Law enforcement in France
Law enforcement in France has a long history dating back to AD 570, when night watch systems were commonplace. Policing is centralized at the national level. Legislation has allowed local governments to hire their own police officers which are called the "police municipale". There are two national police forces called "Police nationale" and "Gendarmerie nationale"; the Prefecture of Police of Paris provides policing services directly to Paris as a subdivision of France's Ministry of the Interior. Within these national forces only certain designated police officers have the power to conduct criminal investigations which are supervised by investigative magistrates. France has two national police forces: The Police Nationale called the "Sûreté", is considered a civilian police force, its origins was created by Eugène François Vidocq. In 1966 its name was changed to "Police Nationale", it has primary responsibility for large urban areas. The Police Nationale are under the control of the Ministry of the Interior.
The Gendarmerie Nationale is part of the French armed forces. It has the primary responsibility for policing smaller towns and rural areas, as well as the armed forces and military installations, airport security and shipping ports. Being a military force, the gendarmerie has a centralized organization structure, it is under the control of both the the Ministry of the Interior. The Gendarmerie's origin dates back to 1306 when King Philippe le Bel formed the first mounted military police force called the "Maréchaussée". Between 1697 and 1699, King Louis XIV asserted his authority over police in France and the Maréchaussée became the formal law enforcement arm of the country. In February 1791 it was renamed gendarmerie nationale by the revolutionary government of France. Today there are about 105,000 gendarmes in France. Direction générale des douanes et droits indirects, a nowadays civilian customs service more known as the "Douane", under the minister of budget, public accounting and civil servants.
It operates on a different framework of the other agencies. They have special environment law enforcement and police power that ranges from pollution, fishing, forests products to nature protection, its strength was 10,000 in 2007, only counting the National Forests Office. There are local police in the rural zones, as for the rural policemen the police rurale as such does not exist. Note the heterogeneity of local police both in means and in equipment. Police municipale are the local police of cities in France; the French municipal police are under the direct authority of the mayor and may or may not be armed according to the local mayor's discretion. The municipal police of Paris is the Paris Police Prefecture, a branch of the Police Nationale Rural communes may form a garde champêtre, responsible for limited local patrol and protecting the environment. In Wallis and Futuna, there is a territorial guard as well as royal police; the leadership of both agencies is centralized and they both have conventional deviance control responsibilities except in different geographical locations in France.
The Police Nationale is responsible for Paris and other urban areas whereas the gendarmerie is responsible for small towns and rural areas with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. The existence of two national police forces with similar goals and attributions, but somewhat different zones of activity, has at times created friction or competition between the two, their merging has sometimes been suggested. With the development of suburban dwellings, this had proved inadequate. Furthermore, the shifting of a town from a police to a gendarmerie zone was controversial, because a gendarmerie unit serves a wide area. A redistribution of authority was thus decided and implemented between 2003 and 2005. Large conurbations are now handled by the police. Rural and suburban areas, some smaller cities with populations ranging from 5,000 to 16,000, are handled by the gendarmerie. In addition, the police and the gendarmerie have specific zones of authority: the police handle questions about the admittance and continuing stay of foreigners.
In French, the term police not only refers to the forces, but to the general concept of "maintenance of law and order". There are two types of police in this general sense: administrative police, upholding public order, safety checks and traffic controls, assistance to people in imminent danger, protection duties, etc. judicial police, handling penal law enforcement and investigation of crimes and felonies under the authority of a Magistrate in every case. The mayor has administrative police power in a commune, which means that he or she can order the police to enforce municipal bylaws. A judge has police power in his courtroom; until 1984, the National Police were involved in prehospital rescue operations and casualty transport
Faiz Ahmad Faiz
Faiz Ahmad Faiz MBE, NI, was a Pakistani leftist poet and author, one of the most celebrated writers of the Urdu language. Among other accolades, Faiz was nominated for Nobel Prize in Literature and won the Lenin Peace Prize. Born in Punjab, British India, Faiz went on to study at Oriental College, he was awarded in the British Empire Medal. After Pakistan's independence, Faiz became the editor to The Pakistan Times and a leading member of the Communist Party before being arrested in 1951 as an alleged part of conspiracy to overthrow the Liaquat administration and replace it with a left-wing government. Faiz was released after four years in prison and went on to become a notable member of the Progressive Writers' Movement and an aide to Bhutto administration, before being self-exiled to Beirut. Faiz was an avowed Marxist, he received the Lenin Peace Prize by the Soviet Union in 1962, his work remains influential in arts. Faiz's literary work was posthumously publicly honoured when the Pakistan Government conferred upon him the nation's highest civil award, Nishan-e-Imtiaz, in 1990.
Faiz Ahmad Faiz was born into a Tataley Jat family on 13 February 1911, in Kala Qader, District Narowal, British India. Faiz hailed from an academic family, well known in literary circles, his home was the scene of a gathering of local poets and writers who met to promote the literacy movement in his native province. His father Sultan Muhammad Khan was a barrister who worked for the British Government, an autodidact who wrote and published the biography of Amir Abdur Rahman, an Emir of Imperial Afghanistan. Although his family were devoted Muslims, Faiz was brought up in a secular tradition of Islam. Following the Muslim South Asian tradition, his family directed him to study Islamic studies at the local Mosque to be oriented to the basics of religious studies by Maulvi Muhammad Ibrahim Mir Sialkoti. According to Muslim orthodox tradition, he learned Arabic, Urdu language and the Quran. Faiz was a Pakistan nationalist, said "Purify your hearts, so you can save the country...". His father took him out of Islamic school as he wanted his son to follow the footsteps of the great Indian Muslim educationist Sir Syed Ahmad Khan, sending him to attend the Scotch Mission School, managed and run by a local British family.
After matriculation, he joined the Murray College at Sialkot for intermediate study. In 1926, Faiz enrolled in Department of Languages and Fine Arts of the Government College University, Lahore. While there, he was influenced by Professor Mir Hassan and Professor Shamsul Allam who taught Arabic language. Professor Hasan had taught the renowned philosopher and politician of South Asia, Dr. Muhammad Iqbal. In 1926, Faiz attained his BA with Honors in Arabic language, under the supervision of Professor Mir Hassan. In 1930, Faiz joined the post-graduate programme of the GCU, obtaining MA in English literature in 1932; the same year, Faiz passed his post-graduate exam in the 1st Division from Punjab University's Oriental College, where he obtained a master's degree in Arabic in 1932. It was during his college years that he met M. N. Roy and Muzaffar Ahmed who influenced him to become a member of the Communist Party. In 1941, Faiz became affectionate with Alys Faiz, a British national and a member of Communist Party of the United Kingdom, a student at the Government College University where Faiz taught poetry.
While Alys opted for Pakistan citizenship, she was a vital member of Communist Party of Pakistan, played a significant role in Rawalpindi Conspiracy Case when she brought together the communist fwa. Together, the couple gave birth to two daughters Moneeza Hashmi. In 1935 Faiz joined the faculty of Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Amritsar, serving as a lecturer in English and British literature. In 1937, Faiz moved to Lahore to reunite with his family after accepting the professorship at the Hailey College of Commerce teaching introductory courses on economics and commerce. During the midst of World War II, he enrolled in the British Army in 1942, he was attained the rank of Captain. Faiz served with the unit led by a left-wing general. Although, he was kept out of World War II war operations, Faiz was given a desk assignment when he joined the Inter-Services Public Relations in New Delhi. In 1943, Faiz was promoted to Major rank, Lieutenant-Colonel in 1944. In 1947, Faiz opted for the newly established State of Pakistan.
However, after witnessing the 1947 Kashmir war with India, Faiz decided to leave the army and submitted his resignation in 1947. In 1936, Faiz joined a literary movement, was appointed its first secretary by his fellow Marxist Sajjad Zaheer. In East and West-Pakistan, the movement gained considerable support in civil society. In 1938, he became editor-in-chief of the monthly Urdu magazine "Adab-e-Latif until 1946. In 1941, Faiz published his first literary book "Naqsh-e-Faryadi" and joined the Pakistan Arts Council in 1947. From 1959–62, Faiz served as the secretary of the Pakistan Arts Council, became Rector of Abdullah Haroon College in 1964; the same year, Faiz became the vice-president of Pakistan Arts Council in 1964. Faiz was a good friend of Soviet poet Yevgeny Yevtushenko who once said "In Faiz's autobiography... is his poetry, the rest is just a footnote". During his lifetime, Faiz received accolades for his works. Faiz was a lyrical poet, whose popularity reached neighbouring India and Soviet Union.
Fatima Bhutto is a Pakistani writer. Born in Kabul, she is daughter of Murtaza Bhutto, niece of former Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and granddaughter of former Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, she is a critic of her aunt Benazir Bhutto and her husband Asif Ali Zardari, whom she accused of being involved in her father's murder. Bhutto was raised in Syria and Karachi and received her B. A from Barnard College followed by an M. A from SOAS, her most notable work is her 2010 non-fiction book about Songs of Blood and Sword. Bhutto has written for The Guardian among others. Bhutto was born on 29 May 1982 to Murtaza Bhutto and an Afghan mother, Fauzia Fasihudin Bhutto, the daughter of Afghanistan's former foreign affairs official in Kabul, her father was in exile during the military regime of general Zia-ul-Haq. Her parents divorced when she was three years old and her father took Bhutto with him moving from country to country and she grew up stateless, her father met Ghinwa Bhutto, a Lebanese ballet teacher in 1989 during his exile in Syria and they married.
Bhutto considers Ghinwa as her real mother. She is the granddaughter of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and Nusrat Bhutto, an Iranian Kurd, niece of Benazir Bhutto, her father was killed by the police in 1996 in Karachi during the premiership of his sister, Benazir Bhutto. Her biological mother Fauzia Fasihudin unsuccessfully tried to gain parental custody of Bhutto, she lives with her half-brother Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Jr. in Old Clifton, Karachi. Bhutto received her secondary education at the Karachi American School, she graduated from Barnard College, Columbia University in New York, U. S. A with a B. A. degree in 2004, where she majored in Middle Eastern and Asian languages and cultures. She received her M. A in South Asian Studies from the SOAS, University of London in 2005, there she wrote her dissertation on the resistance movement in Pakistan. In 1998, at the age of 15, Bhutto published her first book named Whispers of The Desert, her second book 8.50 a.m. 8 October 2005 marks the moment of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake.
In 2010 her family memoir Songs of Blood and Sword was published with acclaim. In the book Bhutto accuses her aunt Benazir and her husband Asif Zardari for killing her father Murtaza; the book got mixed to negative review from critics for being biased on history of her family. Several family members have accused her of falsifying information. In November 2013, her first fictional novel The Shadow Of The Crescent Moon published; the book had long-listed in 2014 for the Baileys Women's Prize for Fiction. In 2015 Bhutto's short story titled an e-book, under Penguin Books was released. Bhutto's latest novel The Runaways is published by Penguin Viking. Following the assassination of her aunt, Benazir Bhutto, there was speculation over her entrance into politics. In an interview, she has stated that for now she prefers to remain active through her activism and writing, rather than through elected office and that she has to "rule a political career out because of the effect of dynasties on Pakistan", referring to the Bhutto family dynasty and its ties to Pakistani politics.
Although Bhutto is politically active, she is not affiliated with any political party. About her religious faith, Bhutto said at an interview, that she is non religious muslim and describes herself as a secularist. Though Bhutto has many time defended Islam and supported Muslim women's right to choose their dress. Whispers of The Desert 8.50 a.m. 8 October 2005 Songs of Blood and Sword The Shadow of the Crescent Moon Democracy The Runaways Official Fatima Bhutto Website Fatima Bhutto: Living on the Edge by William Dalrymple for the Times Online, 18 May 2008 Fatima Bhutto on Her Memoir, Songs of Blood and Sword In Conversation: Songs of Corruption: Christian Parenti with Fatima Bhutto, The Brooklyn Rail
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
Nusrat Bhutto was an Iranian-Kurdish public figure who served as Spouse of the Prime Minister of Pakistan between 1971 until the 1977 coup, as a senior member of the federal cabinet between 1988 and 1990. Born in Isfahan to a family of Kurdish descent, the family had settled in Bombay before moving to Karachi after the Partition of India. Ispahani joined a paramilitary women's force in 1950, but left a year when she married Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, she moved to Oxfordshire with her husband, pursuing his legal education. She returned to Pakistan alongside Bhutto. After her husband founded Pakistan Peoples Party, Ispahani worked to lead party's women’s wing. After Bhutto was elected as the Prime Minister in 1971, Ispahani became the First Lady of Pakistan and remained so until her husband's removal in 1977, she succeeded her husband as the leader of the Peoples Party, while under house arrest, fought an unsuccessful legal battle to prevent her husband's execution. After Bhutto's execution, along with her children, went into exile to London, from where in 1981 she co-founded the Movement for the Restoration of Democracy, a nonviolent opposition to Zia's regime.
Ispahani returned to Pakistan in 1988, as the party's national leader she campaigned for her daughter, Benazir's, election to the premiership. After the People's Party's victory in 1988, she joined Benazir's cabinet as a minister without portfolio while representing Larkana District in the National Assembly, she remained in the cabinet until Benazir's government was dismissed in 1990. Afterwards, during a family dispute between her son and her daughter, Ispahani favoured Murtaza leading Benazir to sack Ispahani as the party leader. Ispahani stopped talking to the media and refrained from political engagements after the assassination of her son Murtaza in 1996 during a police encounter, during her daughter's second government. Ispahani moved to Dubai in 1996, suffering from Alzheimer's disease, she was kept out of public eye's by Benazir, until she made headlines in 23 October 2011 when she died. Ispahani's body was flown to Pakistan, was buried next to the grave of her husband Zulfikar at Garhi Khuda Bakhsh two days later.
In Pakistan, Ispahani is remembered for her contribution to empowerment of women in Pakistan and for advocating for democracy in Pakistan, for which she is dubbed as "Mādar-e-Jamhooriat", a title she was honored with by the parliament following her death. Nusrat Ispahani was born on 23 March 1929 in Esfahan, hailing from the wealthy Hariri family, her father was a wealthy Iranian Kurdish businessman who lived in Bombay and the moved to Karachi, Pakistan before the independence of Pakistan in 1947. Before emigrating to Pakistan, Nusrat attended and was educated at the University of Isfahan where she obtained a Bachelor of Arts in Humanities in 1950. Nusrat met Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in Karachi where they got married on 8 September 1951, she was Zulfikar Ali Bhutto's second wife, they had four children together: Benazir, Murtaza and Shahnawaz. With the exception of Sanam, she outlived her children. Benazir's widower and Nusrat's son-in-law Asif Ali Zardari was the President of Pakistan from 9 September 2008 till 8 September 2013.
As first lady from 1973 to 1977, Nusrat Bhutto functioned as a political worker and accompanied her husband on a number of overseas visits. In 1979, after the trial and execution of her husband, she succeeded her husband as leader of the Pakistan Peoples Party as chairman for life, she led the PPP's campaign against General Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq's regime. Alongside her daughter Benazir Bhutto, she was arrested numerous times and placed under house arrest and in prison in Sihala. Nusrat Bhutto was attacked by police with batons while attending a cricket match at Gaddafi Stadium in Lahore, when the crowd began to raise pro Bhutto slogans. In 1982, ill with cancer, she was given permission to leave the country by the military government of General Zia-ul-Haq for medical treatment in London at which point her daughter, Benazir Bhutto, became acting leader of the party, and, by 1984, the party chairman. After returning to Pakistan in the late 1980s, she served two terms as a Member of Parliament to the National Assembly from the family constituency of Larkana, Sindh.
During the administrations of her daughter Benazir, she became a cabinet minister and Deputy Prime Minister. In the 1990s, she and Benazir became estranged when Nusrat took the side of her son Murtaza during a family dispute but were reconciled after Murtaza's murder, she lived the last few years of her life with her daughter's family in Dubai, United Arab Emirates and suffered from the combined effects of a stroke and Alzheimer's disease. Bhutto was suspected of suffering from cancer in 1982, the year when she left Pakistan for medical treatment. For the last several years of her life, she had been suffering from Alzheimer's disease. In the mid-1990s after the death of her son Mir Murtaza Bhutto in 1996, she withdrew from public life. Party sources suggest this may have coincided with the time that she began to show symptoms of Alzheimer’s. According to her senior party leader, Bhutto's disease was so advanced that she was unaware of the assassination of her daughter, Benazir, she used a ventilator until her last days.
She died at age of 82 at Iranian Hospital Dubai on 23 October 2011. Her body was flown to her hometown of Garhi Khuda Bakhsh in Larkana District the next day, was buried next to her husband and children in the Bhutto family mausoleum at a ceremony attended by thousands of mour
The Pashtuns known as ethnic Afghans and Pathans, are an Iranian ethnic group who live in Pakistan and Afghanistan in South-Central Asia. They speak the Pashto language and adhere to Pashtunwali, a traditional set of ethics guiding individual and communal conduct; the ethnogenesis of the Pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called Pakthas between the 2nd and the 1st millennium BC, who may be their early ancestors. Their history is spread amongst the present-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region. Globally, the Pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million, but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979; the majority of the Pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, split between the two countries since the Durand Line border was formed after the Second Anglo-Afghan War. There are significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan, in particular in the cities of Karachi and Lahore.
A recent Pashtun diaspora has developed in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf in the United Arab Emirates. The Pashtuns are a significant minority group in Pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15% of the population; as the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan, Pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the Delhi Sultanate era, the 15th–16th century Lodi dynasty replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur deposed the Lodi dynasty. Other Pashtuns fought the Safavids and Mughals before obtaining an independent state in the early 18th century, which began with a successful revolution by Mirwais Hotak followed by conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani; the Barakzai dynasty played a vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. The Pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400.
There have been many notable Pashtun people throughout history: Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, while Bacha Khan was a Pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. Some others include Malala Yousafzai, Shah Rukh Khan, Zarine Khan, Imran Khan, Farhad Darya, Abdul Ahad Mohmand, Ahmad Zahir, Zakir Husain, Hamid Karzai, Ashraf Ghani, Mullah Mohammed Omar; the vast majority of the Pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homeland, located in an area south of the Amu Darya in Afghanistan and west of the Indus River in Pakistan, which includes Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and the northern part of Balochistan. Additional Pashtun communities are located in Western and Northern Afghanistan, the Gilgit–Baltistan and Kashmir regions and northwestern Punjab province, Pakistan. There are sizeable Muslim communities in India, which are of Pashtun ancestry. Throughout the Indian subcontinent, they are referred to as Pathans. Smaller Pashtun communities are found in the countries of the Middle East, such as in the Khorasan Province of Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, North America and Australia.
Important metropolitan centres of Pashtun culture include Peshawar, Quetta, Mardan and Jalalabad. In Pakistan, the city of Karachi in Sindh province has the largest Pashtun diaspora communities in the world, with as much as 7 million Pashtuns living in Karachi according to some estimates. Several cities in Pakistan's Punjab province have sizeable Pashtun populations, in particular Lahore. About 15% of Pakistan's nearly 200 million population is Pashtun. In Afghanistan, they are the largest ethnic group and make up between 42–60% of the 32.5 million population. The exact figure remains uncertain in Afghanistan, affected by the 1.3 million or more Afghan refugees that remain in Pakistan, a majority of which are Pashtuns. Another one million or more Afghans live in Iran. A cumulative population assessment suggests a total of around 49 million individuals all across the world. A prominent institution of the Pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes; the Pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, Peshawar and Kabul have grown due to the influx of rural Pashtuns.
Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans. The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups, each consisting of several extended families called kahols. Pashtun tribes are divided into four'greater' tribal groups: the Sarbani, the Bettani, the Gharghashti, the Karlani. Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago. Since the 2nd millennium BC, cities in the region now inhabited by Pashtuns have seen invasions and migrations, including by Ancient Indian peoples, Ancient Iranian peoples, the Medes and Ancient Macedonians in antiquity, Hephthalites, Turks and others. In recent times, people of the Western world have explored the area as well. Most historians acknowledge that the origin of the Pashtuns is some
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti