Moreton Hall School
Moreton Hall is an independent boarding and day school for girls aged 6 months to 18 and boys aged 6 months to 11 years, situated in North Shropshire four miles from the historic market town of Oswestry. Founded in 1913, Moreton Hall celebrated its centenary in 2012/13. Much of the early history of the school is unrecorded, but Michael Charlesworth, chairman of the Governors for twelve years, has written the "Story of Moreton Hall" to mark the ninetieth anniversary. Ellen Augusta Crawley Lloyd-Williams was left with a family of two sons and nine daughters to care for on the death of her husband, John Jordan Lloyd-Williams, headmaster of Oswestry School, she had addressed the problem of educating her family by setting up a small school in 1913, in Lloran house, once a boarding house for Oswestry School. Among the boarders were her three youngest daughters, some of their cousins and friends. There were two boys on the rolls. Elder sisters Grace and Mary joined the teaching staff. Ellen, known universally as Aunt Lil, bought Moreton Hall in 1919.
The building was reputed to have been built in 1527 in the reign of Henry VIII and remodelled in the time of William III and Mary II. However, the historical buildings provided little comfort and the school uniform contained the djibbahs, a box pleated tunic worn for games and lessons, a full length all enveloping cloak. "Aunt Lil" died in 1940 leaving a thriving and growing school with a strong ethos of music and public speaking which survives today. She was succeeded by her daughter, Mary, a keen musician who fostered the love of music in her pupils. Mary died in 1945 at a young age and was appropriately commemorated by a bronze sculpture by Karel Vogel depicting three pupils playing musical instruments, her sister Bronwyn Lloyd-Williams had trained at the Bedford College of Physical Training and was a freelance journalist in London. She had visited Moreton Hall, choreographing dance productions, teaching lacrosse and cricket and leading rambles in the surrounding countryside, she left her career to take on the headship and continued in this role until her resignation, soon followed by her death in 1973.
This ended the "family" period of the school which continued its development as an educational trust. Roger Goolden, appointed by Bronwen Lloyd-Williams in 1963, held the position of Clerk of Works until 1993, he oversaw a significant extension of the school buildings, including a boarding block and swimming pool. The school, a charitable trust, is set in 100 acres of parkland on the beautiful Shropshire/North Wales border, four miles from the historic market town of Oswestry and an hour from Manchester Airport and Birmingham Airport, West Midlands; the school is made up of two parts: Moreton First for boys and girls aged 4–11 and the senior school for girls aged 11 and over. First Steps Nursery opened in 2007 for 1–4-year olds; the Principal is Jonathan Forster M. A. FRSA and the Head of Moreton First, C. Ford M. A. BSc, it was announced in December 2018 that George Budd has been appointed the new Principal of Moreton Hall as of September 2019. George is Deputy Head of Godolphin School in Salisbury.
Moreton Hall offers a range of subjects at both A Level. While not as selective as many fellow independent schools, it still performs well in the exam league tables. Moreton Hall has a Learning Support tuition system, available to all students at no extra charge; the purpose is to encourage pupils, whatever their educational background, to grow in self-confidence and achieve academic success at GCSE, A Level and beyond. The Midyis Value Added League Table produced by Durham University in 2010 and again in 2011 ranks Moreton Hall as the top school nationally in value added ratings; the school has a pastoral system, whereby each girl has her own personal tutor who monitors her academic and pastoral progress. There are six boarding houses, each with its own Housemistress, Assistant Housemistress and Tutor team, which includes resident tutors who assist in the running of the house. Day girls are attached to one of the boarding houses and have the option to sleep over; the Stables Junior Dorm and Years 7–8 Pilkington House for Years 9 Gem House for Years 10 Lloyd-Williams House for Year 11 Rylands House for Year 12 Charlesworth House for Year 13 Due to its semi-rural location, Moreton Hall is predominantly a boarding school.
Flexible and full boarding is available to girls aged 8 and above. Most sixth formers are full boarders. Moreton Hall has four Divisions, which are separate from the boarding house system, called Calverts, Norton and Vincents for which the pupils can earn points for work, drama, music etc. Moreton Hall has a large music department offering a wide range of musical activities to GCSE and A Level which are among the key fundamentals of the curriculum; the school has a wide range of musical groups and ensembles for all ages and abilities, music tours abroad take place every two years. Tours have included venues such as St Mark's Basilica in Venice, St. Nicholas' Church in Old Town Square and Salzburg Cathedral. Past tours have visited Boston, Barcelona, Venice and Salzburg. Lacrosse and Hockey are the principal winter sports; the school 2nd team are the current Welsh Lacrosse Association Rally champions. Hockey is played, with at least one team every year representing Shropshire at the Midland Region
Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum
Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum is the vice president and prime minister of the United Arab Emirates, ruler of the Emirate of Dubai. Since his accession in 2006, after the death of his brother Sheikh Maktoum, he has undertaken reforms in the UAE's government, starting with the UAE Federal Government Strategy in April 2007. In 2010 he launched the UAE vision 2021 with the aim of making the UAE'one of the best countries in the world' by 2021, he is responsible for the growth of Dubai into a global city, as well as the launch of a number of major enterprises including Emirates Airline, DP World, the Jumeirah Group. Many of these are held by Dubai Holding, a company with multi-diversified businesses and investments. Sheikh Mohammed has overseen the development of numerous projects in Dubai including the creation of a technology park and a free economic zone, Dubai Internet City, Dubai Media City, the Dubai International Finance Centre, the Palm Islands and the Burj Al Arab hotel, he drove the construction of Burj Khalifa, the tallest building in the world.
An equestrian, he is the founder of the Maktoum family-owned Godolphin racing stable and the owner of Darley, a thoroughbred breeding operation with operations in six countries. In 2012, he rode, he is a recognised poet in his native Arabic. He has a special relationship with Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the Crown Prince of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, the Deputy Supreme Commander of the UAE Armed Forces, is seen as the de facto leader of the UAE. Sheikh Mohammed is the third of Sheikh Rashid bin Saeed Al Maktoum's four sons, members of Dubai's ruling Al Maktoum family and descendants of the House of Al-Falasi, of which Sheikh Mohammed is the tribal leader, his mother was Sheikha Latifa bint Hamdan Al Nahyan, daughter of Sheikh Hamdan bin Zayed bin Khalifa Al Nahyan the ruler of Abu Dhabi. From the age of four, he was tutored in Arabic and Islamic Studies. In 1955, he began his formal education at Al Ahmedia School. At the age of 10, he moved to Al Shaab School, two years went to Dubai Secondary School.
In 1966, with his cousin Mohammed bin Khalifa Al Maktoum, he attended the Bell Educational Trust's English Language School in the United Kingdom. He subsequently studied at the Mons Officer Cadet School in Aldershot, passing out with the sword of honour as the top Commonwealth student, he travelled to Italy to train as a pilot. As a young man, in January 1968, he was present when Sheikh Rashid and Sheikh Zayed first met in the desert between Dubai and Abu Dhabi at Argoub El Sedira to agree to the formation of a union of emirates following British notification of intent to withdraw from the Trucial States; when the new nation of the United Arab Emirates was founded on 2 December 1971, he became its first Minister of Defence. On his return from military training to Dubai, Sheikh Mohammed's father appointed him head of the Dubai Police Force and the Dubai Defence Force, to become part of the Union Defence Force. A period of uncertainty and instability followed the Union of the United Arab Emirates, including skirmishes between tribes over property straddling new borders.
On 24 January 1972, the exiled former ruler of the Emirate of Sharjah, Saqr bin Sultan Al Qasimi led an insurrectionist coup against the ruler, Khalid bin Mohammed Al Qasimi. Following a spirited firefight between the Union Defence Force and Saqr's forces - Egyptian mercenaries who had entered the UAE through Ras Al Khaimah - Sheikh Mohammed accepted Saqr's surrender. Sheikh Khalid had been killed in the action, leading to the accession of his brother Sultan bin Muhammad Al-Qasimi as ruler of Sharjah. Mohammed delivered Saqr to Sheikh Zayed. In 1973, Sheikh Mohammed was involved in protracted negotiations with the hijackers of JAL 404, led by Japanese Red Army member Osamu Maruouka, which landed in Dubai after being hijacked as it departed Schiphol. Although unsuccessful in obtaining the release of the hostages, he was more successful in a negotiation with the three hijackers of KLM 861, who released the balance of their hostages and handed over the plane in return for safe passage. Sheikh Mohammed has been responsible for the creation and growth of a number of businesses and economic assets of Dubai, with a number held by two companies under his ownership, Dubai World and Dubai Holding.
Dubai World was launched on 2 July 2006, as a holding company consolidating a number of assets including logistics company DP World, property developer Nakheel Properties, investment company Istithmar World. With more than 50,000 employees in over 100 cities around the globe, the group has real estate and other business investments in the United States, the United Kingdom, South Africa. Dubai Holding develops and manages hospitality, business parks, real estate, telecommunications through four operating units: Jumeirah Group, TECOM Investments, Dubai Properties Group and Emirates International Telecommunications; the company's investment group operating units include Dubai International Capital. He holds a controlling interest in property developer and event management, investment company Meraas Holding, developing a number of retail and themed developments in Dubai, including Legoland and a Bollywood movie theme park. Sheikh Mohammed was responsible for the launch of Emirates Airline, as well as heading the development of both Dubai International Airport and Dubai World Central - Al Maktoum International Airport.
He was al
BBC News (TV channel)
BBC News is a British free-to-air television news channel. It was launched as BBC News 24 on 9 November 1997 at 5:30 pm as part of the BBC's foray into digital domestic television channels, becoming the first competitor to Sky News, running since 1989. For a time, looped news and weather bulletins were available to view via BBC Red Button. On 22 February 2006, the channel was named News Channel of the Year at the Royal Television Society Television Journalism Awards for the first time in its history; the judges remarked that this was the year that the channel had "really come into its own."From May 2007, viewers in the UK could watch the channel via the BBC News website. In April 2008, the channel was renamed BBC News as part of a £550,000 rebranding of the BBC's news output, complete with a new studio and presentation, its sister service, BBC World was renamed BBC World News while the national news bulletins became BBC News at One, BBC News at Six and BBC News at Ten. Across the day the channel averages about twice the audience of Sky News.
The channel broadcasts from Broadcasting House in the West End of London. In 2017, it was named the RTS News Channel of the Year BBC News 24 was available to digital terrestrial and cable television subscribers. To this day, it and BBC Parliament remain the only BBC "digital" channels which are made available to analogue cable subscribers; this coverage was improved in 1998 with the advent of digital television in the United Kingdom allowing satellite and digital terrestrial television viewers to view the service. It was difficult to obtain a digital satellite or terrestrial receiver without a subscription to Sky or ONdigital but now the channel forms an important part of the Freeview and Freesat channel packages; the BBC had run the international news channel BBC World for two and a half years prior to the launch of BBC News 24 on 9 November 1997. Sky News had had a free hand with domestic news for over eight years and being owned by News Corporation their papers were used to criticise the BBC for extending its news output.
Sky News objected to the breaking of its monopoly, complaining about the costs associated with running a channel that only a minority could view from the licence fee. Sky News claimed that a number of British cable operators had been incentivised to carry News 24 in preference to the commercial Sky News. However, in September 1999 the European Commission ruled against a complaint made by Sky News that the publicly funded channel was unfair and illegal under EU law; the Commission ruled that the licence fee should be considered state aid but that such aid was justified due to the public service remit of the BBC and that it did not exceed actual costs. The channel's journalistic output has been overseen by Controller of the channel, Kevin Bakhurst, since 16 December 2005; this was a return to having a dedicated Controller for the channel in the same way as the rest of the BBC's domestic television channels. At launch, Tim Orchard was Controller of News 24 from 1997 until 2000. Editorial decisions were overseen by Rachel Atwell in her capacity as Deputy Head of television news.
Her deputy Mark Popescu became responsible for editorial content in 2004, a role he continued in until the appointment of Bakhurst as Controller in 2005. A further announcement by Head of television news Peter Horrocks came at the same time as Bakhurst's appointment in which he outlined his plan to provide more funding and resources for the channel and shift the corporation's emphasis regarding news away from the traditional BBC One bulletins and across to the rolling news channel; the introduction of simulcasts of the main bulletins on the channel was to allow the news bulletins to pool resources rather than work against each other at key times in the face of competition from Sky News. The BBC Governors' annual report for 2005/2006 reported that average audience figures for fifteen-minute periods had reached 8.6% in multichannel homes, up from 7.8% in 2004/2005. The 2004 report claimed that the channel outperformed Sky News in both weekly and monthly reach in multichannel homes for the January 2004 period, for the first time in two years moved ahead of Sky News in being perceived as the channel best for news.
On 21 April 2008, BBC News 24 was renamed BBC News on the channel itself – but is referred to as the BBC News Channel on other BBC services. This is part of the creative futures plan, launched in 2006, to bring all BBC News output under the single brand name; the BBC News Channel moved from the Studio N8 set, which became home to BBC World News, to what was the home of the national news in Studio N6, allowing the channel to share its set with the BBC News at One and the BBC News at Ten – with other bulletins moving to Studio TC7. The channel relocated, along with the remaining BBC News services at Television Centre, to the newly refurbished Broadcasting House on 18 March 2013 at 13:00 GMT. Presentation and on-screen graphics were refreshed, with new full HD studios and a live newsroom backdrop. Moving cameras in the newsroom form part of the top of the hour title sequence and are used at the start of weather bulletins. On 16 July 2013, the BBC announced that a high-definition simulcast of BBC News would be launched by early 2014.
The channel broadcasts on the BBC's new HD multiplex on Freeview. HD output from BBC News has been simulcast on BBC One HD and BBC Two HD since the move to Broadcasting House in March 2013; the channel launched on 10 December 2013, though will roll-out nationwide up to June 2014. Each hour consists of headlines o
BBC World News
BBC World News is the BBC's international news and current affairs television channel. It has the largest audience of any channel, with an estimated 99 million viewers weekly in 2015/16, part of the estimated 265 million users of the BBC's four main international news services. Launched on 11 March 1991 as BBC World Service Television outside Europe, its name was changed to BBC World on 16 January 1995 and to BBC World News on 21 April 2008; the service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to DD India, WION, DW, France 24 and RT. It broadcasts news bulletins, lifestyle programmes and interview shows. Unlike the BBC's domestic channels, BBC World News is owned and operated by BBC Global News Ltd. part of the BBC's commercial group of companies, is funded by subscription and advertising revenues, not by the United Kingdom television licence. It is not owned by BBC Studios; the channel started as BBC World Service Television and was a commercial operation. The British government refused to fund to the new television service using grant-in-aid.
The channel started broadcasting on 11 March 1991, after two weeks of real-time pilots as a half-hour bulletin once a day at 19:00 GMT. In 1995, BBC World Service Television was split into two services: BBC World started broadcasting on Monday, 16 January 1995 at 19:00 GMT and became a 24-hour English free-to-air international news channel. BBC Prime started broadcasting on Monday, 30 January 1995 at 19:00 GMT and became the BBC's light entertainment channel renamed BBC Entertainment. BBC World's on-air design was changed on 3 April 2000, bringing it closer to the look of its sister channel in the UK, known as BBC News 24, the on-air look of, redesigned in 1999; the look of both channels was made up of red and cream and designed by Lambie-Nairn, with music based on a style described as'drums and beeps' composed by David Lowe, a departure from the general orchestral nature of music used by other news programmes. On 8 December 2003 a second makeover, using the same'drums and beeps' style music but new graphics took place, although on a much smaller scale to that of 2000.
The music was changed while the main colour scheme became black and red, with studios using frosted glass and white and red colours. In 2004, the channel's slogan became Putting News First, replacing Demand a Broader View; the channel's present name -BBC World News- was introduced on 21 April 2008 as part of a £550,000 rebranding of the BBC's overall news output and visual identity. BBC World News moved to the renovated studio vacated by BBC News 24. New graphics were produced by the Lambie-Nairn design music reworked by David Lowe. BBC World News relocated to Broadcasting House from its previous home at Television Centre on 14 January 2013; this was part of the move of BBC News and other audio and vision departments of the BBC into one building in Central London. Broadcasting House was refurbished at a cost of £1 billion. A new newsroom and several state-of-the-art studios were built. Live news output originates from studios B and C in Broadcasting House with some recorded programming from Broadcasting House studio A and the BBC Millbank studio.
The BBC World News newsroom is now part of the new consolidated BBC Newsroom in Broadcasting House along with BBC World Service and UK domestic news services. The channel was broadcast in 4:3, with the news output fitted into a 14:9 frame for both digital and analogue broadcasting, resulting in black bands at the top and bottom of the screen. On 13 January 2009 at 09:57 GMT, BBC World News switched its broadcast to 16:9 format in Europe on Astra 1L satellite, Eutelsat Hot Bird 6 satellite to other broadcast feeds in the Asian region from 20 January 2009; as a result of the move to Broadcasting House, BBC World News gained high-definition studios and equipment to be able to broadcast in high-definition. On 5 August 2013, BBC World News was offered as a High Definition feed across the Middle East when it launched its international HD channel on Arabsat. Arabsat was the BBC's first distribution partner in the Middle East to offer the channel in HD. On 1 April 2015 BBC World News in English started broadcasting in high definition from the 11.229 GHz/V transponder on Astra 1KR at the 19.2°E orbital position, available free-to-air to viewers with 60 cm dishes across Europe and coastal North Africa.
BBC World News claims to be watched by a weekly audience of 74 million in over 200 countries and territories worldwide. BBC World News is most watched as a free-to-air channel; the channel is available in many parts of the world via satellite or cable platforms. In the United States, the channel is available through providers such as Cablevision, Spectrum, Verizon FiOS, AT&T U-verse; as of 2014, U. S. distribution and advertising sales for the channel are handled by AMC Networks, who are the minority partner for the BBC's entertainment channel BBC America. In addition, BBC World News syndicates its daytime and evening news programmes to public television stations throughout the U. S. maintaining a distribution partnership with Garden City, New York-based WLIW that lasted from 1998 until October 2008, when the BBC and WLIW mutually decided not to renew the contract. BBC World News subsequently entered into an agreement with Community Television of Southern California, Inc. in which Los Angeles PBS member station KCET would take over distribution rights to BBC World News America (the KCET agreement has since been extended to encompass a half-hour simulcas
The Persian Gulf is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia. The body of water is an extension of the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz and lies between Iran to the northeast and the Arabian Peninsula to the southwest; the Shatt al-Arab river delta forms the northwest shoreline. The body of water is and internationally known as the "Persian Gulf"; some Arab governments refer to it as the "Arabian Gulf" or "The Gulf", but neither term is recognized internationally. The name "Gulf of Iran" is used by the International Hydrographic Organization; the Persian Gulf was a battlefield of the 1980–1988 Iran–Iraq War, in which each side attacked the other's oil tankers. It is the namesake of the 1991 Gulf War, the air- and land-based conflict that followed Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; the gulf has many fishing grounds, extensive reefs, abundant pearl oysters, but its ecology has been damaged by industrialization and oil spills. The Persian Gulf resides in the Persian Gulf Basin, of Cenozoic origin and related to the subduction of the Arabian Plate under the Zagros Mountains.
The current flooding of the basin started 15,000 years ago due to rising sea levels of the Holocene glacial retreat. This inland sea of some 251,000 square kilometres is connected to the Gulf of Oman in the east by the Strait of Hormuz. In Iran this is called "Arvand Rood", where "Rood" means "river", its length is 989 kilometres, with Iran covering most of the northern coast and Saudi Arabia most of the southern coast. The Persian Gulf is about 56 km wide in the Strait of Hormuz; the waters are overall shallow, with a maximum depth of 90 metres and an average depth of 50 metres. Countries with a coastline on the Persian Gulf are: Iran. Various small islands lie within the Persian Gulf, some of which are the subject of territorial disputes between the states of the region; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Persian Gulf's southern limit as "The Northwestern limit of Gulf of Oman". This limit is defined as "A line joining Ràs Limah on the coast of Arabia and Ràs al Kuh on the coast of Iran".
The gulf is connected to Indian Ocean through Strait of Hormuz. Writing the water balance budget for the Persian Gulf, the inputs are river discharges from Iran and Iraq, as well as precipitation over the sea, around 180mm/year in Qeshm Island; the evaporation of the sea is high, so that after considering river discharge and rain contributions, there is still a deficit of 416 cubic kilometers per year. This difference is supplied by currents at the Strait of Hormuz; the water from the Gulf has a higher salinity, therefore exits from the bottom of the Strait, while ocean water with less salinity flows in through the top. Another study revealed the following numbers for water exchanges for the Gulf: evaporation = -1.84m/year, precipitation = 0.08m/year, inflow from the Strait = 33.66m/year, outflow from the Strait = -32.11m/year, the balance is 0m/year. Data from different 3D computational fluid mechanics models with spatial resolution of 3 kilometers and depth each element equal to 1–10 meters are predominantly used in computer models.
The Persian Gulf and its coastal areas are the world's largest single source of crude oil, related industries dominate the region. Safaniya Oil Field, the world's largest offshore oilfield, is located in the Persian Gulf. Large gas finds have been made, with Qatar and Iran sharing a giant field across the territorial median line. Using this gas, Qatar has built up a substantial liquefied natural petrochemical industry. In 2002, the Persian Gulf nations of Bahrain, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the UAE produced about 25% of the world's oil, held nearly two-thirds of the world's crude oil reserves, about 35% of the world's natural gas reserves; the oil-rich countries that have a coastline on the Persian Gulf are referred to as the Persian Gulf States. Iraq's egress to the gulf is narrow and blockaded consisting of the marshy river delta of the Shatt al-Arab, which carries the waters of the Euphrates and the Tigris rivers, where the east bank is held by Iran. In 550 BC, the Achaemenid Empire established the first ancient empire in Persis, in the southwestern region of the Iranian plateau.
In the Greek sources, the body of water that bordered this province came to be known as the "Persian Gulf". During the years 550 to 330 BC, coinciding with the sovereignty of the Achaemenid Persian Empire over the Middle East area the whole part of the Persian Gulf and some parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the name of "Pars Sea" is found in the compiled written texts. In the travel account of Pythagoras, several chapters are related to description of his travels accompanied by the Achaemenid king Darius the Great, to Susa and Persepolis, the area is described. From among the writings of others in the same period, there is the inscription and engraving of Darius the Great, installed at junction of waters of Red Sea and the Nile river and the Rome river which belongs to t
Abdullah II of Jordan
Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein has been King of Jordan since 1999. He belongs to the Hashemite family, who have ruled Jordan since 1921 and claim agnatic descent from Muhammad's daughter Fatimah. Abdullah was born in Amman as the first child of King Hussein and his second wife, British-born Princess Muna; as the King's eldest son, Abdullah was heir apparent until Hussein transferred the title to Abdullah's uncle, Prince Hassan, in 1965. Abdullah began his schooling in Amman, continuing his education abroad, he began his military career in 1980 as a training officer in the Jordanian Armed Forces assuming command of the country's Special Forces in 1994, he became a major general in 1998. In 1993 Abdullah married Rania Al-Yassin, they have four children: Crown Prince Hussein, Princess Iman, Princess Salma and Prince Hashem. A few weeks before his death in 1999, Hussein named Abdullah his heir, Abdullah succeeded his father. Abdullah, a constitutional monarch, liberalized the economy when he assumed the throne, his reforms led to an economic boom which continued until 2008.
During the following years Jordan's economy experienced hardship as it dealt with the effects of the Great Recession and spillover from the Arab Spring, including a cut in its petroleum supply and the collapse of trade with neighboring countries. In 2011, large-scale protests demanding reform erupted in the Arab world. Many of the protests led to civil wars in other countries, but Abdullah responded to domestic unrest by replacing the government and introducing reforms to the constitution and laws governing public freedoms and elections. Proportional representation was reintroduced to the Jordanian parliament in the 2016 general election, a move which he said would lead to establishing parliamentary governments; the reforms took place amid unprecedented challenges stemming from regional instability, including an influx of 1.4 million Syrian refugees into the natural resources-lacking country and the emergence of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. Abdullah is popular locally and internationally for maintaining Jordanian stability, is known for promoting interfaith dialogue and a moderate understanding of Islam.
The third-longest-serving Arab leader, he was regarded by the Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Center as the most influential Muslim in the world in 2016. Abdullah is custodian of the Muslim and Christian sacred sites in Jerusalem, a position held by his dynasty since 1924. Abdullah was born on 30 January 1962 in Amman, to King Hussein and Hussein's British-born second wife, Princess Muna, he is the namesake of his great-grandfather, Abdullah I, who founded modern Jordan. Abdullah's dynasty, the Hashemites, ruled Mecca for over 700 years—from the 10th century until the House of Saud conquered Mecca in 1925—and have ruled Jordan since 1921; the Hashemites are the oldest ruling dynasty in the Muslim world. According to family tradition, Abdullah is the 41st-generation agnatic descendant of Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and her husband, the fourth Rashidun caliph; as Hussein's eldest son, Abdullah became heir apparent to the Jordanian throne under the 1952 constitution. Due to political instability, King Hussein thought it wise to appoint an adult heir instead, choosing Abdullah's uncle Prince Hassan in 1965.
Abdullah began his schooling in 1966 at the Islamic Educational College in Amman, continued at St Edmund's School in England. He attended high school at Eaglebrook School and Deerfield Academy in the United States of America. Abdullah has four brothers and six sisters: Princess Alia Prince Faisal Princess Aisha Princess Zein Princess Haya Prince Ali Prince Hamza Prince Hashem Princess Iman Princess Raiyah—seven of them paternal half-siblings, he began his military career at Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in 1980, while he was a training officer in the Jordanian Armed Forces. After Sandhurst, Abdullah was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the British Army and served a year in Britain and West Germany as a troop commander in the 13th/18th Royal Hussars. Abdullah was admitted to Pembroke College, Oxford, in 1982, where he completed a one-year special-studies course in Middle Eastern affairs, he joined the Royal Jordanian Army on his return home, serving as first lieutenant and as platoon commander and assistant commander of a company in the 40th Armored Brigade.
Abdullah took a free-fall parachuting course in Jordan, in 1985 he took the Armored Officer's Advanced Course at Fort Knox. He became commander of a tank company in the 91st Armored Brigade, with the rank of captain. Abdullah served with the Royal Jordanian Air Force's anti-tank helicopter wing, where he was trained to fly Cobra attack helicopters; the prince attended the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University in Washington, D. C. in 1987, undertaking advanced study and research in international affairs. He returned home to serve as assistant commander of the 17th Royal Tank Battalion in 1989 being promoted to major. Abdullah attended a staff course at the British Staff College in 1990, served the following year in the Office of the Inspector General of the Jordanian Armed Forces as the Armored Corps representative, he commanded a battalion in the 2nd Armored Cavalry Regiment in 1992 and was promoted to colonel the following year, commanding the 40th Brigade. Abdullah met Rania Al-Yassin, a marketing employee at Apple Inc. in Amman, at a dinner organized by his sister Princess Aisha in January 1993.
They were engaged two months and the marriage was celebrated in June. In 1994 Abdullah assumed command of Jordan's Special Forces and other elite units as brigadier general, restructuring them into the Joint Spec
Helmsdale is a village on the east coast of Sutherland, in the Highland council area of Scotland. The modern village was planned in 1814 to resettle communities, removed from the surrounding straths as part of the Highland Clearances. Helmsdale is a fishing port at the estuary of the River Helmsdale, was once the home of one of the largest herring fleets in Europe; the river itself is well known for its fishing. West Helmsdale lies across the river from the main village above the railway station; the village is on the A9 road, at a junction with the A897, has a railway station on the Far North Line. Buses operate about every two hours from Monday to Saturday and infrequently on Sundays from Helmsdale to Brora, Dornoch and Inverness in the south and Berriedale, Halkirk and Scrabster in the north; these are on route X99 and are operated by Stagecoach in the Highlands, but tickets can be bought on the Citylink website. Facilities in Helmsdale include an independent youth hostel, a heritage centre, an art gallery, an inn.
Helmsdale river is noted by Ptolemy as Ila. The Gaelic name for the village, Bun Ilidh, means Ilie-foot. Norse settlers called the strath Hjalmundal, meaning Dale of the Helmet, from which the modern village name Helmsdale is derived. Helmsdale is famous for its Highland Games. Best known is the evening Marquee Dance when the village population of 700 more than doubles thanks to visitors attending the dance. Helmsdale is home to Bunillidh Thistle F. C. and Helmsdale United. Helmsdale Castle, the remains of which were demolished in the 1970s in order to build the new A9 road bridge, was the location of the murder of the 11th Earl of Sutherland in 1567; the Earl and his Countess Marie Seton were poisoned by Isobel Sinclair. The previous bridge, which still stands, was designed by Thomas Telford and completed in 1811; the last force-fire in Helmsdale was in about 1818. Two tributaries of the river were the scene of a gold rush in 1869; the history of Kildonan's gold started in 1818, when a single nugget of gold was found near the Suisgill and Kildonan burns.
Late in 1868, a brief announcement in a local newspaper stated that gold had been discovered at Kildonan in the county of Sutherland. The credit for the discovery goes to Robert Nelson Gilchrist, a native of Kildonan, who had spent 17 years in the goldfields of Australia. On his return home, the Duke of Sutherland gave him permission to pan the gravels of the Helmsdale River, he prospected all the burns and tributaries. During World War II, the Royal Air Force built Loth Chain Home radar station at Crakaig, a few miles south-west of Helmsdale. There was an RAF Chain Home Low radar station at Navidale, about a mile north-east of Helmsdale. During the Cold War there was a Composite Signals Organisation radio monitoring station in Helmsdale itself; the CSO is associated with GCHQ. On 3 August 2008, the Highlands and Islands Council announced plans to modernise and catalyse industry in Helmsdale and its surrounding areas; this included a £3.5 million revamp of the harbour and the development of two battery processing factories.
Work on the harbour was set to begin in spring 2009, while the battery plants were expected to open before May 2009. It was hoped up to 50 new jobs. Professor Andrew Rutherford CBE, Vice-Chancellor of the University of London from 1994 to 1997. David Mackay, Chief Pilot of Virgin Galactic, a former test pilot. Became the 569th person to enter space and the first Scots-born astronaut. Badbea clearance village Helmsdale Community Website grid reference ND025155 Berriedale ● Dunbeath ● Wick ● Gills Bay & Inverness ● Dornoch ● Golspie ● Brora ● Dunbeath ● Thurso Timetable at stagecoachbus.com