Barelvi is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with over 200 million followers in South Asia. The name derives from the north Indian town of Bareilly, the hometown of its founder and main leader Ahmed Raza Khan. Although Barelvi is the used term in the media and academia, the followers of the movement prefer to be known by the title of Ahle Sunnat wa Jama'at, or as Sunnis, a reference to their perception as forming an international majority movement; the movement emphasizes personal devotion to Allah and the Islamic prophet Muhammad and a synthesis of Sharia with Sufi practices such as veneration of saints. Because of this, they are called Sufi; the movement identified as "Barelvi" to differentiate itself from the Deobandi movement. The Barelvi movement is named after the town of Bareilly, from where this movement was originated. To its followers, the Barelvi movement is the Ahle Sunnat wal Jama'at, or "People of the traditions and the community," and they refer to themselves as Sunnis.
This terminology is used to lay exclusive claim to be the only legitimate form of Sunni Islam in South Asia, in opposition to the Deobandi, Ahl-i Hadith and Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama followers. The Barelvi movement became known as Barelvi due to their leader Ahmad Raza Khan who established Islamic schools in 1904 with the Manzar-e-Islam; the Barelvi movement formed as a defense of the traditional mystic practices of South Asia, which it sought to prove and support. Although the Darul Uloom Nadwatul Ulama was founded in 1893 to reconcile South Asia's Muslim sectarian differences, the Barelvis withdrew their support from the council and criticized its efforts as heretical and counter to the Islamic values. In contrast with the Deobandi movement, the Barelvis showed unequivocal support for the Movement for Pakistan. In the aftermath of the 1948 Partition, they formed an association to represent the movement in Pakistan, called Jamiyyat-u Ulam-i Pakistan. Like ulema of the Deobandi and Ahl-i Hadith movements, Barelvi ulema have advocated application of sharia law across the country.
As a reaction to the anti-Islam film Innocence of Muslims, a conglomerate of forty Barelvi parties called for a boycott of Western goods, while at the same time condemning violence which had taken place in protest against the film. India Today estimates that the vast majority of Muslims in India adhere to the Barelvi movement, The Heritage Foundation and The Washington Post give similar assessments for the vast majority of Muslims in Pakistan. Political scientist Rohan Bedi estimates; the majority of people in the United Kingdom of Pakistani and Kashmir origin are descended from immigrants from Barelvi-majority areas. The Barelvi movement in Pakistan has received funding from Barelvis in the UK, in part as a reaction to rival movements in Pakistan receiving funding from abroad. According to an editorial in the English-language Pakistani newspaper The Daily Times, many of these mosques have been however usurped by Saudi-funded radical organizations. Like other Sunni Muslims, Barelvis base their beliefs on the Quran and Sunnah and believe in monotheism and the prophethood of Muhammad.
Although Barelvis may follow any one of the Ashari and Maturidi schools of Islamic theology and one of the Hanafi, Shafi'i and Hanbali madhhabs of fiqh in addition to optionally choosing from one of the Sunni Sufi orders like the Qadiri, Chishti or the Suhrawardi tariqas, most Barelvis in South Asia follow the Maturidi school of Islamic theology and the Hanafi madhhab of fiqh. A central doctrine of the Barelvi movement is that Muhammad is both light. According to the doctrine, Muhammad’s physical birth was preceded by his existence as light which pre-dates creation. According to this doctrine the primordial reality of Muhammad existed before creation and that creation was created out of God’s love for the Muhammad. Proponents of this doctrine believe. Sahl al-Tustari the famous 9th century Sufi commentator of the Quran, describes the creation of the primordial light of Muhammad in his tafsir. Al-Tustari’s student, Mansur Al-Hallaj, affirms this doctrine in his book ‘’Ta Sin Al-Siraj’’. According to Stūdīyā Islāmīkā, all Sufi orders are united in the belief of the light of Muhammad and generate practices with this concept as a foundational belief.
Another central doctrine of the Barelvi movement is that Muhammad can witness and be present in multiple places as the same time. The doctrine is present in various Sufi works prior to the Barelvi movement, such as Sayyid Uthman Bukhari's Jawahir al-Quliya, where he instructs how Sufis may have manifested to them the presence of Muhammad. Proponents of this doctrine assert that the term Shahid in Quran 33:45 4:41 refers to this ability of Muhammad and provide various hadiths as sources to support this belief. A fundamental belief of the Barelvi movement is; this relates to the concept of Ummi as mentioned in the Quran 7:157. Barelvis do not see this word as referring to unlettered or illiterate, but rather see it as referring to one, not taught by man; the consequence of this belief is that Muhammad therefore learns directly from God and his knowledge is universal in nature and encompasses the seen and unseen realms. This belief predates the Barelvi movement and can be found in Sufi books such as Rumi's Fihi Ma Fihi in which he states: A fundamental belief of those within the Barelvi movement is that Muhammad helps in this life and in the afterlife.
Mecca spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, is the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m above sea level, 340 kilometres south of Medina, its resident population in 2012 was 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah. As the birthplace of Muḥammad, the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran, Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities, it was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925.
In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj; as a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world, although non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city. "Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government is Makkah, closer to the Arabic pronunciation. The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide. The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means "Mecca the Honored", but is loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca"; the ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. Believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim scholars use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that surrounds and includes the Ka‘bah; this form is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qurā, meaning "Mother of All Settlements"/"mother of villages". Another name of Mecca is Ṫihāmah.
Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the Desert of Paran mentioned in the Old Testament at Genesis 21:21. Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca. Yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was "an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah." Mecca is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015, the mayor of the city was Dr. Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar. Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region; the provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007. On 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed as the new governor; the early history of Mecca is still disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.
The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz in 106 CE, ruling cities such as Hegra, located to the north of Mecca. Though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca; the first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz. Given the inhospitable environment and lack of historical references in Roman and Indian sources, historians including Patricia Crone and Tom Holland have cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost; the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica, describing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians". Claims have been made. However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome, closer to Petra and within the form
Salah called salat and namaz, is one of the Five Pillars in the faith of Islam and an obligatory religious duty for every Muslim. It is a physical and spiritual act of worship, observed five times every day at prescribed times; when they do this, they must face Mecca. In this ritual, the worshiper starts standing, prostrates himself, concludes while sitting on the ground. During each posture, the worshiper recites or reads certain verses and prayers; the word "salah" is translated as "prayer". Given how that word is used in English this can be misleading, as the word "prayer" is used to translate a different word, "dua", a reverent petition made to God. Salah may be better translated as "divine worship", as it is worship rather than petition. Salah is preceded by ritual ablution. Salah consists of the repetition of a unit called a rakʿah consisting of prescribed actions and words; the number of obligatory rakaʿāt varies from two to four according to the time of day or other circumstances. Prayer is obligatory for all Muslims except those who are prepubescent, are menstruating, or are experiencing bleeding in the 40 days after childbirth.
Salah is an Arabic word whose basic meaning is "communication". In its English usage, the reference of the word is always confined to the formal, obligatory prayers described in this article. Translating salah as "communication" is not considered precise enough, as "communication" can indicate several different ways of relating to God. Personal communication or supplication is called duʿāʾ in Islamic usage. Muslims themselves use several terms to refer to salah depending on their culture. In many parts of the world, including many non-Arab countries, the Arabic term salat or salah is used; the other major term is the Persian word namāz, used by speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages, as well as Turkish, Chinese and Albanian. In North Caucasian languages, the term is chak in Lak and kak in Avar. In Malaysia, the term solat is used. Indonesia uses the term shalat. ٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِٱلْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَٰهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ وَٱلَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَآ أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَآ أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِٱلآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْۖ وَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ هُمُ ٱلْمُفْلِحُونَ Translation:2.
This is the Book about which there is no doubt, a guidance for those conscious of Allah -3. Who believe in the unseen, establish prayer, spend out of what We have provided for them,4, and who believe in what has been revealed to you, what was revealed before you, of the Hereafter they are certain.5. Those are upon guidance from their Lord, those are the successful. وَأَقِيمُوا۟ ٱلصَّلَوٰةَ وَءَاتُوا۟ ٱلزَّڪَوٰةَ وَٱرْڪَعُوا۟ مَعَ ٱلرَّٰڪِعِينَ Translation: And establish prayer and give Zakah and bow with those who bow. Guard your communication and middle communication. If you fear on foot or riding, and offer communication at the two ends of day and at the approach of night. Offer communication at the decline of the day until the darkness of night, and at night pray Tahajjud an extra for thee. Say call God or call Merciful, and offer communication and pay Zakah and obey Messenger so that you may receive mercy. And recite, revealed to you as a book and offer communication; the chief purpose of salah is to remembrance of God.
By reciting "The Opening", the first sura of the Quran, as required in daily worship, the worshiper can stand before God and praise him, ask for guidance along the "Straight Path". In addition, daily worship reminds Muslims to give thanks for God's blessings and that submission to God takes precedence over all other concerns, thereby revolving their life around God and submitting to His will. Worship serves as a formal method of dhikr or remembering God. Muslims believe that all prophets of God offered daily prayers and were humble in submission to the oneness of God. Muslims believe that the main duty of the prophets of God is to teach mankind to humbly submit themselves to oneness of God. In Quran, it is written that: "For, Believers are those who, when God is mentioned, feel a tremor in their hearts, when they hear his signs rehearsed, find their faith strengthened, put their trust in their Lord.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam, followed by nearly 90% of the world's Muslims. Its name comes from the word sunnah; the differences between Sunni and Shia Muslims arose from a disagreement over the succession to Muhammad and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions. According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad did not designate a successor and the Muslim community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr as the first caliph; this contrasts with the Shia view, which holds that Muhammad announced at the event of Ghadir Khumm his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor. Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism; as of 2009, Sunni Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim population. Sunni Islam is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.
Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa ahl as-sunnah for short. In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism, while adherents are known as Sunni Muslims, Sunnis and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni Islam is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam". However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there is no such thing as "orthodox Islam"; the Quran, together with hadith and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni Islam. Sharia rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni tradition upholds the six pillars of iman and comprises the Ash'ari and Maturidi schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology. Sunnī commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah meaning "habit", "usual practice", "custom", "tradition".
The Muslim use of this term refers to living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah, "the people of the sunnah and the community", shortened to ahl as-sunnah. One common mistake is to assume that Sunni Islam represents a normative Islam that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, that Sufism and Shi'ism developed out of Sunni Islam; this perception is due to the reliance on ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own doctrines; the first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr as the first, Umar as the second, Uthman as the third, Ali as the fourth. Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey on 3 March 1924.
The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali from Fatima, was killed at the Battle of Karbala; the rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila"."
Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers elected Hasan ibn Ali his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muh
Arabs are a population inhabiting the Arab world. They live in the Arab states in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa and western Indian Ocean islands, they form a significant diaspora, with Arab communities established around the world. The first mention of Arabs is from the mid-ninth century BCE as a tribal people in eastern and southern Syria and the north of the Arabian Peninsula; the Arabs appear to have been under the vassalage of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, the succeeding Neo-Babylonian, Achaemenid and Parthian empires. Arab tribes, most notably the Ghassanids and Lakhmids, begin to appear in the southern Syrian Desert from the mid 3rd century CE onward, during the mid to stages of the Roman and Sasanian empires. Before the expansion of the Rashidun Caliphate, "Arab" referred to any of the nomadic and settled Semitic people from the Arabian Peninsula, Syrian Desert, North and Lower Mesopotamia. Today, "Arab" refers to a large number of people whose native regions form the Arab world due to the spread of Arabs and the Arabic language throughout the region during the early Muslim conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries and the subsequent Arabisation of indigenous populations.
The Arabs forged the Rashidun, Umayyad and the Fatimid caliphates, whose borders reached southern France in the west, China in the east, Anatolia in the north, the Sudan in the south. This was one of the largest land empires in history. In the early 20th century, the First World War signalled the end of the Ottoman Empire; this resulted in the defeat and dissolution of the empire and the partition of its territories, forming the modern Arab states. Following the adoption of the Alexandria Protocol in 1944, the Arab League was founded on 22 March 1945; the Charter of the Arab League endorsed the principle of an Arab homeland whilst respecting the individual sovereignty of its member states. Today, Arabs inhabit the 22 Arab states within the Arab League: Algeria, Comoros, Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Mauritania, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen; the Arab world stretches around 13 million km2, from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Arabian Sea in the east, from the Mediterranean Sea in the north to the Horn of Africa and the Indian Ocean in the southeast.
Beyond the boundaries of the League of Arab States, Arabs can be found in the global diaspora. The ties that bind Arabs are ethnic, cultural, identical, nationalist and political; the Arabs have their own customs, architecture, literature, dance, cuisine, society and mythology. The total number of Arabs are an estimated 450 million. Arabs are a diverse group in terms of religious practices. In the pre-Islamic era, most Arabs followed polytheistic religions; some tribes had adopted Christianity or Judaism, a few individuals, the hanifs observed monotheism. Today, about 93% of Arabs are adherents of Islam, there are sizable Christian minorities. Arab Muslims belong to the Sunni, Shiite and Alawite denominations. Arab Christians follow one of the Eastern Christian Churches, such as the Greek Orthodox or Greek Catholic churches. Other smaller minority religions are followed, such as the Bahá'í Faith and Druze. Arabs have influenced and contributed to diverse fields, notably the arts and architecture, philosophy, ethics, politics, music, cinema, medicine and technology in the ancient and modern history.
The earliest documented use of the word "Arab" to refer to a people appears in the Kurkh Monoliths, an Akkadian language record of the ninth century BCE Assyrian conquest of Aram, which referred to Bedouins of the Arabian Peninsula under King Gindibu, who fought as part of a coalition opposed to Assyria. Listed among the booty captured by the army of king Shalmaneser III of Assyria in the Battle of Qarqar are 1000 camels of "Gi-in-di-bu'u the ar-ba-a-a" or " Gindibu belonging to the Arab; the related word ʾaʿrāb is used to refer to Bedouins today, in contrast to ʿarab which refers to Arabs in general. The term Arab and ʾaʿrāb are mentioned around 40 times in pre-Islamic Sabaean inscriptions; the term Arab occurs in the titles of the Himyarite kings from the time of'Abu Karab Asad until MadiKarib Ya'fur. The term ʾaʿrāb is driven from the term Arab according to Sabaean grammar; the term is mentioned in Quranic verses referring to people who were living in Madina and it might be a south Arabian loan-word into Quranic language.
The oldest surviving indication of an Arab national identity is an inscription made in an archaic form of Arabic in 328 using the Nabataean alphabet, which refers to Imru' al-Qays ibn'Amr as "King of all the Arabs". Herodotus refers to the Arabs in the Sinai, southern Palestine, the frankincense region. Other ancient Greek historians like Agatharchides, Diodorus Siculus and Strabo mention Arabs living in Mesopotamia, in Egypt, southern Jordan, the Syrian steppe and in eastern Arabia. Inscriptions dating to the 6th century BCE in Yemen include the term "Arab"; the most popular Arab account holds that the word "Arab" came from an eponymous father called Ya'rub, the first to speak Arabic. A
Medina transliterated as Madīnah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula and administrative headquarters of the Al-Madinah Region of Saudi Arabia. At the city's heart is al-Masjid an-Nabawi, the burial place of the Islamic prophet, it is one of the two holiest cities in Islam, the other being Mecca. Medina was Muhammad's destination of his Hijrah from Mecca, became the capital of a increasing Muslim Empire, under Muhammad's leadership, serving as the power base of Islam, where Muhammad's Ummah, composed of both locals and immigrants from Muhammad's original home of Mecca, developed. Medina is home to three prominent mosques, namely al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Quba Mosque, Masjid al-Qiblatayn. Muslims believe that the chronologically final surahs of the Quran were revealed to Muhammad in Medina, are called Medinan surahs in contrast to the earlier Meccan surahs; the Arabic word al-Madīnah means'the city'. Before the advent of Islam, the city was known as Yathrib; the word Yathrib has been recorded in Surat al-Ahzab of the Quran.
The city has been called Taybah and Tabah. An alternative name is al-Madīnah an-Nabawiyyah or Madīnat an-Nabī; as of 2010, the city of Medina has a population of 1,183,205. Inhabitants of Yathrib during the era before Muhammad's arrival included Jewish tribes; the city's name was changed to Madīna-tu n-Nabī or al-Madīnatu'l-Munawwarah. Medina is celebrated for containing al-Masjid an-Nabawi and as the city which gave refuge to him and his followers, so ranks as the second holiest city of Islam, after Mecca. Muhammad was buried in Medina, under the Green Dome, as were the first two Rashidun caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar, who were buried next to him in what used to be Muhammad's house. Medina is 210 miles north about 120 miles from the Red Sea coast, it is situated in the most fertile part of all the Hejazi territory, the streams of the vicinity tending to converge in this locality. An immense plain extends to the south; the historic city formed an oval, surrounded by a strong wall, 30 to 40 feet high, dating from the 12th century CE, was flanked with towers, while on a rock, stood a castle.
Of its four gates, the Bab-al-Salam, or Egyptian gate, was remarkable for its beauty. Beyond the walls of the city and south were suburbs consisting of low houses, yards and plantations; these suburbs had walls and gates. All of the historic city has been demolished in the Saudi era; the rebuilt city is centred on the vastly expanded al-Masjid an-Nabawi. The graves of Fatimah and Hasan, across from the mosque at Jannat al-Baqi', Abu Bakr, of Umar ibn Al-Khattab), the second caliph, are here; the mosque has been twice reconstructed. Because of the Saudi government's religious policy and concern that historic sites could become the focus for idolatry, much of Medina's Islamic physical heritage has been altered. Medina's importance as a religious site derives from the presence of al-Masjid an-Nabawi; the mosque was expanded by the Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I. Mount Uhud is a mountain north of Medina, the site of the second battle between Muslim and Meccan forces. Quba Mosque, the first mosque built by Muhammad, is now located in the metropolitan area of Medina.
It was destroyed by lightning about 850 CE, the graves were forgotten. In 892, the place was cleared up, the graves located and a fine mosque built, destroyed by fire in 1257 CE and immediately rebuilt, it was restored by Qaitbay, the Egyptian ruler, in 1487. Masjid al-Qiblatain is another mosque historically important to Muslims, it is where the command was sent to Muhammad to change the direction of prayer from Jerusalem to Mecca, according to a hadith. Like Mecca, the city of Medina only permits Muslims to enter, although the haram of Medina is much smaller than that of Mecca, with the result that many facilities on the outskirts of Medina are open to non-Muslims, whereas in Mecca the area closed to non-Muslims extends well beyond the limits of the built-up area. Both cities' numerous mosques are the destination for large numbers of Muslims on their'Umrah. Hundreds of thousands of Muslims come to Medina annually while performing pilgrimage Hajj. Al-Baqi' is a significant cemetery in Medina where several family members of Muhammad and scholars are buried.
Islamic scriptures emphasise the sacredness of Medina. Medina is mentioned several times for example ayah. Medinan suras are longer than their Mecca counterparts. There is a book within the hadith of Bukhari titled'Virtues of Medina'. Sahih Bukhari says: Narrated Anas: The Prophet said, "Medina is a sanctuary from that place to that, its trees should not be cut and no heresy should be innovated nor any sin should be committed in it, whoever innovates in it an heresy or commits sins he will incur the curse of God, the angels, all the people." By the fourth century, Arab tribes began to encroach from Yemen, there were three prominent Jewish tribes that inhabited the city into the 7th century CE: the
Abdallah bin Abi Quhafah, popularly known as Abu Bakr, was a companion and—through his daughter Aisha—a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. Abu Bakr was born in Mecca in 573 CE to Uthman Abu Salma Umm al-Khair, he is regarded as the fourth person to have accepted Islam, after Khadija bint Khuwaylid, Ali ibn Abi Talib, Zayd ibn Harith. Abu Bakr was present at a number of battles of Islam, such as the Battle of Badr and the Battle of Uhud. Abu Bakr was present at the Farewell Pilgrimage, as well as the event of Ghadir Khumm, in 632 CE. However, shortly after Muhammad died, Abu Bakr and some others left the still-unburied body of Muhammad and gathered at a place known as Saqifa. After lengthy debates that included violence, Umar ibn Al-Khattab pledged allegiance to Abu Bakr at Saqifa. Saqifa was described by the famous Sunni historian Al-Tabari as "a scene from the period of Jahiliya". Abu Bakr thus assumed power, ruling over the Rashidun Caliphate from 632 to 634 CE. Once in power, Abu Bakr launched the Ridda Wars to quell an outbreak of "apostasy" in various lands outside Medina.
The Ridda Wars, were expanded to include the use of force against Muslims who did not recognize Abu Bakr's government, instead of focusing on those who had left Islam. After the conclusion of the Ridda Wars, Abu Bakr launched campaigns into Syria and Persia, but died before their conclusion. Another significant event during Abu Bakr's reign was the seizure of the land of Fadak from Fatimah, Muhammad's daughter. In 634 CE, Abu Bakr died shortly thereafter, he was succeeded by Umar. Abu Bakr's full name was Abdullah ibn Uthman ibn Aamir ibn Amr ibn Ka'ab ibn Sa'ad ibn Taym ibn Murrah ibn Ka'ab ibn Lu'ai ibn Ghalib ibn Fihr al-Quraishi. In Arabic, the name Abd Allah means "servant of Allah". One of his early titles, preceding his conversion to Islam, was Ateeq, meaning "saved one". Muhammad restated this title when he said that Abu Bakr is the "Ateeq", he was called Al-Siddiq by Muhammad after he believed him in the event of Isra and Mi'raj when other people didn't, Ali confirmed that title several times.
There is a dispute over his name being Abdullah. Ibn Hajar in Al-Isaabah, as well as many other sources, narrates from Qasim Ibn Muhammad Ibn Abu Bakr, "I asked Aisha the name of Abu Bakr, she said Abdullah. I said, she said Abu Quhafa had three children, one was second Mu' taq and third, Utaiq. "All three names are similar and derived from the same root. He was referred to in the Quran as the "second of the two in the cave" in reference to the event of hijra, where with Muhammad he hid in the cave in Jabal Thawr from the Meccan party, sent after them. Many Sunni hadiths available about Muhammad comes through Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha. After the death of Abu Bakr, her brother Muhammad ibn. After Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr was killed by the Umayyads, Aisha raised and taught her nephew, Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr and her nephew Urwah ibn Zubayr, he taught his son, Hisham ibn Urwah, the main teacher of Malik ibn Anas, whose views many Sunni follow. Qasim's mother was of Ali's family and his daughter Farwah bint al-Qasim, who married Muhammad al-Baqir, was the mother of Jafar al-Sadiq.
Therefore, al-Qasim was the grandson of the first caliph Abu Bakr and the grandfather of Ja'far al-Sadiq. Another of Abu Bakr's grandsons, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr, was close to Husayn bin Ali. After Hussein ibn Ali was betrayed by the people of Kufa and killed by the army of Yazid I, the Umayyad ruler, Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr confronted Yazid and expelled him from Iraq, southern Arabia and the greater part of Syria, parts of Egypt. Following a lengthy campaign, on his last hour Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr asked his mother Asma' bint Abu Bakr, the daughter of Abu Bakr, for advice. Asma' bint Abu Bakr replied to her son: "You know better in your own self, that if you are upon the truth and you are calling towards the truth go forth, for people more honourable than you have been killed and if you are not upon the truth what an evil son you are and you have destroyed yourself and those who are with you. If you say, that if you are upon the truth and you will be killed at the hands of others you will not be free".
Abd Allah ibn al-Zubayr left and was also killed and crucified by the Syrian Army under the control of the Umayyads. Abu Bakr was born in Mecca some time in 573 CE, to a rich family in the Banu Taym tribe of the Quraysh tribal confederacy. Abu Bakr's father's name was Uthman and given the laqab Abu Quhafa, his mother was Salma bint Sakhar, given the laqab of Umm ul-Khair, he spent his early childhood like other Arab children of the time, among the Bedouins who called themselves Ahl-i-Ba'eer- the people of the camel, developed a particular fondness for camels. In his early years he played with the camel calves and goats, his love for camels earned him the nickname "Abu Bakr", the father of the camel's calf. Like other children of the rich Meccan merchant families, Abu Bakr was literate and developed a fondness for poetry, he used to attend the annual fair at Ukaz, participate in poetical symposia. He had a good memory and had a good knowledge of the genealogy of the Arab tribes, their stories and their politics.
A story is preserved that once when he was a child, his father took him to the Kaaba, asked him to pray before the idols. His father went away to atte