Squirrel Hill (Pittsburgh)
Squirrel Hill is a residential neighborhood in the East End of Pittsburgh, United States. The city divides it into two neighborhoods, Squirrel Hill North and Squirrel Hill South, but it is universally treated as a single neighborhood. Squirrel Hill is located at 40.438072°N 79.922972°W / 40.438072. Squirrel Hill North has five borders with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Shadyside to the north, Point Breeze to the east, Squirrel Hill South to the south, Central Oakland to the southwest and North Oakland to the west. Squirrel Hill South has nine land borders with the Pittsburgh neighborhoods of Squirrel Hill North to the north and northwest, Point Breeze to the northeast, Regent Square to the east, Swisshelm Park to the southeast, Glen Hazel and Hazelwood to the south-southwest, Greenfield to the southwest, South Oakland and Central Oakland to the west. Across the Monongahela River to the south-southeast, Squirrel Hill South runs adjacent with Homestead; as of the 2010 Census, Squirrel Hill North has a population of 11,363, having grown 9% since 2000.
Squirrel Hill North's population is 75% White, 17% Asian, 4% Hispanic, 3% black. Of the 3,892 housing units in Squirrel Hill North, 93% are occupied. Squirrel Hill South has a population of 15,110, up 4% since 2000, of whom 82% are White, 11% are Asian, 3% are Hispanic, 3% are Black. There are 7,514 housing units. In 2010, about 40% of Squirrel Hill's residents were Jewish. According to a 2002 study by the United Jewish Federation, 33% of the Jewish population of Greater Pittsburgh lives in Squirrel Hill, another 14% lives in the surrounding neighborhoods; the report states that: "The stability of Squirrel Hill, a geographic hub of the Jewish community located within the city limits, is unique in North America." The name "Squirrel Hill" may have been given to the area by the Native Americans who lived in its vicinity. The neighborhood most was named for the abundance of gray squirrels; the growth and development of Squirrel Hill was focused on the riverfront along the Monongahela River. The first recorded house was built in 1760 by a soldier at nearby Fort Pitt, Colonel James Burd, at a place called Summerset on the Monongahela River.
Squirrel Hill's next house was built by Ambrose Newton some time in the 1760s. This house is located in what is now Schenley Park along Overlook Drive, its first "business district" was the intersection of Brown's Hill Beechwood Boulevard. In 1778, John Turner built his estate of Federal Hill nearby, he established the Turner cemetery in 1838 inside his estate, which he donated to the local community when he died in 1840. This cemetery holds the remains of many of the original settlers of Squirrel Hill; the Mary S. Brown Memorial Methodist church was built on adjoining lands donated by Turner; this church was rebuilt several times, but the current building, which dates from 1908, is the oldest standing church in Squirrel HillThe third house in Squirrel Hill, Neill Log House, was built by Robert Neill around 1787 in what is now Schenley Park. This house still exists and is open to the public; the Neills owned 262 acres of land in the northern section of Schenley Park. In 1795, the Neills moved from this house to a location in what is now Market Square in downtown Pittsburgh.
After they died, the house was handed down to two different people before it was sold to General James O'Hara. O'Hara's granddaughter, Mary Schenley, gave the property to the city of Pittsburgh in 1889. For a time, the house was rented out by the city to vacationers, but by 1969, the house was in such poor condition that it was dismantled and rebuilt by the Pittsburgh History and Landmarks Foundation, it still is open for tours during the Vintage Grand Prix in July. Around 1820, William "Killymoon" Steward built one of the first tavern/inns in the area, his tavern, located near the intersection of Beechwood and Brown's Hill Road, survived for over 100 years. Squirrel Hill became a prosperous and affluent suburb. Around 1840, the Murdoch family started a farm and nursery business in the part of Squirrel Hill North, known today as Murdoch Farms. Today, this quiet area contains many upscale homes. By the 1860s, the area along Fifth Avenue near Woodland Road had several mansions, including Willow Cottage.
The cottage was built by the industrialist and civic leader Thomas M. Howe, a bank president and member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1851 to 1855. Though neglected for many years and torn down, Willow Cottage has undergone a $2.2 million restoration and renovation into a Chatham University gatehouse and guesthouse. On December 24, 1860, protests broke out in the streets of Squirrel Hill after news arrived that the U. S. Secretary of War, John B. Floyd had ordered 124 cannons to be shipped from Allegheny Arsenal to two forts under construction in Louisiana and Texas; the inhabitants of Pittsburgh predicted that these weapons would be used against them if the South seceded, this did indeed happen at Fort Sumter. Prior to 1868, the Squirrel Hill area was part of Peebles Township; this changed in 1868. Following the Civil War, several of Pittsburgh's richest families built multiple houses in the Woodland Road area between Fifth and Wilkins Avenues. In 1869, a women's college, the predecessor to Chatham University, was established nearby.
Today, Chatham University owns several of these large houses. In 1869, the clubhouse of the Pittsburgh Golf Club was built at the new Schenley Park Golf Course (The present building by Alden and Harlow was constructed in
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American attorney and politician who served as the 44th president of the United States from 2009 to 2017. A member of the Democratic Party, he was the first African American, he served as a U. S. senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. Obama was born in Hawaii. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago. In 1988, he enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduating, he became a civil rights attorney and an academic, teaching constitutional law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004, he represented the 13th district for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 until 2004 when he ran for the U. S. Senate, he received national attention in 2004 with his March primary win, his well-received July Democratic National Convention keynote address, his landslide November election to the Senate. In 2008, he was nominated for president a year after his campaign began and after a close primary campaign against Hillary Clinton.
He was elected over Republican John McCain and was inaugurated on January 20, 2009. Nine months he was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. Regarded as a centrist New Democrat, Obama signed many landmark bills into law during his first two years in office; the main reforms that were passed include the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, Job Creation Act of 2010 served as economic stimulus amidst the Great Recession. After a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, he signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, he increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the United States–Russia New START treaty, ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi.
He ordered the military operations that resulted in the deaths of Osama bin Laden and suspected Yemeni Al-Qaeda operative Anwar al-Awlaki. After winning re-election by defeating Republican opponent Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. During this term, he promoted inclusiveness for LGBT Americans, his administration filed briefs that urged the Supreme Court to strike down same-sex marriage bans as unconstitutional. He advocated for gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, indicating support for a ban on assault weapons, issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, he ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, continued the process of ending U. S. combat operations in Afghanistan in 2016, promoted discussions that led to the 2015 Paris Agreement on global climate change, initiated sanctions against Russia following the invasion in Ukraine and again after Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections, brokered a nuclear deal with Iran, normalized U.
S. relations with Cuba. During his term in office, America's reputation in global polling improved. Evaluations of his presidency among historians, political scientists, the general public place him among the upper tier of American presidents. Obama left office and retired in January 2017 and resides in Washington, D. C. A December 2018 Gallup poll found Obama to be the most admired man in America for an unprecedented 11th consecutive year, although Dwight D. Eisenhower was selected most admired in twelve non-consecutive years. Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at Kapiolani Medical Center for Women and Children in Honolulu, Hawaii, he is the only president, born outside of the contiguous 48 states. He was born to a black father, his mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Kansas. His father, Barack Obama Sr. was a Luo Kenyan from Nyang'oma Kogelo. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, where his father was a foreign student on a scholarship; the couple married in Hawaii, on February 2, 1961, six months before Obama was born.
In late August 1961, Barack and his mother moved to the University of Washington in Seattle, where they lived for a year. During that time, the elder Obama completed his undergraduate degree in economics in Hawaii, graduating in June 1962, he left to attend graduate school on a scholarship at Harvard University, where he earned an M. A. in economics. Obama's parents divorced in March 1964. Obama Sr. returned to Kenya in 1964, where he married for a third time and worked for the Kenyan government as the Senior Economic Analyst in the Ministry of Finance. He visited his son in Hawaii only once, at Christmas time in 1971, before he was killed in an automobile accident in 1982, when Obama was 21 years old. Recalling his early childhood, Obama said, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me – that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk – registered in my mind." He described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multira
Apple Store is a chain of retail stores owned and operated by Apple Inc. The stores sell Mac personal computers, iPhone smartphones, iPad tablet computers, iPod portable media players, Apple Watch smartwatches, Apple TV digital media players and select third-party accessories; the first Apple Stores were opened as two locations in May 2001 by then-CEO Steve Jobs, after years of attempting but failing store-within-a-store concepts. Seeing a need for improved retail presentation of the company's products, he began an effort in 1997 to revamp the retail program to get an improved relationship to consumers, hired Ron Johnson in 2000. Jobs relaunched Apple's online store in 1997, opened the first two physical stores in 2001. Despite initial media speculation that Apple would fail, its stores were successful, by passing the sales numbers of competing nearby stores and within three years reached US$1 billion in annual sales, becoming the fastest retailer in history to do so. Over the years, Apple has expanded the number of retail locations and its geographical coverage, with 506 stores across 25 countries worldwide as of 2018.
Strong product sales have placed Apple among the top-tier retail stores, with sales over $16 billion globally in 2011. In May 2016, Angela Ahrendts, Apple's current Senior Vice President of Retail, unveiled a redesigned Apple Store in Union Square, San Francisco, featuring large glass doors for the entry, open spaces, rebranded rooms. In addition to purchasing products, consumers can get advice and help from "Creative Pros" – individuals with specialized knowledge of creative arts; the new design will be applied to all Apple Stores worldwide, a process that has seen stores temporarily relocate or close. Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations, it has been granted design patents and received architectural awards for its stores' designs and construction for its use of glass staircases and cubes. The success of Apple Stores have had significant influence over other consumer electronics retailers, who have lost traffic and profits due to a perceived higher quality of service and products at Apple Stores.
Apple's notable brand loyalty among consumers causes long lines of hundreds of people at new Apple Store openings or product releases. Due to the popularity of the brand, Apple receives a large number of job applications, many of which come from young workers. Although Apple Store employees receive above-average pay, are offered money toward education and health care, receive product discounts, there are limited or no paths of career advancement. A May 2016 report with an anonymous retail employee highlighted a hostile work environment with harassment from customers, intense internal criticism, a lack of significant bonuses for securing major business contracts. Many Apple Stores are located inside shopping malls, but Apple has built several stand-alone "flagship" stores in high-profile locations, such as the one located in Grand Central Terminal in New York City. Several multi-level stores feature glass staircases, some glass bridges; the New York Times wrote in 2011 that these features were part of then-CEO Steve Jobs' extensive attention to detail, Apple received a design patent in 2002 for its glass staircase design.
Apple has partnered with architectural firm Bohlin Cywinski Jackson in designing and creating its original retail stores, has in recent years partnered with architectural firm Foster + Partners in designing its newer stores, as well as its corporate Apple Park campus. Apple has received numerous architectural awards for its store designs, its "iconic" glass cube, designed in part by Peter Bohlin, at Apple's Fifth Avenue store in New York City, received a separate design patent in 2014. Ron Johnson held the position of Senior Vice President of Retail Operations from 2001 until November 1, 2011. During his tenure, it was reported that while Johnson was responsible for site selection, in-store service, store layout, inventory was controlled by then-COO and now-CEO Tim Cook, who has a background in supply chain management. In January 2012, Apple transferred retail leadership to John Browett. However, after attempts to cut costs, including reducing new hires and limiting staff hours, he was fired after six months telling a conference that he "just didn’t fit with the way they ran the business".
In October 2013, Apple hired Angela Ahrendts from Burberry. Due to the popularity of the brand, applicants for jobs at Apple Stores are numerous, with many young workers applying; the pace of work iPad. Employees work for only a few years as career prospects are limited with no path of advancement other than limited retail management slots. Apple Store employees make above-average pay for retail employees and are offered money toward college tuitions, gym memberships, health care, 401 plans, product discounts, reduced price on purchase of stock; the retention rate for the technicians who staff the Genius Bar is over 90%. A May 2016 Business Insider article featured a lengthy interview with an anonymous Apple Store retail worker in the United Kingdom, where the employee highlighted significant dissatisfactions and issues for retail workers, including harassment and death threats from customers, an intense internal criticism policy that feels "like a cult", a lack of any significant bonus if a worker manages to secure a business contract worth "hundre
Trek Bicycle Corporation
Trek Bicycle Corporation is a bicycle and cycling product manufacturer and distributor under brand names Trek, Electra Bicycle Company, Gary Fisher, Diamant Bikes, Villiger Bikes and, until 2008, LeMond Racing Cycles and Klein. With its headquarters in Waterloo, Trek bicycles are marketed through 1,700 dealers across North America, subsidiaries in Europe and Asia as well as distributors in 90 countries worldwide. 99% of Trek bicycles are manufactured outside the United States, in countries including the Netherlands and China. In December, 1975, Richard Burke and Bevil Hogg established Trek Bicycle as a wholly owned subsidiary of Roth Corporation, a Milwaukee-based appliance distributor. In early 1976, with a payroll of five, Trek started manufacturing steel touring frames in Waterloo, taking aim at the mid to high-end market dominated by Japanese and Italian made models. Trek built nearly 900 custom hand-brazed framesets that first year, each selling for just under $200; that same year Trek Bicycle was incorporated.
In 1977, Penn Cycle in Richfield, Minnesota became the first Trek dealer in the world. Within three years, Trek sales approached $2,000,000. Hampered without additional manufacturing capacity, Trek sales plateaued in the late 1970s. In just a few years Trek had outgrown its original "red barn" manufacturing facility—a former carpet warehouse. Recognizing the need for expansion, in 1980 Trek broke ground on a new 26,000 sq ft corporate headquarters on the outskirts of Waterloo. Company co-founder Dick Burke would recall that "it wasn’t until we built the new factory that we became a business." With more factory space available, Trek expanded its manufacturing to include complete bikes. In 1981 Trek entered the steel road racing bike market, introducing the "Pro" line, including the 750 and 950 models, in 1983 Trek built its first mountain bike, the 850. In 1984 Trek ventured into the aftermarket parts and accessories business, launching its Trek Components Group department. In 1985, borrowing technology from the aerospace industry, Trek introduced its first bonded aluminum bike frame, the 2000.
The introduction of bonded aluminum to Trek's production line proved problematic for a company that had built itself on hand-brazed steel frames. Manufacturing ground to a halt as Trek worked to figure out how to build bonded frames in a production environment. A year Trek followed up the success of the 2000 with a 3-tube carbon composite model, the 2500, thus began Trek's foray into carbon fiber. That same year, to keep up with growing sales, Trek added another 75,000 sq ft of manufacturing space to its Waterloo headquarters. In 1988 Trek introduced "Trek Wear," marking the company's entry into the cycling apparel business. A year Trek expanded into foreign markets, opening subsidiary offices in the UK and in Germany; that same year Trek introduced its Jazz brand of bicycles, a collection of entry-level and kids’ bikes designed by Trek but manufactured in Taiwan. Jazz bicycles were discontinued in 1993. 1989 was a pivotal year for Trek, marking the year that the company unveiled its first molded carbon fiber frame, the Trek 5000.
The 5000 frameset had an advertised weight of 3.3 lb. Designed by Trek but built by Brent Trimble, an outside manufacturer, the 5000 suffered enough quality problems that it was discontinued after just one year, but the lessons learned from the 5000 would prove to be instrumental in driving Trek to develop its own carbon manufacturing capabilities in the coming years. In 1990 Trek developed a new category of bicycle that combined the comfort features of a mountain bike with the quick ride of a road bike: MultiTracks, Trek's first line of hybrid bikes, were born; that same year Trek introduced its first line of kids’ bikes. In 1991 Trek opened its first company-owned retail store in Wisconsin. In addition to showcasing a full line of Trek products, the Trek Store served as a hands-on sales training center for employees from Trek's headquarters who lacked retail experience; the store provided an outlet for Trek to test merchandising and marketing ideas before expanding them to its network of independent bicycle dealers.
In the early 1990s, Trek's director of technology, Bob Read, attended an aerospace industry trade show in Salt Lake City, Utah meeting up with a closed mold tooling company called Radius Engineering. That visit convinced Read that Trek's future success depended on building frames from carbon fiber, a material he envisioned could be used to make light, strong frames. Having lived through the troubled introduction of the 5000, Trek invested in in-house carbon fiber manufacturing capabilities. In 1992 Trek unveiled its first home-grown, full-carbon framed bicycles, the 5500 and 5200, featuring OCLV Carbon frames. OCLV stands for "Optimum Compaction, Low Void" and refers to Trek's proprietary process for creating carbon structures that exceed aerospace standards. Weighing only 2.44 lb, the 5500 frame was the world's lightest production road frame. To make room for its new OCLV manufacturing facility, Trek expanded its Waterloo headquarters again to a total of 140,000 sq ft. 1992 marked another first for Trek: its first full suspension mountain bike, the 9000-series, which featured Trek's T3C suspension system.
In 1993 Trek introduced its first OCLV Carbon mountain bike frames, the 9800 and the 9900, which at 2.84 lb was the world's lightest production mountain bike frame. In 1993 Trek acquired Gary Fisher Mountain Bikes, named after Gary Fisher, one of the inventors of the mountain bike and one of the most pop
Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama is an American lawyer, university administrator and writer, First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She is married to the 44th U. S. President, Barack Obama, was the first African-American First Lady. Raised on the South Side of Chicago, Obama is a graduate of Princeton University and Harvard Law School. In her early legal career, she worked at the law firm Sidley Austin, she subsequently worked in non-profits and as the Associate Dean of Student Services at the University of Chicago and the Vice President for Community and External Affairs of the University of Chicago Medical Center. Michelle married Barack in 1992 and they have two daughters. Obama campaigned for her husband's presidential bid throughout 2007 and 2008, delivering a keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention, she returned to speak for him at the 2012 Democratic National Convention. During the 2016 Democratic National Convention in Philadelphia, she delivered a speech in support of the Democratic presidential nominee, Hillary Clinton, a former First Lady.
As First Lady, Obama served as a role model for women, worked as an advocate for poverty awareness, nutrition, physical activity and healthy eating. She was considered a fashion icon. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson was born on January 17, 1964, in Chicago, Illinois, to Fraser Robinson III, a city water plant employee and Democratic precinct captain, Marian Shields Robinson, a secretary at Spiegel's catalog store, her mother was a full-time homemaker. The Robinson and Shields families trace their roots to pre-Civil War African Americans in the American South. On her father's side, she is descended from the Gullah people of South Carolina's Low Country region, her paternal great-great grandfather, Jim Robinson, was born into slavery in 1850 on Friendfield Plantation, near Georgetown, South Carolina. He became a freedman at age 15 after the war; some of Obama's paternal family still reside in the Georgetown area. Her grandfather Fraser Robinson, Jr. built his own house in South Carolina. He and his wife LaVaughn returned to the Low Country from Chicago after retirement.
Among her maternal ancestors was her great-great-great-grandmother, Melvinia Shields, born into slavery in South Carolina but sold to Henry Walls Shields, who had a 200-acre farm in Clayton County, Georgia near Atlanta. Melvinia's first son, Dolphus T. Shields, was biracial and born into slavery about 1860. Based on DNA and other evidence, in 2012 researchers said his father was 20-year-old Charles Marion Shields, son of Melvinia's master, they may have had a continuing relationship, as she had two more mixed-race children and lived near Shields after emancipation, taking his surname. As was the case, Melvinia did not talk to relatives about Dolphus' father. Dolphus Shields with his wife Alice moved to Alabama after the Civil War, they were great-great-grandparents of Michelle Robinson. Other of their children's lines migrated to Ohio in the 20th century. All four of Robinson's grandparents had multiracial ancestors, reflecting the complex history of the U. S, her extended family has said that people did not talk about the era of slavery when they were growing up.
Her distant ancestry includes Irish and Native American roots. Among her contemporary extended family is rabbi Capers Funnye. Funnye converted to Judaism after college, he is a paternal first cousin once-removed. Robinson's childhood home was on the upper floor of 7436 South Euclid Avenue in Chicago's South Shore community area, which her parents rented from her great-aunt, who had the first floor, she was raised in what she describes as a "conventional" home, with "the mother at home, the father works, you have dinner around the table". Her elementary school was down the street, she and her family enjoyed playing games such as Monopoly and saw extended family on both sides. She played piano, learning from her great-aunt, a piano teacher; the Robinsons attended services at nearby South Shore United Methodist Church. They used to vacation in a rustic cabin in Michigan, she and her 21-month older brother, skipped the second grade. Her father suffered from multiple sclerosis, which had a profound emotional effect on her as she was growing up.
She was determined to stay out of trouble and be a good student, what her father wanted for her. By sixth grade, Michelle joined a gifted class at Bryn Mawr Elementary School, she attended Whitney Young High School, Chicago's first magnet high school, established as a selective enrollment school, where she was a classmate of Jesse Jackson's daughter Santita. The round-trip commute from the Robinsons' South Side home to the Near West Side, where the school was located, took three hours. Michelle recalled being fearful of how others would perceive her, but disregarded any negativity around her and used it "to fuel me, to keep me going", she recalled facing gender discrimination growing up, for example, that rather than asking her for her opinion on a given subject, people tended to ask what her older brother thought. She was on the honor roll for four years, took advanced placement classes, was a member of the National Honor Society, served as student council treasurer, she graduated in 1981 as the salutatorian of her class.
She was inspired to follow her brother to Prince
Victoria's Secret is an American designer and marketer of women's lingerie and beauty products. Founded in 1977 as a response to packaged underwear, which the company's founder considered to be "ugly, floral-print nylon nightgowns", the company is now the largest American retailer of women's lingerie. Victoria's Secret was founded by Roy Raymond, his wife Gaye Raymond, in San Francisco, California, on June 12, 1977. Eight years prior to founding Victoria's Secret, in the late 1960s, Raymond was embarrassed when purchasing lingerie for his wife at a department store. Newsweek reported him looking back on the incident from the vantage of 1981: "When I tried to buy lingerie for my wife," he recalls, "I was faced with racks of terry-cloth robes and ugly floral-print nylon nightgowns, I always had the feeling the department store saleswomen thought I was an unwelcome intruder." Raymond spent the next eight years studying the lingerie market. At the time when Raymond founded Victoria's Secret, most women in America purchased "dowdy", "pragmatic", "foundation garments" by Fruit of the Loom and Jockey in packs of three from department stores and saved "fancier items" for "special occasions" like honeymoons.
"Lacy thongs and padded push-up bras" were niche products during this period found "alongside feathered boas and provocative pirate costumes at Frederick's of Hollywood" outside of the mainstream product offerings available at department stores. In 1977, Raymond borrowed $40,000 from his parents and $40,000 from a bank to establish Victoria's Secret: a store in which men could feel comfortable buying lingerie; the company's first store was located in Stanford Shopping Center in California. Raymond picked the name "Victoria" after Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom to associate with the refinement of the Victorian era; the "Secret" was. The "angels" comes from his wife being in Pi Beta Phi, where their mascot was an angel. Victoria's Secret grossed $500,000 in its first year of business, enough to finance the expansion from a headquarters and warehouse to four new store locations and a mail-order operation. By 1982, the fourth store was added at 395 Sutter Street. Victoria's Secret stayed at that location until 1990, when it moved to the larger Powell Street frontage of the Westin St. Francis.
In April 1982, Raymond sent out his 12th catalog. Catalog sales accounted for 55% of the company's $7 million annual sales in 1982; the Victoria's Secret stores at this time were "a niche player" in the underwear market. The business was described as "more burlesque than Main Street." In 1982, Victoria's Secret had grown to five stores, a 40-page catalog, was grossing $6 million annually. Raymond sold Victoria's Secret Inc. to Leslie Wexner, creator of Limited Stores Inc of Columbus, for $1 million. In 1983, Wexner revamped, he discarded the money-losing model of selling lingerie to male customers and replaced it with one that focused on female customers. Victoria's Secret transformed from "more burlesque than Main Street" to a mainstay that sold broadly accepted underwear; the "new colors and styles that promised sexiness packaged in a tasteful, glamorous way and with the snob appeal of European luxury" meant to appeal to female buyers. To further this image, the Victoria's Secret catalog continued the practice that Raymond began: listing the company's headquarters on catalogs at a fake London address, with the real headquarters in Columbus, Ohio.
The stores were redesigned to evoke 19th century England. Howard Gross took over as president from his position as vice-president in 1985. In October of that year, the Los Angeles Times reported that Victoria's Secret was stealing market share from department stores; the New York Times reported on Victoria's Secret's rapid expansion from four stores in 1982 to 100 in 1986, analysts' expectations that it could expand to 400 by 1988. In 1987, Victoria's Secret was among the "best-selling catalogs". In 1990, analysts estimated that sales had quadrupled in four years, making it one of the fastest growing mail-order businesses; the New York Times described it as a "highly visible leader", saying it used "unabashedly sexy high-fashion photography to sell middle-priced underwear." Victoria's Secret released their own line of fragrances in 1992. By the early 1990s, Victoria's Secret faced a gap in management that led the company to be "plagued by persistent quality problems". Howard Gross, who had grown the company since Wexner's 1982 purchase, was moved to the poorly performing L Brands subsidiary Limited Stores.
Business Week reported that "both divisions have suffered". Grace Nichols, who became President and CEO beginning in 1992, worked to resolve the quality problems. Victoria's Secret introduced the Miracle Bra selling two million within the first year, but faced competition from Sara Lee's WonderBra a year later; the company responded with a TV campaign. By 1998, Victoria's Secret's market share of the intimate apparel market was 14 percent; that year Victoria's Secret entered the $3.5 billion cosmetic market. In 1999, the company aimed to increase its coverage with the Body by Victoria brand. In May 2000, Wexner installed Sharen Jester Turney of Neiman Marcus Direct, as the new chief executive of Victoria's Secret Direct to turn around catalog sales that were lagging behind other divisions. Forbes reported Turney stating, as she flipped through a Victoria's Secret catalog, "We need to quit focusing on all that cleavage." In 2000, Turney
Benetton Group S.r.l. is a global fashion brand based in Ponzano Veneto, Italy. The name comes from the Benetton family, who founded the company in 1965. Benetton has a network of about 5,000 stores in the main international markets. In 1963, Luciano Benetton, the oldest of four children, was a 30-year-old salesman in Treviso, his initial small collection of sweaters received a positive response in local stores in the Veneto region, soon after he asked his sister and two younger brothers and Carlo, to join him. In 1965, the entity known as the "Benetton Group" was formed. In 1965, the Benettons opened their first store in Belluno and three years after in Paris, with Luciano as chairman, his brother Gilberto in charge of administration, their younger brother Carlo running production, Giuliana as a chief designer; the company's core business remains their clothing lines: United Colors of Sisley. The Group has a network of about 5,000 stores around the world; the company is known for sponsorship of a number of sports, for the provocative and original "United Colors" publicity campaign.
The latter originated when photographer Oliviero Toscani was given carte blanche by the Benetton management. Under Toscani's direction, ads were created that contained striking images unrelated to any actual products being sold by the company. Up to 1982, Benetton marketing campaigns relied on traditional models wearing the brand clothing. In 1982, the company decided to change its advertising campaigns by focusing on world issues to raise awareness and create an added value for the brand. In 1984, Oliviero Toscani photographed the first multiracial ad for the brand; these graphic, billboard-sized ads included depictions of a variety of shocking subjects, one of which featured a deathbed scene of a man dying from AIDS. Others included a bloodied, unwashed newborn baby with umbilical cord still attached, controversial; this 1991 advert prompted more than 800 complaints to the British Advertising Standards Authority during 1991 and was featured in the reference book Guinness World Records 2000 as'Most Controversial Campaign'.
Others included a black stallion covering a white mare, close-up pictures of tattoos reading "HIV Positive" on the bodies of men and women, a cemetery of many cross-like tombstones, a collage consisting of genitals of persons of various races, a priest and nun about to engage in a romantic kiss, pictures of inmates on death row, an electric chair, an advert showing a dark-skinned boy with hair shaped into the devil's horns, three different hearts with "black", "white" and "yellow" written onto them, a picture of a bloodied T-shirt and pants riddled with bullet holes from a soldier killed in the Bosnian War. Most of the advertisements, although not all, had a plain white background, in most the company's logo served as the only text accompanying the image. In November 2011, Benetton created the UNHATE Foundation and launched its new worldwide communication campaign, described by the company as an invitation to the leaders and citizens of the world to combat the "culture of hatred". In a press release, Benetton claimed the campaign was created as the group's corporate social responsibility strategy and not as a cosmetic exercise.
Benetton's Fabrica research centre partnered up with 72andSunny to create the UNHATE poster series. These show digitally manufactured images of political and religious leaders, i.e. Barack Obama at that time President of the United States and Hugo Chávez President of Venezuela, kissing each other. According to Benetton “These are symbolic images of reconciliation—with a touch of ironic hope and constructive provocation—to stimulate reflection on how politics and ideas when they are divergent and mutually opposed, must still lead to dialogue and mediation”. However, the image series of lip-locking political and religious figures sparked controversy. After protests by the Vatican, Benetton removed a campaign poster purportedly showing Pope Benedict XVI kissing Ahmed Mohamed el Tayeb, the imam of the Al Azhar mosque in Egypt. At the Cannes Ad festival in June 2012, Benetton won the Press Grand Prix for its Unhate campaign. In November 2017, UCB launched a campaign in collaboration with Devbhumi, a registered company owned by rural women from remote villages in Uttarakhand, India.
The initiative claims to empower over 6,000 rural women artisans across India. Benetton Group entered Formula One as a sponsor of Tyrrell in 1983 Alfa Romeo in 1984. Benetton Formula Ltd. was formed at the end of 1985 when the Toleman and Spirit teams were sold to the Benetton family. The team saw its greatest success under Flavio Briatore, who managed the team from 1990 to 1997. Michael Schumacher won his first Drivers' Championships with the team in 1994 and 1995, the team won their only Constructors' title in 1995. From 1996, the team raced under an Italian licence although it continued to be based, like Toleman, in Oxfordshire in England; the team was bought by Renault for US$120 million in 2000 and was rebranded Renault F1 in 2002. In 1979, Benetton first sponsored their local rugby team, A. S. Rugby Treviso. Benetton Rugby has since become a major force in Italian rugby, with 11 league titles and supplying many players to the national team. Benetton Group has sponsored Treviso Basket and Sisley Volley.
Benetton has faced criticism from Mapuche organizations over its purchase of traditional Mapuche lands in Patagonia. The Curiñanco-Nahuelquir family was evicted from their land in 2002 following Benetton's claim to it, but the land was restored in 2007; the company have published a position st