built of wood, palm fronds and other perishable materials, which would have decayed in the salt and wind of the tropical climate. Moreover, chiefs or headmen did not reside in elaborate stone palaces, nor did their religion require the construction of large temples or compounds. Comparative studies of Maldivian oral and cultural traditions and customs confirm that the first settlers were people from the southern shores of the neighboring Indian subcontinent, including the Giraavaru people mentioned in ancient legends and local folklore about the establishment of the capital and kingly rule in Malé. A strong underlying layer of Dravidian population and culture survives in Maldivian society, with a clear Tamil-Malayalam substratum in the language, which appears in place names, kinship terms, poetry and religious beliefs.
Malabari seafaring culture led to
Wesleyan University is a private liberal arts college in Middletown, Connecticut. Founded in 1831, Wesleyan is a baccalaureate college that emphasizes undergraduate instruction in the arts and sciences, grants research master's degrees in many academic disciplines, grants PhD degrees in biology, chemistry and computer science, molecular biology and biochemistry and physics. Along with Amherst College and Williams College, Wesleyan is a member of the Little Three colleges. In the 2016 Forbes ranking of American colleges, which combines national research universities, liberal arts colleges and military academies in a single survey, Wesleyan University is ranked 9th overall. Founded under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church and with the support of prominent residents of Middletown, the now-secular university was the first institution of higher education to be named after John Wesley, the founder of Methodism. About 20 unrelated colleges and universities were subsequently named after Wesley.
Since its inception, Wesleyan University has graduated 13 Pulitzer Prize winners—including playwright and Hamilton creator Lin-Manuel Miranda—14 Rhodes Scholars, 3 Truman Scholars, 3 Guggenheim Fellows, 7 MacArthur Fellows, 156 Fulbright Scholars. Additionally, 4 Nobel Laureates have been associated with the university: T. S. Eliot, Satoshi Omura, V. S. Naipaul, US President Woodrow Wilson. Wesleyan was twice named a top producer of Fulbright scholars for the 2016-2017 and 2017-2018 school years. Other prominent alumni include 34 members of United States Congress, 16 US Cabinet members, 11 US Governors, 6 US Agency directors and heads, CEOs and founders of Fortune 500 companies, 2 Attorneys General of the United States. Three histories of Wesleyan have been published, Wesleyan's First Century by Carl F. Price in 1932, another in 1999, Wesleyan University, 1831–1910: Collegiate Enterprise in New England and Wesleyan University, 1910-1970, Academic Ambition and Middle-Class America, released in May 2015, both authored by David B.
Potts. Wesleyan was founded as an all-male Methodist college in 1831; the university, established as an independent institution under the auspices of the Methodist conference, was led by Willbur Fisk, its first president. Despite its name, Wesleyan was never a denominational seminary, it remained a leader in educational progress throughout its history and erected one of the earliest comprehensive science buildings devoted to undergraduate science instruction on any American college or university campus, Judd Hall. It has maintained a larger library collection than institutions comparable in size; the Wesleyan student body numbered about 300 in 1910 and had grown to 800 in 1960, the latter being a figure that Time described as "small". Although Wesleyan developed into a peer of Amherst and Williams, Wesleyan was always decidedly the smallest of the Little Three institutions until the 1970s, when it grew to become larger than the other two. In 1872, the university became one of the first U. S. colleges to attempt coeducation by allowing a small number of female students to attend, a venture known as the "Wesleyan Experiment".
"In 1909, the board of trustees voted to stop admitting women as undergraduates, fearing that the school was losing its masculine image and that women would not be able to contribute to the college financially after graduation the way men could." Given that concern, Wesleyan ceased to admit women, from 1912 to 1970 Wesleyan operated again as an all-male college. Wesleyan became independent of the Methodist church in 1937, although in 2000, the university was designated as a historic Methodist site. Beginning in the late 1950s, president Victor Lloyd Butterfield began an ambitious program to reorganize the university according to Butterfield's "College Plan" somewhat similar to Harvard's House system or Yale's colleges, where undergraduate study would be divided into seven smaller residential colleges with their own faculty and centralized graduate studies, including doctoral programs and a Center for Advanced Studies; the building program begun under this system created three residential colleges on Foss Hill and three more residential colleges.
Although the facilities were created, only four of the academic programs were begun, only two of those continue today: the College of Letters and the College of Social Studies. Fund raising proved effective and by 1960 Wesleyan had the largest endowment, per student, of any college or university in America, a student-faculty ratio of 7:1. Butterfield's successors, Edwin Deacon Etherington and Colin Goetze Campbell, completed many of the innovations begun during Butterfield's administration, including the return of women in numbers equal to men; the university and several of its admissions deans were featured in Jacques Steinberg's 2002 book The Gatekeepers: Inside The Admissions Process of a Premier College. In the fall 2007 semester, Michael S. Roth, a 1978 graduate of Wesleyan and former president of the California College of the Arts, was inaugurated as the university's 16th president. Wesleyan occupies a 360-acre campus, with over 340 buildings, including the five-building College Row.
University of Science, Malaysia
Universiti Sains Malaysia has won the most Entrepreneurial University 2018, in Malaysia and the only Accelerated Programs for Excellence government funded Autonomous university in Malaysia. USM is aggressively moving towards true globalized university status in 2019, USM is now intensifying the approach to invite another 2300 more new international students to register and further their educational journey for undergraduates and postgraduates programs through out 2019. Therefore, to all international students from all over the globe, you are invited to fill in the online application, to start registering yourselves for USM high quality education now! USM is a differentiated university, a preferred university, with the only one focus in the highest rate of sustainability conceptualized education in the region, striving to achieve "GLOBAL sustainable university status". Founded on 1 June 1969 as a statutory body with its own constitution, it is among the oldest institute of higher learning in Northern Malaysia.
It has three campuses, a main campus on the island of Penang, a health campus in Kelantan, an engineering campus in Nibong Tebal. There is overseas collaboration with KLE University, India offering the Doctor of Medicine undergraduate degree. USM plans to open a Global Campus located at Kuala Lumpur Education City. With around 28,300 postgraduate and undergraduate students in 2009, USM is one of the biggest universities in terms of enrolment in Malaysia; the number of lecturers is about 1,479, which leads to a student-lecturer ratio of around 19:1. The idea of a university in Penang was first mooted by D. S. Ramanathan in 1959 in the State Assembly and crystallised when he was nominated chairman of the Penang University Project committee; the acquisition of a piece of land in Sungai Ara was followed by the ceremonial laying of the foundation stone by the Prime Minister of Malaysia, Y. T. M Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj on 7 August 1967. USM was established as a statutory body in 1969 as the second university in Malaysia.
It was first known as Universiti Pulau Pinang. The university operated on borrowed premises at the Malayan Teachers' Training College at Gelugor. In 1971, it moved to its present 239-hectare site at Minden in Gelugor, 10 kilometres from the city of Georgetown. There are two other USM campuses: one at Kubang Kerian in Kelantan, known as the Health campus, the other at Seri Ampangan, Nibong Tebal in Penang, known as the Engineering campus; the former houses the School of Medical Sciences, the School of Health Sciences and the School of Dental Sciences, while the latter houses the six engineering schools. Universiti Sains Malaysia teaches in the fields of Pure Sciences, Applied Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Building Science and Technology, Social Sciences and Education as well as conducts research. USM offers courses at postgraduate levels to more than 28,000 students. USM has won the Asian Innovation Award; the management of the university is carried out through the executive power of the Board of Directors, made up of members chosen from the university, representatives from government departments and those appointed by the Ministry of Higher Education.
There are three Deputy Vice-Chancellors led by the Vice-Chancellor. In August 2011 USM created a new role of Ombudsman to deal with staff issues and protect whistleblowers; the USM Ombudsman is Prof. Dato' Seri Dr. MD. Salleh Yaapar, a former staff of the USM and is on a rolling 2-year contract. In July 2012, following a presentation by the Chief of Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission, the VC of USM promises to create a new role of Chief Integrity Officer to cultivate academic integrity among students and staff; the current Chief Integrity Officer is Khairul Anuar Che Azmi, the university’s first ombudsman and is the Legal Advisor. Twenty four academic schools, 14 centres and 7 units have been established. Of the schools, 12 are applied science and technology-based schools: Civil Engineering, Aerospace Engineering; the three liberal arts schools are Educational Studies and Social Sciences. The pure science schools are Biological Sciences, Chemical Sciences, Mathematical Sciences, Computer Sciences, Physics, all of which offer courses that are similar to those available in other universities.
There is offshore collaboration with KLE University, India offering the Doctor of Medicine undergraduate degree. This offshore five-year M. D. programme is conducted at the Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, KLE University, India. In India, USM has a collaboration with the James Lind Institute for conducting Translational Medicine programs. In December 1989, the School of Management was set up, having evolved from the Management program within the School of Social Sciences; as part of its continuing expansion, the university established the School of Computer Sciences and the School of Communication as of March 1995. In 2008, Professor Maqsudul Alam, set up the Centre for Chemical Biology where he became its first Chief Executive Officer and Director, sequenced the genome for rubber in Malaysia; the centres and ancillary services include the Centre for Languages and Translation, the National Poison Centre, the Doping Control Centre, the Centre for Archaeological Research Malaysia, the Centre for Educational Technology and Multimedia, t
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of the Government of India. The foundation stone of the city was laid by Emperor George V during the Delhi Durbar of 1911, it was designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Sir Herbert Baker. The new capital was inaugurated on 13 February 1931, by Viceroy and Governor-General of India Lord Irwin. Although colloquially Delhi and New Delhi are used interchangeably to refer to the National Capital Territory of Delhi, these are two distinct entities, with New Delhi forming a small part of Delhi; the National Capital Region is a much larger entity comprising the entire NCT along with adjoining districts in neighboring states. Calcutta was the capital of India during the British Raj, until December 1911. Calcutta had become the centre of the nationalist movements since the late nineteenth century, which led to the Partition of Bengal by Viceroy of British India, Lord Curzon; this created massive political and religious upsurge including political assassinations of British officials in Calcutta.
The anti-colonial sentiments amongst the public led to complete boycott of British goods, which forced the colonial government to reunite Bengal and shift the capital to New Delhi. Old Delhi had served as the political and financial centre of several empires of ancient India and the Delhi Sultanate, most notably of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857. During the early 1900s, a proposal was made to the British administration to shift the capital of the British Indian Empire, as India was named, from Calcutta on the east coast, to Delhi; the Government of British India felt that it would be logistically easier to administer India from Delhi, in the centre of northern India. The land for building the new city of Delhi was acquired under the Land Acquisition Act 1894. During the Delhi Durbar on 12 December 1911, George V Emperor of India, along with Queen Mary, his consort, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi, while laying the foundation stone for the Viceroy's residence in the Coronation Park, Kingsway Camp.
The foundation stone of New Delhi was laid by King George V and Queen Mary at the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911 at Kingsway Camp on 15 December 1911, during their imperial visit. Large parts of New Delhi were planned by Edwin Lutyens, who first visited Delhi in 1912, Herbert Baker, both leading 20th-century British architects; the contract was given to Sobha Singh. The original plan called for its construction in Tughlaqabad, inside the Tughlaqabad fort, but this was given up because of the Delhi-Calcutta trunk line that passed through the fort. Construction began after World War I and was completed by 1931; the city, dubbed "Lutyens' Delhi" was inaugurated in ceremonies beginning on 10 February 1931 by Lord Irwin, the Viceroy. Lutyens designed the central administrative area of the city as a testament to Britain's imperial aspirations. Soon Lutyens started considering other places. Indeed, the Delhi Town Planning Committee, set up to plan the new imperial capital, with George Swinton as chairman, John A. Brodie and Lutyens as members, submitted reports for both North and South sites.
However, it was rejected by the Viceroy when the cost of acquiring the necessary properties was found to be too high. The central axis of New Delhi, which today faces east at India Gate, was meant to be a north-south axis linking the Viceroy's House at one end with Paharganj at the other. Owing to space constraints and the presence of a large number of heritage sites in the North side, the committee settled on the South site. A site atop the Raisina Hill Raisina Village, a Meo village, was chosen for the Rashtrapati Bhawan known as the Viceroy's House; the reason for this choice was that the hill lay directly opposite the Dinapanah citadel, considered the site of Indraprastha, the ancient region of Delhi. Subsequently, the foundation stone was shifted from the site of Delhi Durbar of 1911–1912, where the Coronation Pillar stood, embedded in the walls of the forecourt of the Secretariat; the Rajpath known as King's Way, stretched from the India Gate to the Rashtrapati Bhawan. The Secretariat building, the two blocks of which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan and houses ministries of the Government of India, the Parliament House, both designed by Baker, are located at the Sansad Marg and run parallel to the Rajpath.
In the south, land up to Safdarjung's Tomb was acquired to create what is today known as Lutyens' Bungalow Zone. Before construction could begin on the rocky ridge of Raisina Hill, a circular railway line around the Council House, called the Imperial Delhi Railway, was built to transport construction material and workers for the next twenty years; the last stumbling block was the Agra-Delhi railway line that cut right through the site earmarked for the hexagonal All-India War Memorial and Kingsway, a problem because the Old Delhi Railway Station served the entire city at that time. The line was shifted to run along the Yamuna river, it began operating in 1924; the New Delhi Railway Station opened in 1926, with a single platform at Ajmeri Gate near Paharganj, was completed in time for the city's inauguration in 1931. As construction of the Viceroy's House, Central Secretariat, Parliament House, All-India War Memorial was winding down, the building of a shopping district and a new plaza, Connaught Place, began in 1929, was completed by 1933.
Named after Prince Arthur, 1st Duke of Connaught, it was designed by Robert Tor Russell, chief architect to the P