Chelsea Football Club is a professional football club in Chelsea, England, that competes in the Premier League, the highest tier of English football. The club has won six top division titles, eight FA Cups, five League Cups, four FA Community Shields, two UEFA Cup Winners' Cups, one UEFA Champions League, one UEFA Europa League, one UEFA Super Cup. Founded in 1905, the club's home ground since has been Stamford Bridge. Chelsea won its only First Division title in 1955, but saw limited success in various cup competitions until 2003, when the club was purchased by Russian billionaire Roman Abramovich. Chelsea saw heavy investment, have since won 18 honours under Abramovich, second in that time only to Manchester United. José Mourinho is the club's most successful manager in terms of the number of major honours won, his title-winning team set an English record for points between 2004 and 2005. Chelsea have traditionally wore a royal blue kit with white socks, the club's crest features a ceremonial lion rampant regardant holding a staff.
The club have rivalries with neighbouring clubs Fulham and Tottenham Hotspur. In terms of club value, Chelsea are the seventh most valuable football club in the world, worth £1.54 billion, are the eighth highest-earning football club in the world, with earnings of over €428 million in the 2017–18 season. Based on attendance figures, the club have the sixth-largest fanbase in England. In 1904, Gus Mears acquired the Stamford Bridge athletics stadium with the aim of turning it into a football ground. An offer to lease it to nearby Fulham was turned down, so Mears opted to found his own club to use the stadium; as there was a team named Fulham in the borough, the name of the adjacent borough of Chelsea was chosen for the new club. Chelsea were founded on 10 March 1905 at The Rising Sun pub, opposite the present-day main entrance to the ground on Fulham Road, were elected to the Football League shortly afterwards; the club won promotion to the First Division in their second season, yo-yoed between the First and Second Divisions in their early years.
They reached the 1915 FA Cup Final, where they lost to Sheffield United at Old Trafford, finished third in the First Division in 1920, the club's best league campaign to that point. Chelsea attracted large crowds and had a reputation for signing big-name players, but success continued to elude the club in the inter-war years. Former Arsenal and England centre-forward Ted Drake became manager in 1952 and proceeded to modernise the club, he removed the club's Chelsea pensioner crest, improved the youth set-up and training regime, rebuilt the side with shrewd signings from the lower divisions and amateur leagues, led Chelsea to their first major trophy success – the League championship – in 1954–55. The following season saw UEFA create the European Champions' Cup, but after objections from The Football League and the FA, Chelsea were persuaded to withdraw from the competition before it started. Chelsea failed to build on this success, spent the remainder of the 1950s in mid-table. Drake was replaced by player-coach Tommy Docherty.
Docherty built a new team around the group of talented young players emerging from the club's youth set-up and Chelsea challenged for honours throughout the 1960s, enduring several near-misses. They were on course for a treble of League, FA Cup and League Cup going into the final stages of the 1964–65 season, winning the League Cup but faltering late on in the other two. In three seasons the side were FA Cup runners-up. Under Docherty's successor, Dave Sexton, Chelsea won the FA Cup in 1970, beating Leeds United 2–1 in a final replay. Chelsea took their first European honour, a UEFA Cup Winners' Cup triumph, the following year, with another replayed win, this time over Real Madrid in Athens; the late 1970s through to the'80s was a turbulent period for Chelsea. An ambitious redevelopment of Stamford Bridge threatened the financial stability of the club, star players were sold and the team were relegated. Further problems were caused by a notorious hooligan element among the support, to plague the club throughout the decade.
In 1982, Chelsea were, at the nadir of their fortunes, acquired by Ken Bates for the nominal sum of £1, although by now the Stamford Bridge freehold had been sold to property developers, meaning the club faced losing their home. On the pitch, the team had fared little better, coming close to relegation to the Third Division for the first time, but in 1983 manager John Neal put together an impressive new team for minimal outlay. Chelsea won the Second Division title in 1983–84 and established themselves in the top division, before being relegated again in 1988; the club bounced back by winning the Second Division championship in 1988–89. After a long-running legal battle, Bates reunited the stadium freehold with the club in 1992 by doing a deal with the banks of the property developers, bankrupted by a market crash. Chelsea's form in the new Premier League was unconvincing, although they did reach the 1994 FA Cup Final with Glenn Hoddle, it was not until the appointment of Ruud Gullit as player-manager in 1996 that their fortunes changed.
He added several top international players to the side, as the club won the FA Cup in 1997 and established themselves as one of England's top sides again. Gullit was replaced by Gianluca Vialli, who led the team to victory in the League Cup Final, the UEFA Cup Winners' Cup Final and the UEFA Super Cup in 1998, the FA Cup in 2000 and their first appearance in the UEFA Champions League. Vialli was sacked in favour of Claudio Ranieri, who guided Chelse
The Amazing Race Asia 1
The Amazing Race Asia is a reality television game show based on the American series, The Amazing Race. The first season of the show features ten teams of two, with a pre-existing relationship, in a race around Asia and the Pacific Rim to win US$100,000. Applications were accepted through 31 March 2006; the season began on 9 November 2006 and the season finale aired on 1 February 2007. Malaysian workers Zabrina Fernandez & Joe Jer Tee were the winners of the race, they were the first all female team to win in The Amazing Race franchise and at the time were the first team to win without relying on a Fast Forward or a Yield, the first winners to win only the final leg of the race. In October 2005, Buena Vista International Television-Asia Pacific and Sony Pictures Television International's AXN Asia announced that it had earned the right to produce the first localized production of The Amazing Race. AXN Asia, which airs the original American series, had received many written requests for an Asian production from local viewers.
The season visited two continents and eight countries in a race distance of more than 39,000 kilometres, including the franchise's first time visit to Indonesia, in which the nation has not been visited in the original version at the time of air In July 2006, Singaporean television personality Allan Wu was introduced as the host of The Amazing Race Asia. Ricky Ow, General Manager of SPE Networks Asia described Wu as "a big fan of The Amazing Race" and felt that "his good looks and natural charisma will offer a different appeal from the US version." Over 1000 teams across Asia applied for the series, with registration accepted through 31 March 2006. Ten teams were selected to participate in the race. Host Allan Wu commented that "the producers took the time and did their homework to select the most diverse and controversial batch of contestants for our first season." The cast consisted of their relatives. Zabrina is a Ntv7 and Channel V television producer, as well as the sister of Malaysian film director Joshua Fernandez and Hitz.
FM DJ JJ Fernandez. Aubrey is a filipina actress who acted in local movies such as Prosti, Sanib, A Beautiful Life and Gagamboy. Prashant is an Indian actor. Melody is a Singaporean TV and movie actress, having starred in local movies such as Street Angels and The Teenage Textbook Movie; this season consists of five non-Asians. Aubrey Miles appeared in Survivor Philippines: Celebrity Showdown, the Philippine version of Survivor. Melody Chen appeared in The Amazing Race 25 as a Pit Stop greeter in Singapore's Leg 9. Sahran appeared in episodes of the British cooking programme Come Dine With Me; the first season of the show was supported by the following regional sponsors: Sony Electronics Asia Pacific Pte. Ltd, AirAsia, Caltex, MSN, Bintan Lagoon Resort. Ford was a local sponsor, while the series was supported by Tourism Malaysia; the sponsors played a major role in the series by providing prizes and integrating their products into various tasks. In addition, AirAsia was the sole airline used by racers, while Bintan Lagoon Resort was the sequestered location for eliminated teams.
To introduce the new series to an Asian audience, a promotional tour visited Seoul, Singapore, Kuala Lumpur and Delhi prior to the series premiere. An additional episode, subtitled Memories was an after-race interview special that aired one week after the season finale; the following teams participated with their relationships at the time of filming. Placements are listed in finishing order: A red team placement indicates that the team was eliminated. An underlined blue team placement indicates that the team was the last to arrive at a Pit Stop in a non-elimination Leg of the race; the teams were forced to relinquish all of their money and were not allotted money for the next Leg, nor were they allowed to acquire money until they started the next Leg. A green ƒ indicates. A yellow > indicates. Italicised results indicate the position of the team at the midpoint of a two-episode Leg. Episode titles are taken from quotes made by the racers. I Don't Think I Can Do This – Sahran They're Speedy, They're Fast And They're First – Howard Give Me The Strength, Give Me The Strength – Howard Just Shut Up And Do It – Mardy It's Blowing Like Your Mum's Pants On A Windy Day – Howard What Have You Been Eating!
– Zabrina Don't Stand There Doing Nothing! – Andy My Legs Are Shaking Like Jelly – Andrew This Is Totally, Totally Out Of This World! – Marsio War Has Begun! – Andy This Is Going To Be Embarrassing! – Zabrina Oh My Goodness, I Have To Eat A Brain! – Syeon 24 Days, 15 Cities, 39,000 Kilometres And It Comes Down To This – Allan Wu Individual prizes were awarded to the first team to complete a leg. Leg 3 – Each member won a Sony High-Definition Handycam Leg 7 – A year's supply of an engine-cleaning fuel, Caltex. Leg 9 – A holiday to Langkawi, courtesy of AirAsia. Leg 11 – A holiday to Gold Coas
Sport of athletics
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping and walking. The most common types of athletics competitions are track and field, road running, cross country running, walking race; the results of racing events are decided by finishing position, while the jumps and throws are won by the athlete that achieves the highest or furthest measurement from a series of attempts. The simplicity of the competitions, the lack of a need for expensive equipment, makes athletics one of the most competed sports in the world. Athletics is an individual sport, with the exception of relay races and competitions which combine athletes' performances for a team score, such as cross country. Organized athletics are traced back to the Ancient Olympic Games from 776 BC; the rules and format of the modern events in athletics were defined in Western Europe and North America in the 19th and early 20th century, were spread to other parts of the world. Most modern top level meetings are conducted by the International Association of Athletics Federations and its member federations.
The athletics meeting forms the backbone of the Summer Olympics. The foremost international athletics meeting is the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, which incorporates track and field, marathon running and race walking. Other top level competitions in athletics include the IAAF World Cross Country Championships and the IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Athletes with a physical disability compete at the Summer Paralympics and the World Para Athletics Championships; the word athletics is derived from the Ancient Greek ἀθλητής from ἆθλον or ἆθλος. The term was used to describe athletic contests in general – i.e. sporting competition based on human physical feats. In the 19th century, the term athletics acquired a more narrow definition in Europe and came to describe sports involving competitive running, walking and throwing; this definition continues to be the most prominent one in the United Kingdom and most of the areas of the former British Empire. Furthermore, foreign words in many Germanic and Romance languages which are related to the term athletics have a similar meaning.
In much of North America, athletics is synonymous with sports in general, maintaining a more historical usage of the term. The word "athletics" is used to refer to the sport of athletics in this region. Track and field is preferred, is used in the United States and Canada to refer to most athletics events, including racewalking and marathon running. Athletic contests in running, walking and throwing are among the oldest of all sports and their roots are prehistoric. Athletics events were depicted in the Ancient Egyptian tombs in Saqqara, with illustrations of running at the Heb Sed festival and high jumping appearing in tombs from as early as of 2250 BC; the Tailteann Games were an ancient Celtic festival in Ireland, founded circa 1800 BC, the thirty-day meeting included running and stone-throwing among its sporting events. The original and only event at the first Olympics in 776 BC was a stadium-length running event known as the stadion; this expanded to include throwing and jumping events within the ancient pentathlon.
Athletics competitions took place at other Panhellenic Games, which were founded around 500 BC. The Cotswold Olimpick Games, a sports festival which emerged in 17th century England, featured athletics in the form of sledgehammer throwing contests. Annually, from 1796 to 1798, L'Olympiade de la République was held in revolutionary France, is an early forerunner to the Modern Summer Olympic Games; the premier event of this competition was a running event, but various ancient Greek disciplines were on display. The 1796 Olympiade marked the introduction of the metric system into the sport. Athletics competitions were held about 1812 at the Royal Military College, in 1840 in Shrewsbury, Shropshire at the Royal Shrewsbury School Hunt; the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich held an organised competition in 1849, a regular series of closed meetings open only to undergraduates, was held by Exeter College, Oxford from 1850. The annual Wenlock Olympian Games, first held in 1850 in Wenlock, incorporated athletics events into its sports programme.
The first modern-style indoor athletics meetings were recorded shortly after in the 1860s, including a meet at Ashburnham Hall in London which featured four running events and a triple jump competition. The Amateur Athletic Association was established in England on 1880 as the first national body for the sport of athletics and began holding its own annual athletics competition – the AAA Championships; the United States began holding an annual national competition – the USA Outdoor Track and Field Championships – first held in 1876 by the New York Athletic Club. Athletics became codified and standardized via the English AAA and other general sports organisations in the late 19th century, such as the Amateur Athletic Union and the Union des sociétés françaises de sports athlétiques. An athletics competition was included in the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 and it has been as one of the foremost competitions at the quadrennial multi-sport event since. For men only, the 1928 Olympics saw the introduction of women's events in the athletics programme.
Athletics is part of the Paralympic Games since the inaugural Games in 1960. Athletics has a high-profile during major championships the Olympics, but otherwise is less popular. An internation
Uruguay national under-20 football team
Uruguay national under-20 football team represents Uruguay in international football competitions such as FIFA U-20 World Cup and the South American Youth Football Championship. The following players were selected to take part in the 2017 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Uruguay national football team Uruguay national under-17 football team Uruguay national under-23 football team South American Youth Football Championship
The Premier League is the top level of the English football league system. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the English Football League; the Premier League is a corporation. Seasons run from August to May with each team playing 38 matches. Most games are played on Sunday afternoons; the Premier League has featured 47 English and two Welsh clubs since its inception, making it a cross-border league. The competition was formed as the FA Premier League on 20 February 1992 following the decision of clubs in the Football League First Division to break away from the Football League, founded in 1888, take advantage of a lucrative television rights deal; the deal was worth £1 billion a year domestically as of 2013–14, with BSkyB and BT Group securing the domestic rights to broadcast 116 and 38 games respectively. The league generates € 2.2 billion per year in international television rights. Clubs were apportioned revenues of £2.4 billion in 2016–17. The Premier League is the most-watched sports league in the world, broadcast in 212 territories to 643 million homes and a potential TV audience of 4.7 billion people.
In the 2014–15 season, the average Premier League match attendance exceeded 36,000, second highest of any professional football league behind the Bundesliga's 43,500. Most stadium occupancies are near capacity; the Premier League ranks second in the UEFA coefficients of leagues based on performances in European competitions over the past five seasons, as of 2018. Forty-nine clubs have competed since the inception of the Premier League in 1992. Six of them have won the title since then: Manchester United, Arsenal, Manchester City, Blackburn Rovers, Leicester City; the record of most points in a Premier League season is 100, set by Manchester City in 2017–18. Despite significant European success in the 1970s and early 1980s, the late 1980s marked a low point for English football. Stadiums were crumbling, supporters endured poor facilities, hooliganism was rife, English clubs were banned from European competition for five years following the Heysel Stadium disaster in 1985; the Football League First Division, the top level of English football since 1888, was behind leagues such as Italy's Serie A and Spain's La Liga in attendances and revenues, several top English players had moved abroad.
By the turn of the 1990s the downward trend was starting to reverse: at the 1990 FIFA World Cup, England reached the semi-finals. In the 1980s, major English clubs had begun to transform into business ventures, applying commercial principles to club administration to maximise revenue. Martin Edwards of Manchester United, Irving Scholar of Tottenham Hotspur, David Dein of Arsenal were among the leaders in this transformation, it gave the top clubs more power. By threatening to break away, clubs in Division One managed to increase their voting power, they took a 50% share of all television and sponsorship income in 1986. Revenue from television became more important: the Football League received £6.3 million for a two-year agreement in 1986, but by 1988, in a deal agreed with ITV, the price rose to £44 million over four years with the leading clubs taking 75% of the cash. According to Scholar, involved in the negotiations of television deals, each of the First Division clubs received only around £25,000 per year from television rights before 1986, this increased to around £50,000 in the 1986 negotiation to £600,000 in 1988.
The 1988 negotiations were conducted under the threat of ten clubs leaving to form a "super league", but they were persuaded to stay with the top clubs taking the lion share of the deal. As stadiums improved and match attendance and revenues rose, the country's top teams again considered leaving the Football League in order to capitalise on the influx of money into the sport. In 1990, the managing director of London Weekend Television, Greg Dyke, met with the representatives of the "big five" football clubs in England over a dinner; the meeting was to pave the way for a break away from The Football League. Dyke believed that it would be more lucrative for LWT if only the larger clubs in the country were featured on national television and wanted to establish whether the clubs would be interested in a larger share of television rights money; the five clubs decided to press ahead with it. The FA did not enjoy an amicable relationship with the Football League at the time and considered it as a way to weaken the Football League's position.
At the close of the 1991 season, a proposal was tabled for the establishment of a new league that would bring more money into the game overall. The Founder Members Agreement, signed on 17 July 1991 by the game's top-flight clubs, established the basic principles for setting up the FA Premier League; the newly formed top division would have commercial independence from The Football Association and the Football League, giving the FA Premier League licence to negotiate
Bukit Jalil National Stadium
The Bukit Jalil National Stadium in Bukit Jalil, located in the National Sports Complex to the south of the city centre of Malaysia's capital city, Kuala Lumpur, all-seater multi-purpose stadium and the home ground of the Malaysian national football team. With a capacity of 87,411, it is the largest in Southeast Asia and the eighth largest football stadium in the world, it was inaugurated by the 4th Prime Minister of Malaysia, Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, on 1 January 1998 ahead of the 1998 Commonwealth Games and staged the opening ceremony. Since it has became the main venue for other international multi-sport events such as the 2001 Southeast Asian Games and the 2017 Southeast Asian Games, nowadays host most Malaysian international football matches, national level football competition finals such as the Malaysia FA Cup, Malaysia Cup, athletic events and music concerts, it was built alongside other sport venues in the National Sports Complex by United Engineers Malaysia, designed by Arkitek FAA, Weidleplan Consulting GMBH and Schlaich Bergermann Partner.
A membrane structure is used for the roof, the most of the materials used were reinforced concrete. Before the stadium was opened, Stadium Merdeka was the national stadium of Malaysia; the stadium, along with the National Sports Complex, is undergoing a major renovation at a combined cost of RM1.34 billion as a part of KL Sports City project in 2 phases. Project 1 has been completed ahead and for the 2017 SEA Games in Kuala Lumpur, with a new Populous-designed facade that covers the exterior of the stadium with twisted vertical louvres which are LED-lighted, as well as recolouring the seats to a yellow-black design and upgraded facilities. After the 2017 ASEAN Para Games, Project 2 will commence, will add a retractable roof, retractable seats, comfort ventilation and new sports and lifestyle facilities; the stadium was built on 1 January 1995 to host the 1998 Commonwealth Games. It finished on 1 January 1998. After the 1998 Commonwealth Games in September, the stadium became the home stadium for the Malaysia national football team, replacing the Shah Alam Stadium and the Merdeka Stadium.
It served as the main stadium of the 2001 Southeast Asian Games, 2006 FESPIC Games, 2008 ASEAN University Games and 2017 Southeast Asian Games. Bukit Jalil National Stadium's capacity makes it the 21st largest stadium in the world and the 9th largest football stadium in the world, it was built by United Engineers Malaysia and designed by Arkitek FAA. It was completed three months ahead of schedule. Designed to host a multitude of events, the National Stadium is the central and most prominent sports venue at the 1.2 km² National Sports Complex in Bukit Jalil. The stadium is considered the best stadium in Malaysia. Malaysia's previous national stadium was the Merdeka Stadium before the Bukit Jalil sports complex was constructed. Malaysia uses other stadiums for their football matches such as KLFA Stadium, MBPJ Stadium and the Shah Alam Stadium; the stadium is equipped with the following facilities: 105 m x 68 m cow grass pitch 9 laned 400m synthetic track 6m x 60m warming up track 1,500 flux floodlights Broadcast Studios Coloured Video Matrix Scoreboards High-tech Cathode Ray Tube Video Screen Board Individual "paddles" containing LED pixels at the seats Bukit Jalil National Stadium has been host to other important events besides football matches.
Notable music artists who have performed in the stadium include: Jacky Cheung "The Year of Jacky Cheung" World Tour Concert “光年世界巡回演唱會” 大马站，14 September 2007. Jacky Cheung "Music Odyssey" World Tour Concert “音乐之旅演唱會” 大马站, 23 March 2002. Jacky Cheung Live In Malaysia Concert “友个人演唱會” 大马站，23 April 1999. Rain Rain's Coming World Tour, 27 January 2007; the Corrs Talk on Corners World Tour and In Blue. A-Mei Star Tour Concert. Wang Lee Hom Music Man Tour 2009. Good Charlotte. S. H. E 奇幻樂園吉隆坡演唱會, 6 November 2004. S. H. E 愛而為一馬來西亞演唱會, 6 March 2010. Kelly Clarkson All I Ever Wanted Tour, April 2010. Fish Leong "Today is our Valentine's Day 今天情人节" Live in Malaysia, 13 June 2009. Fish Leong "Love Parade 爱的大游行" Live in Malaysia, 1 October 2005. Usher Live in Malaysia, July 2010. Paramore Brand New Eyes World Tour, 19 October 2010. G-Dragon 1st World Tour: One Of A Kind, 22 June 2013. Linkin Park Living Things World Tour, 19 August 2013. Athletics – 1998 Commonwealth Games, 2001 Southeast Asian Games, 2001 ASEAN Para Games, 2008 ASEAN University Games, 2009 ASEAN Para Games, 2015 ASEAN Civil Service Games, 2017 Southeast Asian Games, 2017 ASEAN Para Games.
Malaysia Cup finals Malaysian FA Cup finals 2003 FA Premier League Asia Cup 2007 AFC Asian Cup 2007 Champions Youth Cup Manchester United 2001, 2009 Asia Tour 2010 AFF Championship, first leg Finals Liverpool F. C. Asia Tour 2011 Chelsea F. C. 2011 summer tour of Asia Arsenal F. C. 2011, 2012 Pre-Season Asia Tour Franciscan Super Cup Final 2013 2014 AFF Championship second leg Finals Liverpool F. C. 2nd Asia Tour 2015 2018 AFF Championship, first leg Finals List of stadiums List of stadiums in Malaysia List of Asian stadiums by capacity List of stadiums by capacity Football Association of Malaysia List of association football stadiums by capacity
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under