Human cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of a human. The term is used to refer to artificial human cloning, the reproduction of human cells and tissue, it does not refer to the natural delivery of identical twins. The possibility of human cloning has raised controversies; these ethical concerns have prompted several nations to pass laws regarding human cloning and its legality. Two discussed types of theoretical human cloning are therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning would involve cloning cells from a human for use in medicine and transplants, is an active area of research, but is not in medical practice anywhere in the world, as of April 2017. Two common methods of therapeutic cloning that are being researched are somatic-cell nuclear transfer and, more pluripotent stem cell induction. Reproductive cloning would involve making an entire cloned human, instead of just specific cells or tissues. Although the possibility of cloning humans had been the subject of speculation for much of the 20th century and policy makers began to take the prospect in the mid-1960s.
J. B. S. Haldane was the first to introduce the idea of human cloning, for which he used the terms "clone" and "cloning", used in agriculture since the early 20th century. In his speech on "Biological Possibilities for the Human Species of the Next Ten Thousand Years" at the Ciba Foundation Symposium on Man and his Future in 1963, he said: It is hopeful that some human cell lines can be grown on a medium of known chemical composition; the first step will be the production of a clone from a single fertilized egg, as in Brave New World... Assuming that cloning is possible, I expect that most clones would be made from people aged at least fifty, except for athletes and dancers, who would be cloned younger, they would be made from people who were held to have excelled in a acceptable accomplishment. Nobel Prize-winning geneticist Joshua Lederberg advocated cloning and genetic engineering in an article in The American Naturalist in 1966 and again, the following year, in The Washington Post, he sparked a debate with conservative bioethicist Leon Kass, who wrote at the time that "the programmed reproduction of man will, in fact, dehumanize him."
Another Nobel Laureate, James D. Watson, publicized the potential and the perils of cloning in his Atlantic Monthly essay, "Moving Toward the Clonal Man", in 1971. With the cloning of a sheep known as Dolly in 1996 by somatic cell nuclear transfer, the idea of human cloning became a hot debate topic. Many nations outlawed it; the first hybrid human clone was created by Advanced Cell Technology. It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, the hybrid cell was cultured, developed into an embryo; the embryo was destroyed after 12 days. In 2004 and 2005, Hwang Woo-suk, a professor at Seoul National University, published two separate articles in the journal Science claiming to have harvested pluripotent, embryonic stem cells from a cloned human blastocyst using somatic-cell nuclear transfer techniques. Hwang claimed to have created eleven different patent-specific stem cell lines; this would have been the first major breakthrough in human cloning.
However, in 2006 Science retracted both of his articles on clear evidence that much of his data from the experiments was fabricated. In January 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed; the embryos were developed only to the blastocyst stage, at which point they were studied in processes that destroyed them. Members of the lab said that their next set of experiments would aim to generate embryonic stem cell lines. In 2011, scientists at the New York Stem Cell Foundation announced that they had succeeded in generating embryonic stem cell lines, but their process involved leaving the oocyte's nucleus in place, resulting in triploid cells, which would not be useful for cloning. In 2013, a group of scientists led by Shoukhrat Mitalipov published the first report of embryonic stem cells created using SCNT.
In this experiment, the researchers developed a protocol for using SCNT in human cells, which differs from the one used in other organisms. Four embryonic stem cell lines from human fetal somatic cells were derived from those blastocysts. All four lines were derived using oocytes from the same donor, ensuring that all mitochondrial DNA inherited was identical. A year a team led by Robert Lanza at Advanced Cell Technology reported that they had replicated Mitalipov's results and further demonstrated the effectiveness by cloning adult cells using SCNT. In 2018, the first successful cloning of primates using somatic cell nuclear transfer, the same method as Dolly the sheep, with the birth of two live female clones was reported.. In somatic cell nuclear transfer, the nucleus of a somatic cell is taken from a donor and transplanted into a host egg cell, which had its own genetic material removed making it an enucleated egg. After the donor somatic cell genetic material is transferred into the host oocyte with a micropipette, the somatic cell genetic material is fused with the egg using an
Sebastiaan "Bas" Rutten is a Dutch-American actor and retired mixed martial artist and professional wrestler. He was a UFC Heavyweight Champion, a three-time King of Pancrase world champion, finished his career on a 22 fight unbeaten streak. FightMetric wrote this when Rutten got inducted into the UFC Hall Of Fame: "FightMetric, the official statistics provider for the UFC, ran the numbers on Rutten's career, they back up the Dutchman's inclusion into the UFC Hall of Fame and some. In the 4-hours, 27-minutes and 8-seconds he spent as a pro fighter, Rutten scored 13 knockdowns without getting dropped himself, his significant strike accuracy was 70.6%, the highest FightMetric has recorded, attempted a record 53 submissions and swept his opponents a record 46 times." From 2007–2016, Rutten was the co-host of Inside MMA on AXS TV. As a professional fighter, one of his favorite tactics was the liver shot, he popularized its use in MMA. Rutten is known for his charisma and has capitalized on his celebrity status since retiring from fighting in 1999.
He has worked as a color commentator in several MMA organizations, including Pride, has appeared in numerous television shows and video games. He coaches MMA and has authored several instructional materials. Rutten was born in Netherlands. At the age of 6 he developed severe asthma. Bas' eczema meant he always wore long sleeves, turtle necks and gloves, his asthma meant he was unable to partake in exercise, was relatively skinny, he was bullied on a daily basis as a kid. Bas started training boxing in the backyard of an elementary school with a friend. Rutten became interested in martial arts at age 12 after his family went on vacation to France, where the movie Enter the Dragon starring Bruce Lee was playing at a local movie theatre. Bas could not get in because the movie was rated 17+, so he and his brother Sjoerd sneaked into the theatre. After he saw the movie, he took an interest in martial arts. At first, his conservative parents didn't allow him to pursue, but after two years of begging his parents, at age 14, they allowed him to practice taekwondo.
He picked it up quickly and after a few months he got in a street fight with the biggest bully in town. Rutten, now more confident, took the challenge and broke the bully's nose and KO'd him with the first punch he threw; the police showed up at his parent's place, Rutten was prohibited by his parents from further practicing martial arts. At age 21, he once again started training taekwondo, he was committed earning a 2nd degree black belt. He began learning Kyokushin Karate and earned a 2nd degree black belt. At the age of 20 he started competing in kickboxing while working as a bouncer and model, he fought 16 times, winning the first 14 by knockout, 13 in the first round, losing his final two fights. One of them would be against famed Frank Lobman for the European Muay Thai title on 12 February 1991, with Rutten losing by KO in the first round. According to Rutten, he signed up for the match while under the influence and without any kind of earlier preparation, but he decided not to pull out. Another of his most famous fights was against Rene Rooze.
In response, Bas caused a brawl. Rutten began his professional mixed martial arts career, he was invited to train at the Fighting Network RINGS Holland dojo. Though his first training was a tough start for him, he focused in learning the rudiments of the art. In 1993, when Japanese pro wrestlers Masakatsu Funaki and Minoru Suzuki traveled to the Netherlands to scout fighters for their new "hybrid wrestling" organization, Rutten was chosen. A precursor to modern mixed martial arts, the organization was the first of its kind and featured fighting with no closed fisted strikes to the face, boasted of early MMA names Frank Shamrock, Vernon White, Maurice Smith, Ken Shamrock, Guy Mezger. In September 1993, Rutten had his debut in Pancrase against the 45lb heavier Ryushi Yanagisawa, knocking him out with palms and knee strikes in only 48 seconds; the KO was so brutal that Yanagisawa was carried from the ring and spent 2 days in a hospital, with Bas himself fearing for his life. Rutten's second match, would be against a more experienced opponent, Takaku Fuke, it would expose his main weakness, his lack of groundfighting experience.
Fuke took Rutten down and locked an armbar, which forced the Dutch fighter to spend a rope escape, though Bas was able to land a knee strike to the liver to finish the match with a win. His third match would be his first loss for this cause, as he faced a superior opponent in the form of Pancrase founder Masakatsu Funaki. Rutten was taken down and forced to close guard, moment in which he accidentally hit Funaki with a closed-fisted punch; when he tried to apologize, the Japanese fighter capitalized and executed a toehold, making Rutten tap out. At that point of his career, Rutten realized the importance of the grappling aspect, he started taping Pancrase trainings in order to practice those moves with his trainee Leon Van Dijk; the training paid off, as Rutten submitted Japanese wrestler Kazuo "Yoshiki" Takahashi with an inverted heel hook during a grappling exchange, overconfidently initiated by Kazuo. The hold broke Takahashi's shin bone and gained Rutten an honorary 5th degree black belt in Kyokushin Budokai by Jon Bluming after he learned the fact.
Rutten got his first high level win
Taylor Daniel Lautner is an American actor, voice actor, model. He is known for playing Jacob Black in The Twilight Saga film series based on the novels of the same name by Stephenie Meyer. Lautner began his acting career playing bit roles in comedy series such as The Bernie Mac Show and My Wife and Kids, before having voice roles in television series like What's New, Scooby-Doo? and Danny Phantom. In 2005, he appeared in the film Cheaper by the Dozen 2 and starred in The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 3-D, he starred in the 2011 action film Abduction. Since 2013, Lautner has starred in the BBC sitcom Cuckoo as the son of the titular main character. In 2016, he played a leading role, Dr. Cassidy Cascade, in the second season of FOX black comedy series Scream Queens; the late 2000s saw Lautner become a teen idol and sex symbol, after extensively changing his physique to keep the role of Jacob Black in further Twilight installments, generating media attention for his looks. In 2010, he was ranked second on Glamour's "The 50 Sexiest Men of 2010" list, fourth on People's "Most Amazing Bodies" list.
In the same year, Lautner was named the highest-paid teenage actor in Hollywood. Lautner was born on February 11, 1992, in Grand Rapids, the son of Deborah and Daniel Lautner, his mother works for a software development company. He has one younger sister named Makena. Raised as a Roman Catholic, Lautner has Austrian, English, German and Swiss ancestry, has stated that he has "distant" Native American ancestry through his mother, he grew up in a town near Grand Rapids. He has stated, he commented, "I just had to tell myself'I can't let this get to me. This is, and I'm going to continue doing it.'"He took his first karate class at the age of six. A year he attended the national karate tournament in Louisville, where he met Michael Chaturantabut, the founder of Xtreme Martial Arts. Chaturantabut invited Lautner to a camp he held at University of Los Angeles. Lautner trained with Chaturantabut for several years, earning his black belt by the age of eight, winning several junior world championships, he appeared in an ISKA karate event televised on ESPN in 2003, lampooned on the sports-comedy show Cheap Seats that first aired in 2006.
In junior high, Lautner—who was involved in karate and hip-hop dance—won the award for "Best Smile" and played in the school's Turkey Bowl American Football game. He went to public school in California at Valencia High School until his sophomore year. Chaturantabut, who once portrayed the Blue Ranger in Power Rangers Lightspeed Rescue, suggested to Lautner that he take up acting. For a few years, the Lautners flew from Michigan to Los Angeles for auditions when his talent agency called, returned to Grand Rapids for school sometimes the same day. Lautner balanced karate and acting with being on the football and baseball teams at his school, taking up jazz and hip-hop dance. After that became tiring and his family decided to move to California for a month, to try it out, before moving to Santa Clarita, permanently in 2002. In his first months after moving to Los Angeles, Lautner appeared in small television roles, small film roles, ads and commercials. In 2001, Lautner first appeared in Shadow Fury.
He got a voice-over job in a commercial for Rugrats Go Wild. He appeared in small television roles on The Bernie Mac Show, My Wife and Kids, Summerland. Lautner earned voice-over roles in animated series such as Danny Phantom, Duck Dodgers, What's New, Scooby-Doo?. The same year, he earned his first breakout role, starring in the film, The Adventures of Sharkboy and Lavagirl in 3-D. Lautner spent three months on location in Austin, Texas, to film the movie, received with negative reviews from critics, was a minor international success. However, Lautner was nominated at the 2006 Young Artist Awards for Best Performance in a Feature Film by a Leading Actor. For the film, Lautner choreographed all of his fight scenes after director Robert Rodríguez learned of his extensive martial arts training. Months he played Eliot Murtaugh in Cheaper by the Dozen 2, panned by critics, being named one of the "Worst Films of the 2000s" by Rotten Tomatoes. After returning from Canada filming the latter movie, Lautner said he realized his newfound fame, from Sharkboy and Lavagirl.
In 2006 he appeared in the show Love Inc. and the TV special He's Charlie Brown. Two years Lautner appeared in a lead role in the short-lived NBC drama, My Own Worst Enemy, portraying Christian Slater's son, Jack Spivey. Rolling Stone coined his early roles as either "the popular kid, jock, or bully." In 2007, filmmakers began a search for actors to portray Jacob Black, a Native American friend of lead character Bella Swan in Twilight, the first film in The Twilight Saga film series. In January 2008, an open casting call was held in Oregon. Lautner was urged by his agent to audition. At his audition, he read lines with Kristen Stewart, cast as Bella, they acted out scenes from The Twilight Saga: New Moon and The Twilight Saga: Eclipse; the film was a commercial success, earning $69 million its opening weekend, has grossed $392 million worldwide. It received mixed reviews from critics, having a "Rotten" rating with a weighted average of 5.5/10. In describing the critical consensus, it stated: "Having lost much of its bite transitioning to the big
Alexandra Kamp-Groeneveld is a German model and actress. She was grown up in Baden-Baden, she visited drama schools in New York, Los Angeles and Paris before she started her career as an actress in 1994. She has had many star and supporting roles in German movies and TV series and some in Hollywood B-movies. In 1998, she acted together with Claudia Cardinale in Riches, Belles et Cruelles, in 2001 with Leslie Nielsen in 2001: A Space Travesty and in 2003 she played the star role in Sumuru together with Michael Shanks in an English-South African co-production. In 2007 she appeared as a covergirl on the German issue of the Playboy. Alexandra is the spokeswoman for the children's hospital "Kinderhospiz St. Nikolaus" in the Bavarian Alps, which gives a care home to terminally ill children and their parents, she gives charity readings. Official website in German Alexandra Kamp on IMDb Alexandra Kamp at FMD
Jennette McCurdy is an American actress, YouTuber and writer. She is known for playing Sam Puckett on the Nickelodeon sitcom iCarly and its spin-off series Sam & Cat. McCurdy has appeared in a number of television series, including Victorious, Zoey 101, True Jackson VP, Malcolm in the Middle, Lincoln Heights, has produced and starred in her own online series titled What's Next for Sarah? From May 2015 to August 2016, she starred in the Netflix/Citytv drama series Between as Wiley Day. Jennette McCurdy was born on June 26, 1992 in Long Beach and grew up in Garden Grove, California, she is of Dutch, French, Irish and Swedish descent. McCurdy became interested in acting upon watching Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope after her mother recovered from breast cancer. However, in a 2014 appearance on the podcast You Made It Weird with Pete Holmes, she said that this was not true. McCurdy started her acting career in 2000 at the age of eight on MADtv. Since she appeared in television series, including CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, Malcolm in the Middle, Lincoln Heights, Will & Grace, The Penguins of Madagascar, Zoey 101, True Jackson, VP, Law and Order SVU, Judging Amy, The Inside, Karen Sisco, Over There, Close to Home.
In 2003, she had the chance to act with her inspiration, Harrison Ford, in the film Hollywood Homicide. In 2005, she was nominated for a Young Artist Award for Best Performance in a Television Series – Guest Starring Young Actress for her performance in Strong Medicine as Hailey Campos, she has appeared in several commercials, such as one for Sprint and a public service announcement on crossing the road safely. In 2007, she won a starring role in the Nickelodeon TV series iCarly as Sam Puckett, a series she would be a part of until its end in 2012. In 2008, she was nominated for a Young Artist Award for her work on iCarly and her performance as Dory Sorenson in the TV movie The Last Day of Summer, she was nominated for a 2009 Teen Choice Award in the Favorite TV Sidekick category for her work on iCarly. She played Bertha in Fred: a movie based on a YouTube series about Fred Figglehorn. In June 2008, McCurdy announced on her official website; the first single, "So Close", was released on March 10, 2009.
On May 19 her cover of the Amanda Stott song "Homeless Heart" was released. The song was released in honor of McCurdy's deceased friend Cody Waters, who died at the age of nine from brain cancer, 20% of the proceeds were donated to the Cody Waters Foundation, she met Waters through St. Jude Children's Research Hospital. In mid-2009, McCurdy signed with country music label Capitol Records Nashville. On April 16, 2010, samples of select songs from McCurdy's upcoming debut country album were released online; the song clips were released in order for fans to vote for which one they believed should be McCurdy's first single. "Not That Far Away" received the most votes, was released to country radio on May 24, 2010 and iTunes on June 1. She released an EP on August 17, 2010, which included "Not That Far Away" and three new songs: "Stronger", "Put Your Arms Around Someone", "Break Your Heart"; the iTunes version included "Me with You" as a bonus track. McCurdy's second single, "Generation Love", was released as a digital download on March 22, 2011, followed by its release to radio April 25, 2011.
Capitol Nashville released McCurdy's self-named seven-track EP on February 8, 2012 at clothing retailer Justice. The full-length, ten-track edition was released to iTunes on June 5, 2012 and is her first full-length album. On July 11, 2012, Fanlala released an interview with McCurdy in which she confirmed that she has since left Capitol Records Nashville, saying, "I'm kind of between projects right now. I just left Capitol Records recently. I'm just deciding what else I want to do next. Right now I'm working on my new show, I'm just figuring out where I should take my music from here." On July 31, 2012, How to Rock released an interview with McCurdy, in which she talked about her acting and music careers. A follow-up interview was released on August 8, she starred alongside Ariana Grande in the Nickelodeon series Sam & Cat, reprising her role as Sam Puckett, with Grande reprising her role as Cat Valentine. The series' plot centers on the girls becoming roommates and starting their own babysitting business.
It premiered on June 8, 2013. In 2014 McCurdy along with good friend and former co-star Miranda Cosgrove were absent from the Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards. Explaining her absence, McCurdy stated that Nickelodeon put her in an "uncomfortable, unfair situation" where she had to look out for herself, McCurdy and Grande were having problems with the network over their respective salaries, that McCurdy accused Nickelodeon of paying Grande more money; the network placed Cat into hiatus. The network stated that the hiatus was planned and that the series was not cancelled. On July 13, 2014, Nickelodeon announced that, after only one season, Cat was cancelled. In an interview on Entertainment Pop, McCurdy mentioned that she made up with Grande. On August 13, 2014, McCurdy launched the online show What's Next for Sarah?. She served as the star of the series as well as the writer of the show, along with duties as executive producer and editor, she says that the show is based loosely on her life and that the character she plays, Sarah Bronson, is based on her.
In 2015, she began starring in the Netflix drama series Between. It was announced that she would star in teen comedy Little Bitches alongside Virginia Gardner and Kiersey Clemons. In August 2016, McCurdy signed a deal to develop p
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Noriyuki "Pat" Morita was an American film and television actor who played Matsuo "Arnold" Takahashi on Happy Days, Mr. Miyagi in The Karate Kid film series and The Toymaster in Babes in Toyland. Morita was nominated for the 1985 Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his portrayal of Mr. Miyagi in The Karate Kid. Morita voiced the Emperor of China in the Disney animated film Mulan and portrayed Ah Chew in Sanford and Son. Morita was the series lead actor in the television program Mr. T and Tina and in Ohara, a police-themed drama; the two shows made history for being among the few TV shows with an Asian American series lead. Morita was born in California. Morita's father Tamaru, born in 1897, had immigrated to California from Kumamoto Prefecture on the Japanese island of Kyushu in 1915. Tamaru's wife Momoe, born in 1903, had emigrated to California in 1913. Noriyuki, as Pat was named, had a brother named Hideo, twelve years older. Morita developed spinal tuberculosis at the age of two and spent the bulk of the next nine years in the Weimar Institute in Weimar, at the Shriners Hospital in San Francisco.
For long periods he was told that he would never walk. During his time at a sanatorium near Sacramento, Morita befriended a visiting priest who would joke that, if Morita converted to Catholicism, the priest would rename him to "Patrick Aloysius Ignatius Xavier Noriyuki Morita". Released from the hospital at age 11 after undergoing extensive spinal surgery and learning how to walk, Morita was transported from the hospital directly to the Gila River camp in Arizona to join his interned family. After about a year and a half, he was transferred to the Tule Lake War Relocation Center. For a time after the war, the family operated Ariake Chop Suey, a restaurant in Sacramento, California. Morita would serve as master of ceremonies for group dinners. Morita began working as a stand-up comic after high school, he took the stage name "Pat Morita", in part due to the presence of comedians including Pat Henry and Pat Cooper, in part due to memories of the priest he had befriended as a boy. Morita struggled for many years in comedy.
Sally Marr, Lenny Bruce's mother, acted as his manager in his early days. Morita sometimes worked as the opening act for singers Vic Damone and Connie Stevens and for his mentor, the comedian Redd Foxx. Foxx gave him a role on his sitcom Sanford and Son in the early 1970s. Morita's first movie roles were as a stereotypical henchman in Thoroughly Modern Millie and another similarly-stereotypical role in The Shakiest Gun In The West, starring Don Knotts. A recurring role as South Korean Army Captain Sam Pak on the sitcom M*A*S*H helped advance the comedian's acting career, he was cast as Rear Admiral Ryunosuke Kusaka in the war film Midway. He had a recurring role on the show Happy Days as Matsuo "Arnold" Takahashi, owner of the diner Arnold's for the show's third season and made guest appearances in 1977 and 1979. After the season's end, he left the show to star as inventor Taro Takahashi in his own show Mr. T and Tina, the first Asian-American sitcom on network TV; the sitcom was placed on Saturday nights by ABC and was canceled after a month in the fall of 1976.
Morita revived the character of Arnold on Blansky's Beauties in 1977 and returned to Happy Days for the 1982–1983 season. Morita had another notable recurring television role on Sanford and Son as Ah Chew, a good-natured friend of Lamont Sanford. Morita gained particular fame playing wise karate teacher Mr. Miyagi, who taught young "Daniel-san" the art of karate in The Karate Kid, he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor and a corresponding Golden Globe Award, reprising his role in three sequels: The Karate Kid Part II, The Karate Kid Part III and The Next Karate Kid, the last of which starred Hilary Swank instead of Macchio. Though he was never a student of karate, he learned all, required for the films. Although he had been using the name Pat for years, producer Jerry Weintraub suggested that he be billed with his given name to sound "more ethnic." Morita put this advice into practice and was recognized as Noriyuki "Pat" Morita at the 57th Academy Awards ceremony. Weintraub did not want to cast Morita for the part of Mr. Miyagi, wanting a dramatic actor for the part and labeling Morita a comedic actor.
Morita tested five times before Weintraub himself offered him the role. Morita went on to play Tommy Tanaka in the Kirk Douglas-starring television movie Amos, receiving his first Primetime Emmy Award nomination and second Golden Globe Award nomination for the role, he starred in the ABC detective show Ohara. He wrote and starred in the World War II romance film Captive Hearts. Morita hosted the educational home video series Britannica's Tales Around the World. In his career Morita starred on the Nickelodeon television series The Mystery Files of Shelby Woo, had a recurring role on the sitcom The Hughleys, he made a guest appearance on a 1996 episode of Married... with Children. He went on to star in the short film Talk To Taka as a sushi chef who doles out advice to anyone who will hear him. Morita voiced the Emperor of China in Disney's 36th animated feature Mulan and reprised the role in Kingdom Hearts II and Mulan II, a direct-to-video sequel. Morita had a cameo appearance in the 2001 Alien Ant Farm music video "Movies".
Morita's appearance in the vide