Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection
Barret Eugene "Barry" Hansen, better known as Dr. Demento, is an American radio broadcaster and record collector specializing in novelty songs and strange or unusual recordings dating from the early days of phonograph records to the present. Hansen created the Demento persona in 1970 while working at Los Angeles station KPPC-FM, he played "Transfusion" by Nervous Norvus on the radio, DJ "The Obscene" Steven Clean said that Hansen had to be "demented" to play it and the name stuck. His weekly show went into syndication in 1974 and was syndicated by the Westwood One Radio Network from 1978 to 1992. Broadcast syndication of the show ended on June 6, 2010, but the show continues to be produced weekly in an online version. Hansen has a degree in ethnomusicology and has written magazine articles and liner notes on recording artists outside of the novelty genre, he is credited with introducing new generations of listeners to artists of the early and middle 20th century whom they might not have otherwise discovered, such as Harry McClintock, Spike Jones, Benny Bell, Yogi Yorgesson, Stan Freberg, Tom Lehrer, as well as with bringing parodist "Weird Al" Yankovic to national attention.
Hansen was born in Minneapolis, the son of an amateur pianist. He claims to have started his vast record collection as early as age 12, when he found "that a local thrift store had thousands of old 78 RPM records for sale at 5 cents each." He attended Reed College in Portland, where he was promoted to Program Director of KRRC in 1960 and General Manager in 1961. He wrote his senior thesis on Alban Berg's opera Wozzeck and Claude Debussy's opera Pelléas et Mélisande, he graduated in 1963, studied at UCLA, from which he earned a master's degree in folklore and ethnomusicology. After earning his master's degree, he lived for two years "in a big house on a hill" in Topanga Canyon with members of the rock band Spirit, he served as a roadie for Spirit, for Canned Heat, before being hired as an A&R man, or talent scout, for Specialty Records. The Doctor began his weekly radio show while working for Specialty, he worked for Warner Bros. Records, he was responsible for preparing many of the "Warner Brothers Loss Leaders" compilation albums of rock music issued by Warner Bros. in the 1970s, which featured new artists and new material from established Warner Brothers Records artists.
These were advertised on the inner sleeves of WB's current releases—and were only available by ordering direct from WB using a coupon printed on the record sleeve—and were priced at $1 per LP. Most of these releases were 2-LP sets, so they were priced at $2 at a time when a "double LP" would carry a $9.98 list price. Using his real name of Barry Hansen, he contributed many articles on rock music to magazines including Rolling Stone, Down Beat and Hit Parader, liner notes on various late-1960s and early 1970s albums, in 1976 contributed the chapter on "Rhythm and Gospel" in The Rolling Stone Illustrated History of Rock & Roll. Hansen created the persona of Dr. Demento in 1970 while working at Pasadena station KPPC-FM; the positive listener response to the offbeat novelties that Hansen included in his rock oldies show led to his turning it into an all-novelty show. At the end of 1971, he moved to KMET in Los Angeles. From 1972 to 1983, he performed a four-hour live show on KMET. From about 1974 on, the local Los Angeles market was the full 4 hours and the nationally syndicated show was cut to 2 hours.
The show would be a two-hour live show on KLSX, after they converted to a talk-only format in 1995, moved again to KSCA, where it remained until they changed to a Spanish-language broadcast, in February 1997. His weekly show went into national syndication in a two-hour all-novelty format in 1974, produced by his manager Larry Gordon of Gordon/Casady and during 1978–92 was syndicated by the Westwood One Radio Network; the Westwood One period marked the height of the show's national popularity. The producer Westwood One assigned to work with Hansen from 1978 to 1982 was Lynnsey Guererro, a former track star from UCLA and Senior Producer at the company. In 1982, he handed off the show to a new producer from San Diego, professional journalist Robert Young, it was under Young's guidance that the show gained in popularity due to his willingness to foster relationships with national media and with nationally known and up-and-coming artists, including John Mammoser, Judy Tenuta, Emo Philips and Bowden, Wally Wingert, Mark Davis.
Young accompanied Dr. Demento to Portland, Ore.. He left the radio network in 1990 during a business downturn. In January 2014 Young released an e-book titled "Producing Demento," about his memories of working on the show. From 1992 to 2000, the show was syndicated by On the Radio Broadcasting. Hansen, under the name "Talonian Productions," handled syndication himself from 2000 until discontinuing syndication in 2010. Between the mid-1970s and the mid-1990s, Hansen continued to do live broadcasts on KMET and other Los Angeles area stations, in addition to his weekly taped syndicated show, he made occasional television appearances, on such shows as The Gong Show, Bobby's World and The
Dutch Top 40
The Dutch Top 40 is a weekly music chart compiled by Stichting Nederlandse Top 40. It started as a radio program titled "Veronica Top 40", on the offshore station Radio Veronica in 1965, it remained "The Veronica Top 40" until 1974. Joost den Draaijer was the initiator of the top 40 in the Netherlands. On January 2, 1965, the first Top 40 was compiled, with its first #1 hit "I Feel Fine" by The Beatles. In 1974, the Stichting Nederlandse Top 40 bought the Top 40 and named it De Nederlandse Top 40; the Dutch Top 40 is one of the three official charts in the Netherlands, the other two being the Single Top 100, based on pure sales and streaming and the Mega Top 50 which, like the Dutch Top 40 includes airplay data. From 1993 until 2018, the Top 40 was broadcast by Radio 538. Qmusic is airing the Dutch Top 40 on radio. Domien Verschuuren presents the program every Friday afternoon from 14.00 until 18.00. For most of its history, the Top 40 was based on sales figures of record stores; these were collected through telephone surveys.
As of 1999, the airplay of a limited number of radio stations was included. Between 2006 and 2014, download figures were added to the mix, they were removed again because download sales could be manipulated by record companies or artists. As of February 2014, the chart is a combination of airplay and social media trends; the more a song gets played on the radio, the higher its ranking in the Top 40. To compute year-end chart positions, the weekly #1 positions get 40 points, the #2 positions get 39 points, etc; these weekly scores are added up and sorted by single to determine the ranking. The Tipparade, listing candidates for the Top 40, is based on sales, streaming and recommendations from both the general public and the music industry. There is a set of rules, of which some have existed since 1972, that have been maintained up until 2012; some of these have been criticised as a hindrance. Since late 1971, singles had to remain at least two weeks in the charts. If a single no longer belongs in the top 40, these are placed on #40.
Example: Missy Elliott's "Lose Control": Remained two weeks on #40 in the chart, because it did not sell enough and wasn't played enough on the radio. There have been two exceptions for this, though: In October 1994, Pet Shop Boys's "Yesterday, When I Was Mad" stayed in the charts for only 1 week due to an error in the compilation, in late September 2007, Kus's "4 meiden" just didn't sell enough to stay in the charts for 2 weeks. Since 1983, singles that move up in the chart by a large number of positions are assigned superstip status; these singles were not allowed to fall down in chart position in the following week. If a superstip single had a comparatively lower sales/airplay statistics a week it would remain stuck on the same chart position until a second week of drop, by which time it may appear as if it dropped hard in chart positions. Example: Guus Meeuwis's "Ik wil dat ons land juicht": The song entered the chart at #11, rose up to #5 in its second week; the following week it remained on the # 5 position.
The following two weeks, it went from #5 to #39. Because of this rule, this single was the biggest fall down in the Dutch Top 40. However, this was not always the case. Sometimes singles with a superstip status did drop, for example. Re-entry only took place when the single re-entered within the top 30, if differently, these re-entried singles were ignored. Since 2005, there were no re-entries, until Michael Jackson died in 2009. Since, singles only re-entered the charts posthumously, but since 2012, "normal" re-entries started to occur again. Singles with double A-side are noted separately in the top 40. Example: Robbie Williams' first single off his 2005 album Intensive Care was "Tripping" with the B-side being "Make Me Pure". While "Tripping" topped the chart by peaking at #1, "Make Me Pure" peaked at #15 in the Top 40; this is a listing of significant milestones based upon the Dutch Top 40 charts. 16 weeksCalvin Harris featuring Dua Lipa — "One Kiss" 15 weeksEd Sheeran — "Shape of You" Luis Fonsi & Daddy Yankee featuring Justin Bieber — "Despacito" 13 weeksGusttavo Lima — "Balada" 12 weeksMarco Borsato — "Dromen zijn bedrog" 11 weeksBryan Adams — " I Do It for You" Marco Borsato — "Rood" André Hazes and Gerard Joling — "Blijf bij mij" Bruno Mars — "Just the Way You Are" Michel Teló — "Ai se eu te pego!"
Robin Thicke featuring T. I. & Pharrell Williams — "Blurred Lines" Avicii — "Wake Me Up" Clean Bandit featuring Jess Glynne — "Rather Be" OMI — "Cheerleader" Davina Michelle — "Duurt te lang" 10 weeksHeintje — "Ich bau' dir ein Schloß" 4 Non Blondes — "What's Up? Vangelis — "Conquest of Paradise" Céline Dion — "My Heart Will Go On" Owl City — "Fireflies" Alexis Jordan — "Happiness" Mike Posner — "I Took a Pill in Ibiza BLØF featuring Geike Arnaert — "Zoutelande" Source: 49 weeksPharrell Williams — "Happy" 41 weeksCorry en de Rekels — "Huilen is voor jou te laat" 40 weeksTrio Hellenique / Polis & Les Helleniques / Duo Akropolis / Mikis Theodorakis — "Zorba's Dance" The Scorpions — "Hello Josephine" 39 weeksJane Birkin and Serge Gainsbourg — "Je t'aime... moi non plus" 38 weeksGotye featuring Kimbra — "Somebody That I Used to Know" (2011
Joseph Dolce is an American-Australian singer/songwriter and essayist who achieved international recognition with his multi-million-selling song, "Shaddap You Face", released under the name of his one-man show, Joe Dolce Music Theatre, worldwide, in 1980–1981. The single reached number one in 15 countries, it has sold more than 450,000 copies in Australia, has remained the most successful Australian-produced single since, selling an estimated six million copies worldwide, it reached No. 1 on the Australian Kent Music Report Singles Chart for eight weeks from November 1980. Dolce was born in 1947, the eldest of three children, to Italian-American parents, in Painesville, graduating from Thomas W. Harvey High School in 1965. During his senior year, he played the lead role of Mascarille in Molière's "Les Précieuses Ridicules" for a production staged by the French Club of Lake Erie College, his first time on stage and singing an impromptu song he created from the script; the play was well received and his performance was noted by director Jake Rufli, who invited him to be part of his production of Jean Anouilh's "Eurydice".
His co-star in "Les Précieuses Ridicules" was a sophomore, on a creative writing scholarship, at Lake Erie College, Carol Dunlop, who introduced him to folk music and the writings of William Faulkner and Ernest Hemingway. Dunlop married the Argentine novelist Julio Cortazar. Dolce attended Ohio University, majoring in Architecture, from 1965–67, before deciding to become a professional musician. While attending college at Ohio University, in Athens, Ohio, he formed various bands including Headstone Circus, with Jonathan Edwards who subsequently went on as a solo artist to have a charting hit song in the US. Edwards subsequently recorded five Dolce songs including, "Athens County", "Rollin' Along", "King of Hearts", "The Ballad of Upsy Daisy" and "My Home Ain't in the Hall of Fame", the latter song becoming an alt country classic recorded by Robert Earl Keen, Rosalie Sorrels, JD Crowe & the New South, many others. Dolce relocated to Melbourne, Australia in 1978 and his first single there was "Boat People"—a protest song on the poor treatment of Vietnamese refugees—which was translated into Vietnamese and donated to the fledgling Vietnamese community starting to form in Melbourne.
His one-man show, Joe Dolce Music Theatre, performed in cabarets and pubs with various line-ups, including his longtime partner, Lin Van Hek. In July 1980, he recorded the self-penned "Shaddap You Face", for the Full Moon Records label, at Mike Brady's new studios in West Melbourne; when in Ohio, Dolce would sometimes visit his Italian grandparents and extended family—they used the phrases "What's the matter, you?" and "Eh, shaddap", which Dolce adapted and used in the song. He wrote the song about Italians living in Australia and first performed it at Marijuana House, Brunswick Street, Fitzroy in 1979. Dolce paid A$500 for the recording and spent $1000 on the music video clip, created by Melbourne filmmaker, Chris Lofven, it became a multi-million-selling hit, peaking at No. 1 on the Australian Kent Music Report Singles Chart for eight weeks from November 1980, in the UK from February 1981 for three weeks, No. 1 in Germany, Fiji, Puerto Rico, Austria, New Zealand and Switzerland. Dolce received the Advance Australia Award in 1981.
The song has had hundreds of cover versions over the decades including releases by artists as diverse as Lou Monte, Andrew Sachs, actor Samuel L. Jackson and hip-hop legends, KRS-One. In 2018, the first Russian language version was released by two of Moscow's most popular singers, Kristina Orbakaite and Philipp Kirkorov; the song has been translated into fifteen languages, including an aboriginal dialect. Follow up single, "If You Want to Be Happy" charted in Australia and New Zealand. Dolce's subsequent singles included "Pizza Pizza", "Christmas in Australia" and "You Toucha My Car I Breaka You Face" and he released two albums during this period, Shaddap You Face and The Christmas Album. With Lin Van Hek, he formed various performance groups including Skin the Wig, La Somnambule and the ongoing Difficult Women. Van Hek and Dolce co-wrote "Intimacy", for the 1984 film, The Terminator's soundtrack, now part of the US Library of Congress collection, he was a featured lead actor in the Australian film Blowing Cold.
He has continued to perform solo and with Van Hek as part of their music-literary cabaret Difficult Women. In the past decade, he has received extensive recognition as a poet and essayist. In 1976, he married the sister of fashion icon Prue Acton, in Berkeley, California, they had two children and Brea, moved to Australia in 1979, separated and divorced. He met singer-writer-painter Lin Van Hek in 1980, in Carlton, Victoria, they have remained together for thirty-eight years and have six grown children and thirteen grandchildren. Joe Dolce has achieved further recognition as a essayist, he was the winner of the 2017 University of Canberra Health Poetry Prize. He won the 25th Launceston Poetry Cup in Tasmania in 2010, he has set poems to music by Sappho, Sylvia Plath, Les Murray, Ali Cobby Eckermann, Andrew Lansdown and C. P. Cavafy, he wrote "Hill of Death" from a poem of Louisa Lawson's that won Best Folk Gospel Song at the Australian Gospel Awards. "Cocaine Lil", an eighteenth-century public domain lyric, formed the basis for an up-tempo blues song – both of these poems-set-to-music appeared on his 2007 album The Wind Cries Mary.
"Cocaine Lil" was included as a featured track in Australian Guitar Player Magazine. He has had over 150 poems, including thirt
British Hit Singles & Albums
British Hit Singles & Albums was a music reference book published in the United Kingdom by the publishing arm of the Guinness breweries, Guinness Superlatives. Editions were published by Guinness World Records and HiT Entertainment, it listed all the singles and albums featured in the Top 75 pop charts in the UK. In 2004 the book became an amalgamation of two earlier Guinness publications known as British Hit Singles and British Hit Albums; the publication of this amalgamation ceased in 2006. A new version of the book published by Virgin and entitled The Virgin Book of British Hit Singles, first published in November 2008; the first ten editions were compiled by Paul Gambaccini, Mike Read and brothers Tim Rice and Jonathan Rice. Read left the team in the mid-1980s and the other editors resigned in 1996. Chart editor for many editions was David Roberts. British Hit Singles & Albums was considered to be the authoritative reference source for both the UK Singles Chart and the UK Albums Chart, it listed all the singles and albums to have been in the UK charts since 1952, listing them in alphabetical order and by both artist and song title.
The entries included the date of chart entry, highest position, catalogue number and number of weeks in the chart. Short biographical notes accompanied many of the artists' chart details; the book's sources are the New Musical Express chart from November 1952 to March 1960, the Record Retailer chart thereafter. It could be said that this division is misleading, since the Record Retailer chart was little known until it was adopted by the BBC in 1969 and that by adopting this chart as its standard, the editors had a non-consensual view. An example given is the case of The Beatles' second single "Please Please Me", recognised as a number one hit by every other publicly available chart of the time, but not by Record Retailer and therefore not by British Hit Singles. Other records to which this applies include "19th Nervous Breakdown" by The Rolling Stones, "Stranger on the Shore" by Acker Bilk and the Eurovision Song Contest entry "Are You Sure?" by The Allisons. Co-founder Jo Rice has defended the book's choice of source material on the grounds that Record Retailer was the only chart to publish a Top 50 from 1960 onwards.
This can be substantiated by the fact that charts published in the NME were of a shorter format and other chart listings such as those in Melody Maker, became less and less informative although they were more accurate. Subsequent research has shown that during the "disputed" period of the 1960s, the samples sizes of the Record Retailer chart were inferior to those of the other charts: around 30 shops in 1963 in comparison to more than 100 used by Melody Maker, around 80 in comparison to NME's 150 and Melody Maker's 200; as a result, the placings in that chart were more open to error and manipulation – a situation further worsened by the larger number of records listed in the chart. The first edition was published as The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles in November 1977, it wasn't the first Guinness music reference publication, as the previous year a book called The Guinness Book of Music Facts & Feats had been published. It contained feats from the world of classical music; the first edition was issued to coincide with the 25th anniversary of the first UK singles sales chart, published in November 1952, by the New Musical Express.
Subsequently, a new edition was published every two years, adding a few hundred titles to each edition. Keeping in line with the book's parent publication The Guinness Book of Records, each edition of British Hit Singles contained a'facts and feats' section, which included various lists of remarkable chart feats such as'Most hits','Most no. 1 hits','Most weeks on chart' or'Least successful chart artist'. Included in the books were photographs and introductions written by the four authors, they wrote a bi-annual lookback on the major developments in the UK charts in the two preceding years. The series was soon regarded as the number one source for music and chart reference, thanks to the commercial success of the books and its various sister publications; the series' 10th edition, published in June 1995, was the last to feature its original authors Rice and Gambaccini. From the 11th edition onwards, the book was compiled by in-house editors at Guinness Publishing and by David Roberts, a chart editor and designer for the original team.
From the 12th edition onwards, the book was published every year rather than bi-annually. In 2004, the book merged with The Guinness Book of British Hit Albums to form The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles & Albums; the eighteenth edition of the book was billed as a "Special Collector's Edition" as it featured detailed information on the 1,000 Number Ones in the UK Singles Chart from Al Martino's "Here in My Heart" on 14 November 1952 to Elvis Presley's "One Night / I Got Stung", 22 January 2005. The 19th edition was the last in the series. A supposed 20th edition was due to be published in 2007, but the original publishers lost interest in chart reference books after their contract with The Official Charts Company expired, which saw that organisation sell the contract to Virgin. Following the success of the Guinness Book of British Hit Singles series, the original authors and Guinness turned to other charts-related books and projects; the following books were written by them: The Guinn
Weezer is an American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1992. Since 2001, the band has consisted of Rivers Cuomo, Patrick Wilson, Brian Bell, Scott Shriner. After signing to Geffen Records in 1993, Weezer released their debut self-titled album known as the "Blue Album", in 1994. Backed by successful music videos for the singles "Buddy Holly", "Undone – The Sweater Song", "Say It Ain't So", the Blue Album became a 3x platinum success, their second album, featuring a darker, more abrasive sound, was a commercial failure and received mixed reviews, but went on to achieve cult status and critical acclaim years later. Both the Blue Album and Pinkerton are now cited among the best albums of the 1990s. Following the tour for Pinkerton, bassist Matt Sharp left Weezer went on hiatus. In 2001, Weezer returned with another self-titled album, known as the "Green Album", with new bassist Mikey Welsh. With a more pop sound, promoted by singles "Hash Pipe" and "Island in the Sun", the album was a commercial success and received positive reviews.
After the Green Album tour, Welsh was replaced by current bassist Scott Shriner. Weezer's fourth album, achieved positive reviews, but weaker sales. Make Believe received mixed reviews, but its single "Beverly Hills" became Weezer's first single to top the US Modern Rock Tracks chart and the first to reach the top ten on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2008, Weezer released a third self-titled album, known as the "Red Album", featuring "TR-808s, Southern rap, baroque counterpoint", its lead single, "Pork and Beans", became the band's third song to top the Modern Rock Tracks chart, backed by a successful Grammy-winning YouTube music video. Raditude and Hurley featured more "modern pop production" and songs co-written with other artists, achieved further mixed reviews and moderate sales; the band's ninth and tenth albums, Everything Will Be Alright in the End and the band's fourth self-titled album, known as the "White Album", returned to a rock style and achieved more positive reviews. Their eleventh album, Pacific Daydream, featured a more mainstream pop sound.
Weezer has sold 10.2 million albums over 35 million worldwide. The band released a surprise fifth self-titled album, known as the "Teal Album", on January 24, 2019, which features only cover songs, their sixth self-titled album, known as the "Black Album", was released on March 1, 2019. Vocalist and lead guitarist Rivers Cuomo, drummer Patrick Wilson, bassist Matt Sharp and guitarist Jason Cropper formed Weezer in 1992, they had their first practice on February 14 of that year. Weezer signed with Geffen Records on June 25, 1993, recorded their debut album with producer Ric Ocasek at Electric Lady Studios in New York City. During the recording, Cropper was replaced by guitarist Brian Bell. Weezer was released in May 1994. Geffen did not wish to release a single, to see what sales could be generated by word-of-mouth alone. DJ Marco Collins of the Seattle radio station The End started playing "Undone – The Sweater Song", leading Geffen to release it as the first single; the music video was directed by Spike Jonze.
Filmed in an unbroken take, it featured Weezer performing on a sound stage with little action, bar a pack of dogs swarming the set. The video became an instant hit on MTV. Jonze directed Weezer's second video, "Buddy Holly", splicing the band with footage from the 1970s television sitcom Happy Days; the video achieved heavy rotation on MTV and went on to win four MTV Video Music Awards, including Breakthrough Video and Best Alternative Music Video, two Billboard Music Video Awards. The video was featured on the companion CD for the Windows 95 operating system. A third single, "Say It Ain't So". Weezer is certified quadruple platinum in the United States, it is certified quadruple platinum in Canada. In 1994, Weezer took a break from touring for the Christmas holidays. Cuomo began recording demos for Weezer's next album, his original concept was a space-themed rock opera, Songs from the Black Hole, that would express his mixed feelings about success. Weezer developed the concept through intermittent recording sessions through 1995.
At the end of the year, Cuomo enrolled at Harvard University, where his songwriting became "darker, more visceral and exposed, less playful", the Songs from the Black Hole album was abandoned. Weezer's second album, was released on September 24, 1996, it produced three singles: "El Scorcho", "The Good Life", "Pink Triangle". In addition to a lawsuit filed against the band over the title of the album, Pinkerton sold poorly compared to the Blue Album due to its darker, more abrasive sound, it was voted "one of the worst albums of 1996" in a Rolling Stone reader poll. However, the album came to be considered among Weezer's best work. Weezer went on hiatus. Wilson returned to his home in Portland, Oregon to work on his side project, the Special Goodness, Bell worked on his band Space Twins. Sharp left Weezer to complete the follow-up album for his group the Rentals, he said of his departure: "I don't know how to speak on this because I don't know what should be kept private and what
A-side and B-side
The terms A-side and B-side refer to the two sides of 78, 45, 331⁄3 rpm phonograph records, or cassettes, whether singles, extended plays, or long-playing records. The A-side featured the recording that the artist, record producer, or the record company intended to receive the initial promotional effort and receive radio airplay to become a "hit" record; the B-side is a secondary recording that has a history of its own: some artists released B-sides that were considered as strong as the A-side and became hits in their own right. Others took the opposite approach: producer Phil Spector was in the habit of filling B-sides with on-the-spot instrumentals that no one would confuse with the A-side. With this practice, Spector was assured that airplay was focused on the side he wanted to be the hit side. Music recordings have moved away from records onto other formats such as CDs and digital downloads, which do not have "sides", but the terms are still used to describe the type of content, with B-side sometimes standing for "bonus" track.
The first sound recordings at the end of the 19th century were made on cylinder records, which had a single round surface capable of holding two minutes of sound. Early shellac disc records records only had recordings on one side of the disc, with a similar capacity. Double-sided recordings, with one selection on each side, were introduced in Europe by Columbia Records in 1908, by 1910 most record labels had adopted the format in both Europe and the United States. There were no record charts until the 1930s, radio stations did not play recorded music until the 1950s. In this time, A-sides and B-sides existed. In June 1948, Columbia Records introduced the modern 331⁄3 rpm long-playing microgroove vinyl record for commercial sales, its rival RCA Victor, responded the next year with the seven-inch 45 rpm vinylite record, which would replace the 78 for single record releases; the term "single" came into popular use with the advent of vinyl records in the early 1950s. At first, most record labels would randomly assign which song would be an A-side and which would be a B-side.
Under this random system, many artists had so-called "double-sided hits", where both songs on a record made one of the national sales charts, or would be featured on jukeboxes in public places. As time wore on, the convention for assigning songs to sides of the record changed. By the early sixties, the song on the A-side was the song that the record company wanted radio stations to play, as 45 rpm single records dominated the market in terms of cash sales, it was not until 1968, for example, that the total production of albums on a unit basis surpassed that of singles in the United Kingdom. In the late 1960s, stereo versions of pop and rock songs began to appear on 45s; the majority of the 45s were played on AM radio stations, which were not equipped for stereo broadcast at the time, so stereo was not a priority. However, the FM rock stations did not like to play monaural content, so the record companies adopted a protocol for DJ versions with the mono version of the song on one side, stereo version of the same song on the other.
By the early 1970s, double-sided hits had become rare. Album sales had increased, B-sides had become the side of the record where non-album, non-radio-friendly, instrumental versions or inferior recordings were placed. In order to further ensure that radio stations played the side that the record companies had chosen, it was common for the promotional copies of a single to have the "plug side" on both sides of the disc. With the decline of 45 rpm vinyl records, after the introduction of cassette and compact disc singles in the late 1980s, the A-side/B-side differentiation became much less meaningful. At first, cassette singles would have one song on each side of the cassette, matching the arrangement of vinyl records, but cassette maxi-singles, containing more than two songs, became more popular. Cassette singles were phased out beginning in the late 1990s, the A-side/B-side dichotomy became extinct, as the remaining dominant medium, the compact disc, lacked an equivalent physical distinction.
However, the term "B-side" is still used to refer to the "bonus" tracks or "coupling" tracks on a CD single. With the advent of downloading music via the Internet, sales of CD singles and other physical media have declined, the term "B-side" is now less used. Songs that were not part of an artist's collection of albums are made available through the same downloadable catalogs as tracks from their albums, are referred to as "unreleased", "bonus", "non-album", "rare", "outtakes" or "exclusive" tracks, the latter in the case of a song being available from a certain provider of music. B-side songs may be released on the same record as a single to provide extra "value for money". There are several types of material released in this way, including a different version, or, in a concept record, a song that does not fit into the story lin