Sargodha is the 12th largest city in Pakistan. It is an administrative centre of Sargodha Division located in the Punjab province and one of the fastest growing cities in Pakistan. Sargodha was established by the British as a canal-colony in 1903, was spelt Sargoda. Sargodha was badly affected by an outbreak of the plague in 1903, experienced a milder outbreak in 1904. Although it was a small town in the beginning, the British Royal Air Force built an airport here due to its strategic location. Sargodha is located 172 kilometres northwest in Sargodha District, it lies about 30 miles from the M-2 motorway, which connects Islamabad. It is connected to the M-2 by several interchanges at different locations. Sargodha is 94 km from Faisalabad, due southeast. Directly east connected by the M-2 motorway are Lahore and the route to Rawalpindi and Islamabad. Due east is the city of Jhang. Dera Ismail Khan is located 232 km southwest from the city. Sargodha comprises flat, fertile plains, although here are a few small hills on the Sargodha-Faisalabad Road.
The River Jhelum flows on the western and northern sides, the River Chenab lies on the eastern side of the city. The city is located 190 metres above sea level; the city has a climate of extreme heat in the summers and moderate cold in the winters. The maximum temperature reaches 50 °C in the summer while the minimum temperature recorded is as low as freezing point in the winter. Total population of the city was 458,440 according to the 1998 census; the majority of the people in the city speak Punjabi. Sargodha is the capital of Sargodha Tehsil; as of October 2012, the division system in Punjab Province has been restored and Sargodha became the divisional headquarters of districts Sargodha, Khushab and Bhakkar. The city of Sargodha is administratively subdivided into 22 union councils. University of Sargodha University College of Agriculture University of Lahore, Sargodha Campus Sargodha Medical College Airbase Inter College Army Public College, Sargodha Cornelius Law College Logix College Quaid-e-Azam Law College Sargodha Institute of Health Sciences Sargodha Institute of Technology The Superior College Sargodha Reader college Sargodha Acme College of Excellence Sargodha Punjab College of Science Divisional Public College Sanai School System Divisional Public School, Sargodha Beaconhouse School System Dar-e-Arqam Schools PAF Public School Presentation Convent High School Army Public School, Sargodha Lasani Grammar High School Government Junior Model Secondary School Air Base Inter School Progressive Public School, Sargodha The Right School Sargodha Sargodha lies about 30 miles from the M-2 motorway which connects Lahore and Islamabad.
It is connected to Faisalabad by a highway. Daewoo Bus Service drives regular routes from Sargodha to the rest of the country. Sargodha is connected by the rest of the country through the rail. Sargodha Junction railway station is located on Shorkot-Lala Musa branch railway line. Sargodha is home to the Sargodha Cricket Stadium. Sargodha cricket team were a first-class cricket team that represented Sargodha Division in Punjab Province in Pakistan, they competed in Pakistan's first-class tournaments between 1961-62 and 2002-03. Mela Mandi Ground is a multi-use historic stadium in Sargodha, Pakistan, it is used for cricket and football. The Mela Mandi Ground was constructed to provide a vast ground for outdoor activities. During March every year, the country’s spring season, several competitions are held here. All Pakistani people join these annual games. Pakistan's largest airbase, PAF Base Mushaf, is situated in Sargodha and hosts the headquarters of the Pakistan Air Force's Central Air Command; the airbase is home to the Combat Commanders School the Fighter Leader's School.
The Kirana Hills is a extensive rocky mountain range located in Sargodha. It is a place of tourist attraction in Sargodha City. Jinnah Hall is a historical point of interest in Sargodha. Jinnah Hall was built in 1972, it was named for the Founder of Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Ali Haider Noor Khan Niazi, politician Feroz Khan Noon, former Prime Minister Pakistan Anwer Ali Noon, former Parliamentarian of Pakistan and army Officer Amjad Ali Noon, former Ambassador/High Commissioner of Pakistan Imtiaz Bhatti, former Ambassador / High Commissioner of Pakistan Wazir Agha, Urdu Scholar Hameed Gul, former ISI Chief Ch. Anwar Ali Cheema, politician, PML-Q Ch. Ghias Mela, politician, PML-Q Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Amir Jama'at-ud-Da'wah Mohammad Hafeez, cricketer Aizaz Cheema, cricketer Rafiq Anjum, actor Jahanzeb Qamar, television writer
Pakistan the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, China in the far northeast, it is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, shares a maritime border with Oman. The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent; the ancient history involves the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation, was home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including Hindus, Indo-Greeks, Turco-Mongols and Sikhs. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander III of Macedon, the Seleucid Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, the Gupta Empire, the Arab Umayyad Caliphate, the Delhi Sultanate, the Mongol Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Afghan Durrani Empire, the Sikh Empire and, most the British Empire.
Pakistan is the only country to have been created in the name of Islam. It is an ethnically and linguistically diverse country, with a diverse geography and wildlife. A dominion, Pakistan adopted a constitution in 1956, becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in 1971 resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh. In 1973, Pakistan adopted a new constitution which stipulated that all laws are to conform to the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah. A regional and middle power, Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status. Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector, it is ranked among the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, is backed by one of the world's largest and fastest-growing middle class.
Pakistan's political history since independence has been characterized by periods of military rule, political instability and conflicts with India. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation, poverty and corruption. Pakistan is a member of the UN, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the OIC, the Commonwealth of Nations, the SAARC and the Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition; the name Pakistan means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. It alludes to the word pāk meaning pure in Pashto; the suffix ـستان is a Persian word meaning the place of, recalls the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान. The name of the country was coined in 1933 as Pakstan by Choudhry Rahmat Ali, a Pakistan Movement activist, who published it in his pamphlet Now or Never, using it as an acronym referring to the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Kashmir and Baluchistan; the letter i was incorporated to ease pronunciation. Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan.
The earliest known inhabitants in the region were Soanian during the Lower Paleolithic, of whom stone tools have been found in the Soan Valley of Punjab. The Indus region, which covers most of present day Pakistan, was the site of several successive ancient cultures including the Neolithic Mehrgarh and the Bronze Age Indus Valley Civilisation at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; the Vedic period was characterised by an Indo-Aryan culture. Multan was an important Hindu pilgrimage centre; the Vedic civilisation flourished in the ancient Gandhāran city of Takṣaśilā, now Taxila in the Punjab, founded around 1000 BCE. Successive ancient empires and kingdoms ruled the region: the Persian Achaemenid Empire, Alexander the Great's empire in 326 BCE and the Maurya Empire, founded by Chandragupta Maurya and extended by Ashoka the Great, until 185 BCE; the Indo-Greek Kingdom founded by Demetrius of Bactria included Gandhara and Punjab and reached its greatest extent under Menander, prospering the Greco-Buddhist culture in the region.
Taxila had one of the earliest universities and centres of higher education in the world, established during the late Vedic period in 6th century BCE. The school consisted of several monasteries without large dormitories or lecture halls where the religious instruction was provided on an individualistic basis; the ancient university was documented by the invading forces of Alexander the Great, "the like of which had not been seen in Greece," and was recorded by Chinese pilgrims in the 4th or 5th century CE. At its zenith, the Rai Dynasty of Sindh ruled the surrounding territories; the Pala Dynasty was the last Buddhist empire, under Dharmapala and Devapala, stretched across South Asia from what is now Bangladesh through Northern India to Pakistan. The Arab conqueror Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh in 711 CE; the Pakistan government's official chronol
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
The Jhelum River is a river in Northern India and Eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of the Punjab region, passes through the Kashmir Valley, it has a total length of about 725 kilometres. Anjum Sultan Shahbaz recorded some stories of the name Jhelum in his book Tareekh-e-Jhelum as: Many writers have different opinions about the name of Jhelum. One suggestion is; the word Jhelum is derived from the words Jal and Ham. The name thus refers to the waters of a river. However, some writers believe that when "Dara-e-Azam" reached a certain place on the river bank after winning many battles, he fixed his flag at that place and called it "Ja-e-Alam" which means "Place of the Flag". With the passage of time it became Jhelum from "Ja-e-Alam"; the Sanskrit name of this river is Vitasta. The river's name is derived from an apocryphal legend regarding the origin of the river as explained in Nilamata Purana. Goddess Parvati was requested by sage Kasyapa to come to Kashmir for purification of the land from evil practices and impurities of Pisachas living there.
Goddess Parvati assumed the form of a river in the Nether World. Lord Shiva made a stroke with his spear near the abode of Nila. By that stroke of the spear, Goddess Parvati came out of the Nether World. Shiva himself named her as Vitasta, he had excavated with the spear a ditch measuring one Vitasti, through which the river - gone to the Nether World - had come out, so she was given the name Vitasta by him. The river Jhelum is called Vitastā in the Hydaspes by the ancient Greeks; the Vitastā is mentioned as one of the major rivers by the holy scriptures — the Rigveda. It has been speculated that the Vitastā must have been one of the seven rivers mentioned so many times in the Rigveda; the name survives in the Kashmiri name for this river as Vyeth. According to the major religious work Srimad Bhagavatam, the Vitastā is one of the many transcendental rivers flowing through land of Bharata, or ancient India. Alexander the Great and his army crossed the Jhelum in BC 326 at the Battle of the Hydaspes River where he defeated the Indian king, Porus.
According to Arrian, he built a city "on the spot whence he started to cross the river Hydaspes", which he named Bukephala to honour his famous horse Bukephalus or Bucephalus, buried in Jalalpur Sharif. It is thought. According to a historian of Gujrat district, Mansoor Behzad Butt, Bukephalus was buried in Jalalpur Sharif, but the people of Mandi Bahauddin, a district close to Jehlum, believed that their tehsil Phalia was named after Bucephalus, Alexander's dead horse, they say. The waters of the Jhelum are allocated to Pakistan under the terms of the Indus Waters Treaty. India is working on a hydropower project on a tributary of Jhelum river to establish first-use rights on the river water over Pakistan as per the Indus Waters Treaty; the river was regarded as a god by the ancient Greeks, as streams. He was the brother of Iris, the goddess of the rainbow, half-brother to the Harpies, the snatching winds. Since the river is in a country foreign to the ancient Greeks, it is not clear whether they named the river after the god, or whether the god Hydaspes was named after the river.
The river Jhelum rises from Verinag Spring situated at the foot of the Pir Panjal in the south-eastern part of the valley of Kashmir. It's joined by its tributaries Lidder River at Mirgund Khannabal and Sind River at Shadipora in Kashmir Valley, it flows through the Wular lake before entering Pakistan through a deep narrow gorge. The Neelum River, the largest tributary of the Jhelum, joins it, at Domel Muzaffarabad, as does the next largest, the Kunhar River of the Kaghan valley, it connects with rest of Pakistan and Pakistani Kashmir on Kohala Bridge east of Circle Bakote. It is joined by the Poonch river, flows into the Mangla Dam reservoir in the district of Mirpur; the Jhelum enters the Punjab in the Jhelum District. From there, it flows through the plains of Pakistan's Punjab, forming the boundary between the Chaj and Sindh Sagar Doabs, it ends in a confluence with the Chenab at Trimmu in District Jhang. The Chenab merges with the Sutlej to form the Panjnad River which joins the Indus River at Mithankot.
The river has rich power generation potential in India. Water control structures are being built as a result of the Indus Basin Project, including the following: Mangla Dam, completed in 1967, is one of the largest earthfill dams in the world, with a storage capacity of 5,900,000 acre feet Rasul Barrage, constructed in 1967, has a maximum flow of 850,000 ft³/s. Trimmu Barrage, constructed in 1939 some 20 km from Jhang Sadar at the confluence with the Chenab, has maximum discharge capacity of 645,000 ft³/s. Haranpur Constructed in 1933 Approximate 5 km from Malakwal near Chak Nizam Village, its length is 1 km used by Pakistan Railways but there is a passage for light vehicles, motorcyc
Chak No.129 N. B. known as Unatti Moar is a village of Tehsil Sillan-wali located at Sillanwali-Farooka Road on the western bank of Lower Jehulm Canal in Sargodha District, Pakistan. It is headquarters of the Union Council No. 120, comprising Chak No's. 125, 126, 127, 128 and 129 N۔B. It is accessible from major cities i.e. Sargodha, Faislabad and Sahiwal via Sargodha Road, Farooka Road, Barana Road,Shah Nikder Road and a railway track; the railway track was laid down by British Government in 1904. According to elders, before colonial settlement, there was a pond in its western side where a Hindu Yogi lived due to which the village was called Saadh wala; the people from far flung area came with their cattle to the pond for drinking water. The Chak was established by the British Government of India after completion of northern branch of Lower Jehlum Canal in 1901 under 1st Colonization Officer of Sargodha Mr. Malcolm Hailey. So it was one of many villages settled in British Colony of Lower Jehlum Canal Sargodha.
It was part of Tehsil and District Shahpur. Major population consists of the settlers from Rawalpindi and Chakwal who were rewarded agriculture land in turn of their services rendered for the British Army; as they got monthly pension for their service so were called "Pensioners" in local language. The second major portion came from Indian Punjab. Most of them were Raajput by caste and were allotted houses of the Hindus who resided here before partition, The last settlement was made for affected families of Mangla Dam around 1970 and therefore called Mangla Demis. Most of Baloch families migrated from the inundated area of River Jehlum who timely were displaced due to flood but afterwards became permanent residents. Remaining population is mix up of different castes. Comparatively a well developed village, it has its own Govt. Girls High School, Union Council office and a Livestock dispensary, five mosques, one private hospital and two private schools. About 35 km away from Sargodha city southward and 3 km from its Tehsil headquarters Sillanwali, the village occupies a central place by joining Faruka Road, Lalian Road, Sillanwali Road, Jhang Road and Sargodha Road.
It is surrounded by Chak 125 NB in north west and Chak 127 NB in north, Sillanwali city in north east, Chak 130 NB in east, Chak 144/145 NB in south west and Chak 128 NB in west. According to Census 2017, its population is 3612. Major clans are Rajput, Mirza, Mangla Daimi, Khokhar, Arain, [.pathan samar khan )) Majority of people living in this village are farmers who own their land, but as times change, these people have been progressively going into business. The village is still agricultural, its major crops are wheat, sugar cane, barley, oats and citrus etc. The northern branch of Lower Jhelum Canal, provides better irrigation to the village; the village contains fertile land and is surrounded by lush green beautiful citrus orchards and agricultural farms. The area consists of all major wildlife such as Jackal, Porcupine, wild boar, wild hare, wild cats, crows, multiple sparrows, wood woody pecker, Teetri, lizards, tortoise, toad etc; the green parrots, white necked vultures and Neel Kanth are getting extinct day by day.
The people breed cows, horses, goats, ducks, hens and dogs as pets. There are Multiple species of shrubs and weeds such as Kashmiri Keekar, Kari, Aak, Berry, popler, wild dates and sufaida trees around the village either self-grown or planted by Forest Department along Lower Jehlum Canal and Railway Track. Local farmers grow a large number of ornamental and fruit trees and vegetables i.e. Kinno,Jaman, Lemon and pomegranate etc; the local persons have contributed well in the military and social service sector. Major personalities consist of former Headmaster of local Govt. Primary School who improved the structure of the school in 70's and turned it into a source of quality education, his students are serving the Civil Services of Pakistan. One of his students Mr. Haji Ahmad Naeem is now Executive Director in Punjab Government, he got Silver Medal in Matric exams from Sargodha Board and Gold Medal from Punjab University Lahore in MA. Mr. Naeem has got opportunity to represent Punjab at global events organized by international organizations such as UNESCO.
Former Headmaster Mriz Muhammad Ashraf's son M. Hafeez Anjum was the first who got degree of Civil Engineering, now serving in the USA. Malik Muhammad Afzal Awan, former Chairman & Nazim of the local Union Council has played a remarkable role in development of the village, he has honor to establish and run Madrasah and mosques for Quran education. Shaheed Khizar Hayat Khan lit the name of his village by embracing martyrdom while serving the Pak Army
Kot Momin, is a town and Tehsil headquarters in Sargodha district. Punjab, Pakistan. On June 21, 2003, chief minister of Punjab, Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi announced it as a Tehsil. Nawaz Sharif visited kot momin for the first time in 2010. Kot Momin is 40 Km away from Sargodha city; this place is most famous for citrus fruit and therefore is known as “The City Of Citrus". Major clans include Haral, Garra, Arain, Ranjha, Sindhu, Sheikh etc. After that day it is recognized as Kot Momin Tehsil of Sargodha district. Kot Momin is situated among various historical cities. Population is 70,000 being Muslim and Punjabi speaking. A few Christian population lives there. Kot Momin is 40 km away from Sargodha; this place is most famous for citrus fruit Kinno and therefore is known as"The City Of Citrus". It is linked with Islamabad by M2 motorway. There are some famous buildings in Kot Momin that symbolize the distinction of the city; these places include THQ Civil Hospital, Police Station, MC Building, Motorway Interchanges
The British Raj was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent from 1858 to 1947. The rule is called Crown rule in India, or direct rule in India; the region under British control was called British India or India in contemporaneous usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom, which were collectively called British India, those ruled by indigenous rulers, but under British tutelage or paramountcy, called the princely states. The whole was informally called the Indian Empire; as India, it was a founding member of the League of Nations, a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, 1936, a founding member of the United Nations in San Francisco in 1945. This system of governance was instituted on 28 June 1858, after the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria, it lasted until 1947, when it was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states: the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan.
At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was a part of British India. The British Raj extended over all present-day India and Bangladesh, except for small holdings by other European nations such as Goa and Pondicherry; this area is diverse, containing the Himalayan mountains, fertile floodplains, the Indo-Gangetic Plain, a long coastline, tropical dry forests, arid uplands, the Thar Desert. In addition, at various times, it included Aden, Lower Burma, Upper Burma, British Somaliland, Singapore. Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from 1937 until its independence in 1948; the Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until 1947 and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Among other countries in the region, Ceylon was ceded to Britain in 1802 under the Treaty of Amiens. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between 1793 and 1798.
The kingdoms of Nepal and Bhutan, having fought wars with the British, subsequently signed treaties with them and were recognised by the British as independent states. The Kingdom of Sikkim was established as a princely state after the Anglo-Sikkimese Treaty of 1861; the Maldive Islands were a British protectorate from 1887 to 1965, but not part of British India. India during the British Raj was made up of two types of territory: British India and the Native States. In its Interpretation Act 1889, the British Parliament adopted the following definitions in Section 18: The expression "British India" shall mean all territories and places within Her Majesty's dominions which are for the time being governed by Her Majesty through the Governor-General of India or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India; the expression "India" shall mean British India together with any territories of any native prince or chief under the suzerainty of Her Majesty exercised through the Governor-General of India, or through any governor or other officer subordinates to the Governor-General of India.
In general, the term "British India" had been used to refer to the regions under the rule of the British East India Company in India from 1600 to 1858. The term has been used to refer to the "British in India"; the terms "Indian Empire" and "Empire of India" were not used in legislation. The monarch was known as Empress or Emperor of India and the term was used in Queen Victoria's Queen's Speeches and Prorogation Speeches; the passports issued by the British Indian government had the words "Indian Empire" on the cover and "Empire of India" on the inside. In addition, an order of knighthood, the Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire, was set up in 1878. Suzerainty over 175 princely states, some of the largest and most important, was exercised by the central government of British India under the Viceroy. A clear distinction between "dominion" and "suzerainty" was supplied by the jurisdiction of the courts of law: the law of British India rested upon the laws passed by the British Parliament and the legislative powers those laws vested in the various governments of British India, both central and local.
At the turn of the 20th century, British India consisted of eight provinces that were administered either by a governor or a lieutenant-governor. During the partition of Bengal, the new provinces of Assam and East Bengal were created as a Lieutenant-Governorship. In 1911, East Bengal was reunited with Bengal, the new provinces in the east becam