Trine (video game)
Trine is a side-scrolling, action platform-puzzle video game developed by Frozenbyte and published by Nobilis. The game was released for Microsoft Windows in 2009, has since been ported to Linux, OS X, the PlayStation Network; the game takes place in a medieval fantasy setting and allows players to take control of three separate characters who can battle enemies and solve environmental puzzles. A sequel, titled Trine 2, was released in 2011. A remake of Trine, titled Trine: Enchanted Edition, was released in 2014; the enchanted edition uses Trine 2's updated engine, includes online multiplayer. The third installment in the series, Trine 3: The Artifacts of Power, was released on August 20, 2015. A fourth installment, Trine 4 is in development; the player switches between three different characters to try to complete levels. There is a cooperative play feature, whereby multiple players can join in at any time to control different characters simultaneously; each character has their own energy meter.
Energy is used for certain weapons and abilities, is replenished by blue-colored bottles found throughout levels. Health is replenished by collecting heart-shaped containers, which result from destroying certain enemies; the player has a single experience rating, shared among all characters, is incremented by acquiring green-colored bottles found throughout levels. Every 50 experience points, each character is given one point towards the purchase of upgrades to their abilities. Treasure chests are spread throughout levels, each containing a charm that offers the bearing character new or upgraded abilities; the player can transfer these objects between characters, though some will only have an effect on certain characters. Checkpoints are spread in the form of silver orbs on pedestals. Upon crossing a checkpoint, any deceased characters are brought back to life, any characters below a certain amount of health and energy are replenished up to that amount; the amount of energy and health replenished is dependent upon the difficulty setting chosen by the player.
When a character dies, the player must choose another living character to continue playing the level. If all three characters die, the player is sent back to the last checkpoint crossed, all three characters are resurrected. Enemies include walking skeletons and bats, along with boss characters, like giant skeletons and other large creatures; some skeletons are armed with swords, others with bows and arrows, some spit fire, some have shields. Skeletons are capable of scaling walls. Other dangers include lava, giant sharp pendulums, various other booby traps. Trine uses Nvidia's PhysX physics engine to provide objects and characters with full physics interaction. Zoya the Thief, the first of the three heroes introduced in the game, is voiced by Vicky Krueger; the Thief's weapon is her arrow. The bow can be “charged” by holding down the fire button before releasing, longer charges make for farther, straighter shots; the Thief has a grappling hook which can be fired at wooden surfaces. Regular arrows and the grappling hook are unlimited, do not diminish the Thief's energy.
At some point during the game, the Thief can acquire the ability to shoot flaming arrows, which do diminish her energy. Flaming arrows inflict more damage on enemies, can break certain objects, can light torches found in certain dark areas of the game; the Thief's possible upgrades include shooting more arrows with each shot, faster charging of the bow, more damage inflicted with the flaming arrow. She is the quietest of the three heroes, takes a strong liking to the magical forest ruins presented towards the end of the game. Amadeus the Wizard, voiced by Kevin Howarth, has the ability to use sorcery to move objects remotely, as well as conjure new objects into existence; the Wizard is only able to conjure a cube-shaped object. At some point in the game, he acquires the ability to conjure an oblong platform; the box and plank behave as normal objects, obeying the laws of gravity. The Wizard acquires the ability to conjure a floating object shaped like a square pyramid, which remains at a fixed point in space unless the Wizard moves it.
Conjured objects are used to help overcome obstacles and reach difficult areas. The plank, for example, can be used to bridge gaps. All conjuring and remote moving drains the Wizard's energy; the Wizard has no traditional attacks, however he can crush certain enemies by hurling objects into them. He can block attacks by conjuring or moving objects in their path; the Wizard's possible upgrades include the ability to conjure more than one box or plank into simultaneous existence, changing future conjured floating platforms into wood, making the floating platform into an explosive that the Knight or thief can trigger. In the game, he is shown as being wise but foolish, cowardly but determined, imagines himself to be a bit of a ladies man. Pontius the Knight's initial weapons are his shield, he is voiced in the game by Brian Bowles, is presented as a brave and loyal companion despite the fact he is not that bright, has a strong love for food and drink. The player can at some point acquire a flaming sword during the game, which the Knight can use to inflict more damage as well as use to light torches.
The Knight has the ability to lift certain objects and hurl them, his shield can be used to deflect enemy attacks
Death Rally is a vehicular combat racing video game developed by Remedy Entertainment, published by Apogee Software and distributed by GT Interactive. Known as HiSpeed during development, it was released on 7 September 1996 for MS-DOS. In the game, the player starts with $495 and a weak car named Vagabond, must compete in deadly races where all cars are armed; the player wins money by finishing in front positions, collecting money bonuses during the race, fulfilling missions and destroying other cars. The ultimate goal of the game is defeating the "Adversary", the undisputed king of Death Rally, in a one-on-one race. In October 2009, Remedy updated Death Rally with compatibility for Microsoft Windows and re-released the game as freeware. A remake of the game was developed by Remedy in cooperation with Mountain Sheep and Cornfox & Brothers; the remake was released for iOS in March 2011, for Android in April 2012, for Windows in August 2012, for Fire OS in September 2012. Each car can be equipped with a number of upgrades that increase defensive capabilities and speed.
While the default chain gun cannot be upgraded on any car, better cars are available for purchase, with default guns that have stronger firepower. The six cars available, from weakest to strongest, are the Vagabond, Sentinel, Shrieker and Deliverator. Additional power-ups can be purchased in the Black Market; these include land mines and rocket fuel. Before each race, the player can ask for a loan and/or bribe a mechanic to tamper with the car of the highest-ranked opponent in the race. Reaching 1st place on the leaderboard allows players to take on the game's final racer, the Adversary, who drives a souped-up Deliverator with powerful miniguns. Defeating the Adversary means that players become the new champion of Death Rally. In May 2009, programmer Jari Komppa contacted Remedy and volunteered to prepare an open-source release of Death Rally. Since releasing the game as open-source could not be agreed upon, Komppa instead started working on porting the game to Windows. Based on Komppa's work, Remedy released Death Rally for Windows as proprietary freeware on 20 October 2009.
The re-released version does not support multiplayer network games because the original code used for IPX networks would have been too expensive to adapt to the Windows architecture. An article chronicling Komppa's work was printed in an April 2010 issue of Game Developer magazine and posted online. A full remake of the game was developed by Cornfox & Brothers and its parent Mountain Sheep, was released by Remedy Entertainment for iOS and Android on 31 March 2011; the remake includes in-game cameo appearances from various different game characters, including Barry Wheeler from Alan Wake, John Gore from Minigore and Mighty Eagle from Angry Birds. Duke Nukem appears as an opponent, as he did in the original game. By December 2011, the remake had been downloaded 1.8 million times, recouping its eight-month development costs in three days. Both the original game and the remake have received a positive response; the original DOS version holds an aggregate score of 85% on GameRankings. The iOS version holds aggregate scores of 77 out of 100, based on nineteen reviews, 81.50%, based on ten reviews, on Metacritic and GameRankings respectively.
The 2012 Windows port of the remake was not as well received, holding aggregate scores of 62 out of 100, based on ten reviews, 61.43%, based on seven reviews. GameSpot's Chris Hudak called the original game "simply the best top-down racer to come along in years, maybe ever." A Next Generation critic commented, "Once again Apogee reminds. Death Rally is a simple, enjoyable combat racing game with a retro top-down perspective and a whole lot of action." He praised the numerous ways of destroying opponents and the many humorous touches. Reviewing the 2012 Windows remake, Brett Todd criticised the controls, the repetition of tracks, the lack of any sense of speed and the necessity for grinding, he concluded "Arcade racers need to have an on-the-edge atmosphere where death can come at any moment via bullet or screwing up a turn. This new take on Death Rally, however, is more like riding with Miss Daisy, a genteel, distant driver as intense as a late-night cup of chamomile tea. There are just too many flaws here, with the flimsy controls, dreary tracks, eternal grinding, for the most desperate arcade gearhead to get anything out of this game."Destructoid's Maurice Tan scored the iOS remake 8 out of 10.
He criticised the lack of a tutorial, but concluded that "Death Rally is a lot of fun to play, it looks great, runs smooth, it's addictive." IGN's Levi Buchanan scored it 7.5 out of 10. Gaining new cars, equipping upgraded weapons, blasting rivals is fun and this is the best such mayhem has looked on the App Store." Pocket Gamer's Tracy Erickson scored it 7 out of 10, criticising the lack of customisable controls and the design of some of the tracks. After all, it's about cars blowing each other up. Just know that it's dumb fun with emphasis on the fun." AppSpy's Andrew Nesvadba scored it 4 out of 5, praising the basic gameplay mechanics.
Shoot 'em up
Shoot'em up is a subgenre of the shooter genre of video games. There is no consensus as to; some restrict the definition to games featuring spacecraft and certain types of character movement. The genre's roots can be traced back to Spacewar!, one of the earliest computer games, developed in 1962. The shoot'em up genre was established by the hit arcade game Space Invaders, which popularised and set the general template for the genre in 1978, the genre was further developed by arcade hits such as Asteroids and Galaxian in 1979. Shoot'em ups were popular throughout early 1990s. In the mid-1990s, shoot'em ups became a niche genre based on design conventions established in the 1980s, catered to specialist enthusiasts in Japan. "Bullet hell" games are a subgenre that features overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles in visually impressive formations. A "shoot'em up" known as a "shmup" or "STG", is a game in which the protagonist combats a large number of enemies by shooting at them while dodging their fire.
The controlling player must rely on reaction times to succeed. Beyond this, critics differ on which design elements constitute a shoot'em up; some restrict the genre to games using fixed or scrolling movement. Others widen the scope to include games featuring such protagonists as robots or humans on foot, as well as including games featuring "on-rails" and "run and gun" movement. Mark Wolf restricts the definition to games featuring multiple antagonists, calling games featuring one-on-one shooting "combat games". Critics described any game where the primary design element was shooting as a "shoot'em up", but shoot'em ups became a specific, inward-looking genre based on design conventions established in those shooting games of the 1980s. Shoot'em ups are a subgenre of shooter game, in turn a type of action game; these games are viewed from a top-down or side-view perspective, players must use ranged weapons to take action at a distance. The player's avatar is a vehicle under constant attack. Thus, the player's goal is to shoot as as possible at anything that moves or threatens them.
In some games, the player's character can withstand some damage. The main skills required in shoot'em ups are memorising enemy attack patterns; some games feature overwhelming numbers of enemy projectiles and the player has to memorise their patterns to survive. These games belong to one of the fastest-paced video game genres. Large numbers of enemy characters are featured; these enemies may behave in a certain way dependent on their type, or attack in formations that the player can learn to predict. The basic gameplay tends to be straightforward and many games offset this with boss battles and a variety of weapons. Shoot'em ups have realistic physics. Characters can change direction with no inertia, projectiles move in a straight line at constant speeds; the player's character can collect "power-ups" which may afford the character greater protection, an "extra life", or upgraded weaponry. Different weapons are suited to different enemies, but these games keep track of ammunition; as such, players tend to fire indiscriminately, their weapons only damage legitimate targets.
Shoot'em ups are categorized by design elements viewpoint and movement:Fixed shooters restrict the protagonist to a single axis of motion, enemies attack in a single direction, each level is contained within a single screen. Atari's Centipede is a hybrid, in that the player can move but that movement is constrained to a small area at the bottom of the screen, the game otherwise meets the fixed shooter definition. Tube shooters feature craft flying through an abstract tube, such as Gyruss. Rail shooters limit the player to moving around the screen. Examples include Space Harrier, Captain Skyhawk, Star Wars: Rebel Assault, Panzer Dragoon, Star Fox 64, Sin and Punishment. Light-Gun games that are "on-rails" are not in the shoot-em-up category but the FPS category, the term has been applied to scripted events in first-person shooters such as Call of Duty. Scrolling shooters include horizontal scrolling games. Vertically scrolling shooters: In a vertically scrolling shoot'em up, the action is viewed from above and scrolls up the screen.
Horizontally scrolling shooters: In a "horizontal shooter" or "side-scrolling shooter", the action is viewed side-on and scrolls horizontally. Isometrically scrolling shooters: A small number of scrolling shooters, such as Sega's Zaxxon, feature an isometric point of view. Multidirectional shooters feature 360 degree movement where the protagonist may rotate and move in any direction. Multidirectional shooters with one joystick for movement and one joystick for firing in any direction independent of movement are called "twin-stick shooters."Bullet hell is a shoot'em up in which the entire screen is almost fille
Extraterrestrial life called alien life, is life that occurs outside of Earth and that did not originate from Earth. These hypothetical life forms may range from simple prokaryotes to beings with civilizations far more advanced than humanity; the Drake equation speculates about the existence of intelligent life elsewhere in the universe. The science of extraterrestrial life in all its forms is known as exobiology. Since the mid-20th century, there has been an ongoing search for signs of extraterrestrial life; this encompasses a search for current and historic extraterrestrial life, a narrower search for extraterrestrial intelligent life. Depending on the category of search, methods range from the analysis of telescope and specimen data to radios used to detect and send communication signals; the concept of extraterrestrial life, extraterrestrial intelligence, has had a major cultural impact, chiefly in works of science fiction. Over the years, science fiction communicated scientific ideas, imagined a wide range of possibilities, influenced public interest in and perspectives of extraterrestrial life.
One shared space is the debate over the wisdom of attempting communication with extraterrestrial intelligence. Some encourage aggressive methods to try for contact with intelligent extraterrestrial life. Others—citing the tendency of technologically advanced human societies to enslave or wipe out less advanced societies—argue that it may be dangerous to call attention to Earth. Alien life, such as microorganisms, has been hypothesized to exist in the Solar System and throughout the universe; this hypothesis relies on consistent physical laws of the observable universe. According to this argument, made by scientists such as Carl Sagan and Stephen Hawking, as well as well-regarded thinkers such as Winston Churchill, it would be improbable for life not to exist somewhere other than Earth; this argument is embodied in the Copernican principle, which states that Earth does not occupy a unique position in the Universe, the mediocrity principle, which states that there is nothing special about life on Earth.
The chemistry of life may have begun shortly after the Big Bang, 13.8 billion years ago, during a habitable epoch when the universe was only 10–17 million years old. Life may have emerged independently at many places throughout the universe. Alternatively, life may have formed less then spread—by meteoroids, for example—between habitable planets in a process called panspermia. In any case, complex organic molecules may have formed in the protoplanetary disk of dust grains surrounding the Sun before the formation of Earth. According to these studies, this process may occur outside Earth on several planets and moons of the Solar System and on planets of other stars. Since the 1950s, scientists have proposed that "habitable zones" around stars are the most places to find life. Numerous discoveries in such zones since 2007 have generated numerical estimates of Earth-like planets —in terms of composition—of many billions; as of 2013, only a few planets have been discovered in these zones. Nonetheless, on 4 November 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs in the Milky Way, 11 billion of which may be orbiting Sun-like stars.
The nearest such planet may be 12 light-years away, according to the scientists. Astrobiologists have considered a "follow the energy" view of potential habitats. A study published in 2017 suggests that due to how complexity evolved in species on Earth, the level of predictability for alien evolution elsewhere would make them look similar to life on our planet. One of the study authors, Sam Levin, notes "Like humans, we predict that they are made-up of a hierarchy of entities, which all cooperate to produce an alien. At each level of the organism there will be mechanisms in place to eliminate conflict, maintain cooperation, keep the organism functioning. We can offer some examples of what these mechanisms will be." There is research in assessing the capacity of life for developing intelligence. It has been suggested that this capacity arises with the number of potential niches a planet contains, that the complexity of life itself is reflected in the information density of planetary environments, which in turn can be computed from its niches.
Biologist David Zeigler has argued that, based on evolutionary convergence from many different ancestral groups on Earth, a worm form is a life form on other life-bearing planets. Life on Earth requires water as a solvent in place. Sufficient quantities of carbon and other elements, along with water, might enable the formation of living organisms on terrestrial planets with a chemical make-up and temperature range similar to that of Earth. More life based on ammonia has been suggested, though this solvent appears less suitable than water, it is conceivable that there are forms of life whose solvent is a liquid hydrocarbon, such as methane, ethane or propane. About 29 chemical elements play an active positive role in living organisms on Earth. About 95% of living matter is built upon only six elements: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur; these six elements form the basic building blocks of all life on Earth, whereas most of the remaining elements are found only in trace amounts. The unique characteristics of carbon make it unlikely that it could be replaced on another planet, to generate the biochemistry necessary for life.
The carbon atom has the unique ability to make four strong chemical
Finland the Republic of Finland, is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, Russia to the east. Finland is situated in the geographical region of Fennoscandia; the capital and largest city is Helsinki. Other major cities are Espoo, Tampere and Turku. Finland's population is 5.52 million, the majority of the population is concentrated in the southern region. 88.7% of the population is Finnish and speaks Finnish, a Uralic language unrelated to the Scandinavian languages. Finland is the eighth-largest country in Europe and the most sparsely populated country in the European Union; the sovereign state is a parliamentary republic with a central government based in the capital city of Helsinki, local governments in 311 municipalities, one autonomous region, the Åland Islands. Over 1.4 million people live in the Greater Helsinki metropolitan area, which produces one third of the country's GDP. Finland was inhabited when the last ice age ended 9000 BCE.
The first settlers left behind artefacts that present characteristics shared with those found in Estonia and Norway. The earliest people were hunter-gatherers; the first pottery appeared in 5200 BCE. The arrival of the Corded Ware culture in southern coastal Finland between 3000 and 2500 BCE may have coincided with the start of agriculture; the Bronze Age and Iron Age were characterised by extensive contacts with other cultures in the Fennoscandian and Baltic regions and the sedentary farming inhabitation increased towards the end of Iron Age. At the time Finland had three main cultural areas – Southwest Finland and Karelia – as reflected in contemporary jewellery. From the late 13th century, Finland became an integral part of Sweden through the Northern Crusades and the Swedish part-colonisation of coastal Finland, a legacy reflected in the prevalence of the Swedish language and its official status. In 1809, Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland.
In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, Finland declared itself independent. In 1918, the fledgling state was divided by civil war, with the Bolshevik-leaning Red Guard supported by the new Soviet Russia, fighting the White Guard, supported by the German Empire. After a brief attempt to establish a kingdom, the country became a republic. During World War II, the Soviet Union sought to occupy Finland, with Finland losing parts of Karelia, Kuusamo and some islands, but retaining their independence. Finland established an official policy of neutrality; the Finno-Soviet Treaty of 1948 gave the Soviet Union some leverage in Finnish domestic politics during the Cold War era. Finland joined the OECD in 1969, the NATO Partnership for Peace in 1994, the European Union in 1995, the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council in 1997, the Eurozone at its inception, in 1999.
Finland was a relative latecomer to industrialisation, remaining a agrarian country until the 1950s. After World War II, the Soviet Union demanded war reparations from Finland not only in money but in material, such as ships and machinery; this forced Finland to industrialise. It developed an advanced economy while building an extensive welfare state based on the Nordic model, resulting in widespread prosperity and one of the highest per capita incomes in the world. Finland is a top performer in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, human development. In 2015, Finland was ranked first in the World Human Capital and the Press Freedom Index and as the most stable country in the world during 2011–2016 in the Fragile States Index, second in the Global Gender Gap Report, it ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018 and 2019. A large majority of Finns are members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church, freedom of religion is guaranteed under the Finnish Constitution.
The earliest written appearance of the name Finland is thought to be on three runestones. Two have the inscription finlonti; the third was found in Gotland. It dates back to the 13th century; the name can be assumed to be related to the tribe name Finns, mentioned at first known time AD 98. The name Suomi has uncertain origins, but a candidate for a source is the Proto-Baltic word *źemē, meaning "land". In addition to the close relatives of Finnish, this name is used in the Baltic languages Latvian and Lithuanian. Alternatively, the Indo-European word * gʰm-on "man" has been suggested; the word referred only to the province of Finland Proper, to the northern coast of Gulf of Finland, with northern regions such as Ostrobothnia still sometimes being excluded until later. Earlier theories suggested derivation from suomaa or suoniemi, but these are now considered outdated; some have suggested common etymology with saame and Häme, but that theory is uncertain
GameTap was an online video game service established by Turner Broadcasting System. Dubbed by TBS as a "first of its kind broadband gaming network", the service provided users with classic arcade video games and game-related video content; the service was acquired by French online video game service Metaboli in 2008 as a wholly owned subsidiary aiming to create a global games service. GameTap was conceived as an online subscription rental service, competing against mail-based services like GameFly. GameTap offers two subscription levels: a Premium subscription with access to the entire content library, a Classic subscription with access to older console and arcade games running in emulation. GameTap now sells games via the online distribution method. GameTap offered a limited selection of games for free play without a subscription, but this option has been discontinued. GameTap was designed to offer not only video games, but a complete media hub, taking advantage of the TBS catalog as well as offering original video content, including the animated series Revisioned: Tomb Raider and new episodes of Space Ghost Coast to Coast.
GameTap TV has since been discontinued. Most multiplayer games can be played by two users on the same computer while many others not intended to be played outside of a LAN may be played over the internet by using a VPN client such as Hamachi. A limited number of games have been enhanced with an online leaderboard and challenge lobby, adding internet multiplayer to games that could only be played face to face; every Monday GameTap holds a leaderboard tournament with a different game each week. GameTap has funded the development of a number of titles, with the games subsequently premiering as GameTap exclusives; such games include Myst Online: Uru Live. On February 7, 2007, GameTap announced their third original game, Galactic Command: Echo Squad, from independent developer 3000AD; the four-part episodic game is a space combat title planned for launch in the Summer of 2007. However, it suffered from constant delays, in early 2008, GameTap announced that it had canceled its deal with 3000AD. "It was a good game, it was solid, but as we were going through, it ended up not being the right title for our audience," says Ricardo Sanchez.
"It was a tough call. I think it’s one of the strongest games made. We put a lot of effort into it... I think it's one of Derek’s strongest games."On May 15, 2007, PC Gamer magazine premiered the first look at GameTap's newest original game, American McGee's Grimm, a 24 part episodic series by game designer American McGee. GameTap launched on October 17, 2005 with over 300 games and had grown to over 1,000; the service was the idea of Turner employee Blake Lewin. The initial list of game licensees included Activision, Intellivision Lives!, Namco and Taito. Since its inception, more companies have licensed their software, including: Eidos Interactive, G-Mode, Codemasters, Vivendi Games, Electronic Arts, Take-Two Interactive, Interplay and SNK Playmore. On 1 May, 2007, GameTap revised its business model to utilize three different service levels: Visitor and Gold; the Visitor and Green levels were free, had access to a limited selection of games, were supported by advertising. Green members received access to a few more games.
Gold members were identical to paid subscribers as before. On November 29, 2007, GameTap announced that as of December 11, over 70 games would be removed from their catalog, many of them Electronic Arts or Interplay titles due to expiration of the two-year licensing agreement with those companies. On January 10, 2008 a GameTap staff member announced the return of the Humongous Games license which restored popular games such as the likes of Putt Putt and Pajama Sam back to the library. On August 6, 2008, Turner Broadcasting announced. On September 24, 2008, Time Warner sold the service to Paris-based Metaboli. Turner continued to handle GameTap's operations during the transition period, which lasted until 2009. After the transition, the service became available to non-US/Canadian residents. On March 31, 2009, GameTap Player was replaced by the plug-in after saying goodbyes to their players, GameTap's business model was again changed - into a GameTap Plug-In; the subscription levels were changed to Free Pack, a new Classic Pack, Premium Pack.
However, due to technical issues, many features offered were disabled during the migration. Users with 64-bit versions of Windows could only play games. GameTap was working on encrypting the rest of their Windows catalog with Yummy encryption to make them 64-bit compatible. On October 14, 2010, the American office of Metaboli was shut down and all operations moved to Paris, thus cutting all ties with original Turner employees. GameTap was criticized for its cancellation process, which required customers to contact live support personnel. GameTap official site - Archived List of Games in GameTap Service GameTap design blog
Video game music
Video game music is the soundtrack that accompanies video games. Early video game music was once limited to simple melodies of early sound synthesizer technology; these limitations inspired the style of music known as chiptunes, which combines simple melodic styles with more complex patterns or traditional music styles, became the most popular sound of the first video games. With advances in technology, video game music has grown to include the same breadth and complexity associated with television and film scores, allowing for much more creative freedom. While simple synthesizer pieces are still common, game music now includes full orchestral pieces and popular music. Music in video games can be heard over a game’s title screen, options menu, bonus content, as well as during the entire gameplay. Modern soundtracks can change depending on a player's actions or situation, such as indicating missed actions in rhythm games. Video game music can be one of two options: original or licensed. In order to create or collect this music, teams of composers, music directors, music supervisors must work with the game developers and game publishers.
Many of the most notable original sophie game composers have been from Japan, including Nobuo Uematsu, Koji Kondo, Yuzo Koshiro, Yoko Shimomura, Junichi Masuda, Hip Tanaka, Masato Nakamura, Koichi Sugiyama, Yasunori Mitsuda, Michiru Yamane, Yuu Miyake, Takenobu Mitsuyoshi, Manabu Namiki, Shinji Hosoe, Hiroshi Kawaguchi. Notable Western game composers working today include Jeremy Soule, Jesper Kyd, Marty O' Donnell, Jason Graves, Austin Wintory, James Hannigan, Garry Schyman, Peter McConnell, some of whom work in film and television alongside video games. Today, original composition has included the work of film composers Harry Gregson-Williams, Trent Reznor, Hans Zimmer, Mark Rutherford, Josh Mancell, Steve Jablonsky, Michael Giacchino; the popularity of video game music has expanded education and job opportunities, generated awards, allowed video game soundtracks to be commercially sold and performed in concert's. At the time video games had emerged as a popular form of entertainment in the late 1970s, music was stored on physical medium in analog waveforms such as compact cassettes and phonograph records.
Such components were expensive and prone to breakage under heavy use making them less than ideal for use in an arcade cabinet, though in rare cases, they were used. A more affordable method of having music in a video game was to use digital means, where a specific computer chip would change electrical impulses from computer code into analog sound waves on the fly for output on a speaker. Sound effects for the games were generated in this fashion. An early example of such an approach to video game music was the opening chiptune in Tomohiro Nishikado's Gun Fight. While this allowed for inclusion of music in early arcade video games, it was monophonic, looped or used sparingly between stages or at the start of a new game, such as the Namco titles Pac-Man composed by Toshio Kai or Pole Position composed by Nobuyuki Ohnogi; the first game to use a continuous background soundtrack was Tomohiro Nishikado's Space Invaders, released by Taito in 1978. It had four descending chromatic bass notes repeating in a loop, though it was dynamic and interacted with the player, increasing pace as the enemies descended on the player.
The first video game to feature continuous, melodic background music was Rally-X, released by Namco in 1980, featuring a simple tune that repeats continuously during gameplay. The decision to include any music into a video game meant that at some point it would have to be transcribed into computer code by a programmer, whether or not the programmer had musical experience; some music was original, some was public domain music such as folk songs. Sound capabilities were limited; as advances were made in silicon technology and costs fell, a definitively new generation of arcade machines and home consoles allowed for great changes in accompanying music. In arcades, machines based on the Motorola 68000 CPU and accompanying various Yamaha YM programmable sound generator sound chips allowed for several more tones or "channels" of sound, sometimes eight or more; the earliest known example of this was Sega's 1980 arcade game Carnival, which used an AY-3-8910 chip to create an electronic rendition of the classical 1889 composition "Over The Waves" by Juventino Rosas.
Konami's 1981 arcade game Frogger introduced a dynamic approach to video game music, using at least eleven different gameplay tracks, in addition to level-starting and game over themes, which change according to the player's actions. This was further improved upon by Namco's 1982 arcade game Dig Dug, where the music stopped when the player stopped moving. Dig Dug was composed by Yuriko Keino, who composed the music for other Namco games such as Xevious and Phozon. Sega's 1982 arcade game Super Locomotive featured a chiptune rendition of Yellow Magic Orchestra's "Rydeen". Home console systems had a comparable upgrade in sound ability beginning with the ColecoVision in 1982 capable of four channels. However, more notable was the Japanese release of the Famicom in 1983, released in the US as the Nintendo Entertainment System in 1985, it was capable of one being capable of simple PCM sampled sound. The home computer Commodore 64 released in 1982 was capable of early forms of filtering effects, different types of waveforms and the undocumented abilit