AOL is an American web portal and online service provider based in New York City. It is a brand marketed by Verizon Media; the service traces its history to an online service known as PlayNET, which hosted multi-player games for the Commodore 64. PlayNET licensed their software to a new service, Quantum Link, who went online in November 1985. PlayNET shut down shortly thereafter; the initial Q-Link service was similar to the original PlayNET, but over time Q-Link added many new services. When a new IBM PC client was released, the company focussed on the non-gaming services and launched it under the name America Online; the original Q-Link was shut down on November 1, 1995, while AOL grew to become the largest online service, displacing established players like CompuServe and The Source. By 1995, AOL had about 20 million active users. AOL was one of the early pioneers of the Internet in the mid-1990s, the most recognized brand on the web in the United States, it provided a dial-up service to millions of Americans, as well as providing a web portal, e-mail, instant messaging and a web browser following its purchase of Netscape.
In 2001, at the height of its popularity, it purchased the media conglomerate Time Warner in the largest merger in U. S. history. AOL declined thereafter due to the decline of dial-up and rise of broadband. AOL was spun off from Time Warner in 2009, with Tim Armstrong appointed the new CEO. Under his leadership, the company invested in media brands and advertising technologies. On June 23, 2015, AOL was acquired by Verizon Communications for $4.4 billion. In the following months, AOL made a deal with Microsoft. AOL began in 1983, as a short-lived venture called Control Video Corporation, founded by William von Meister, its sole product was an online service called GameLine for the Atari 2600 video game console, after von Meister's idea of buying music on demand was rejected by Warner Bros. Subscribers paid a one-time US$15 setup fee. GameLine permitted subscribers to temporarily download games and keep track of high scores, at a cost of US$1 per game; the telephone disconnected and the downloaded game would remain in GameLine's Master Module and playable until the user turned off the console or downloaded another game.
In January 1983, Steve Case was hired as a marketing consultant for Control Video on the recommendation of his brother, investment banker Dan Case. In May 1983, Jim Kimsey became a manufacturing consultant for Control Video, near bankruptcy. Kimsey was brought in by his West Point friend Frank Caufield, an investor in the company. In early 1985, von Meister left the company. On May 24, 1985, Quantum Computer Services, an online services company, was founded by Jim Kimsey from the remnants of Control Video, with Kimsey as Chief Executive Officer, Marc Seriff as Chief Technology Officer; the technical team consisted of Marc Seriff, Tom Ralston, Ray Heinrich, Steve Trus, Ken Huntsman, Janet Hunter, Dave Brown, Craig Dykstra, Doug Coward, Mike Ficco. In 1987, Case was promoted again to executive vice-president. Kimsey soon began to groom Case to take over the role of CEO, which he did when Kimsey retired in 1991. Kimsey changed the company's strategy, in 1985, launched a dedicated online service for Commodore 64 and 128 computers called Quantum Link.
The Quantum Link software was based on software licensed from Inc.. The service was different from other online services as it used the computing power of the Commodore 64 and the Apple II rather than just a "dumb" terminal, it provided a fixed price service tailored for home users. In May 1988, Quantum and Apple launched AppleLink Personal Edition for Apple II and Macintosh computers. In August 1988, Quantum launched PC Link, a service for IBM-compatible PCs developed in a joint venture with the Tandy Corporation. After the company parted ways with Apple in October 1989, Quantum changed the service's name to America Online. Case promoted and sold AOL as the online service for people unfamiliar with computers, in contrast to CompuServe, well established in the technical community. From the beginning, AOL included online games in its mix of products. In the early years of AOL the company introduced many innovative online interactive titles and games, including: Graphical chat environments Habitat and Club Caribe from LucasArts.
The first online interactive fiction series QuantumLink Serial by Tracy Reed. Quantum Space, the first automated play-by-mail game. In February 1991, AOL for DOS was launched using a GeoWorks interface followed a year by AOL for Windows; this coincided with growth in pay-based online services, like Prodigy, CompuServe, GEnie. 1991 saw the introduction of an original Dungeons & Dragons title called Neverwinter Nights from Stormfront Studios. During the early 1990s, the average subscription lasted for about 25 months and accounted for $350 in total revenue. Advertisements invited modem owners to "Try America Online FREE", promising free software and trial membership. AOL discontinued Q-Link and PC Link in late 1994. In September 1993, AOL added Usenet access to its features; this is referred to as the "Eternal September", as Usenet's cycle of new users was dominated by smaller numbers of college and university freshmen gaining access in September
The bass guitar is a plucked string instrument similar in appearance and construction to an electric guitar, except with a longer neck and scale length, four to six strings or courses. The four-string bass is tuned the same as the double bass, which corresponds to pitches one octave lower than the four lowest-pitched strings of a guitar, it is played with the fingers or thumb, or striking with a pick. The electric bass guitar has pickups and must be connected to an amplifier and speaker to be loud enough to compete with other instruments. Since the 1960s, the bass guitar has replaced the double bass in popular music as the bass instrument in the rhythm section. While types of basslines vary from one style of music to another, the bassist plays a similar role: anchoring the harmonic framework and establishing the beat. Many styles of music include the bass guitar, it is a soloing instrument. According to the New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, an "Electric bass guitar a Guitar with four heavy strings tuned E1'-A1'-D2-G2."
It defines bass as "Bass. A contraction of Double bass or Electric bass guitar." According to some authors the proper term is "electric bass". Common names for the instrument are "bass guitar", "electric bass guitar", "electric bass" and some authors claim that they are accurate; the bass guitar is a transposing instrument, as it is notated in bass clef an octave higher than it sounds. In the 1930s, musician and inventor Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, developed the first electric bass guitar in its modern form, a fretted instrument designed to be played horizontally; the 1935 sales catalog for Tutmarc's electronic musical instrument company, featured his "Model 736 Bass Fiddle", a four-stringed, solid-bodied, fretted electric bass guitar with a 30 1⁄2-inch scale length, a single pick up. The adoption of a guitar's body shape made the instrument easier to hold and transport than any of the existing stringed bass instruments; the addition of frets enabled bassists to play in tune more than on fretless acoustic or electric upright basses.
Around 100 of these instruments were made during this period. Audiovox sold their “Model 236” bass amplifier. Around 1947, Tutmarc's son, began marketing a similar bass under the Serenader brand name, prominently advertised in the nationally distributed L. D. Heater Music Company wholesale jobber catalogue of 1948. However, the Tutmarc family inventions did not achieve market success. In the 1950s, Leo Fender and George Fullerton developed the first mass-produced electric bass guitar; the Fender Electric Instrument Manufacturing Company began producing the Precision Bass in October 1951. The "P-bass" evolved from a simple, un-contoured "slab" body design and a single coil pickup similar to that of a Telecaster, to something more like a Fender Stratocaster, with a contoured body design, edges beveled for comfort, a split single coil pickup; the "Fender Bass" was a revolutionary new instrument for gigging musicians. In comparison with the large, heavy upright bass, the main bass instrument in popular music from the early 1900s to the 1940s, the bass guitar could be transported to shows.
When amplified, the bass guitar was less prone than acoustic basses to unwanted audio feedback. In 1953 Monk Montgomery became the first bassist to tour with the Fender bass guitar, in Lionel Hampton's postwar big band. Montgomery was possibly the first to record with the bass guitar, on July 2, 1953 with The Art Farmer Septet. Roy Johnson, Shifty Henry, were other early Fender bass pioneers. Bill Black, playing with Elvis Presley, switched from upright bass to the Fender Precision Bass around 1957; the bass guitar was intended to appeal to guitarists as well as upright bass players, many early pioneers of the instrument, such as Carol Kaye, Joe Osborn, Paul McCartney were guitarists. In 1953, following Fender's lead, Gibson released the first short-scale violin-shaped electric bass, with an extendable end pin so a bassist could play it upright or horizontally. Gibson renamed the bass the EB-1 in 1958. In 1958, Gibson released the maple arched-top EB-2 described in the Gibson catalogue as a "hollow-body electric bass that features a Bass/Baritone pushbutton for two different tonal characteristics".
In 1959 these were followed by the more conventional-looking EB-0 Bass. The EB-0 was similar to a Gibson SG in appearance. Whereas Fender basses had pickups mounted in positions in between the base of the neck and the top of the bridge, many of Gibson's early basses featured one humbucking pickup mounted directly against the neck pocket; the EB-3, introduced in 1961 had a "mini-humbucker" at the bridge position. Gibson basses tended to be smaller, sleeker instruments with a shorter scale length than the Precision. A number of other companies began manufacturing bass guitars during the 1950s: Kay in 1952, Hofner and Danelectro in 1956, Rickenbacker in 1957 and Burns/Supersound in 1958. 1956 saw the appearance at the German trade fair "Musikmesse Frankfurt" of the distinctive Höfner 500/1 violin-shaped bass made using violin construction techniques by Walter Höfner, a second-generation violin luthier. The design was known popularly as the "Beat
2002 MTV Europe Music Awards
The 2002 Europe Music Awards were held at Palau Sant Jordi, Barcelona. Performances included a rendition of "Dirrty" from Christina Aguilera featuring Redman as they performed in a boxing ring with Christina sporting leather chaps. Pink, Bon Jovi and Foo Fighters each performed as did Coldplay and Eminem, both making their EMA debut. Winners on the night included Jennifer Lopez. Kylie Minogue, Pamela Anderson, Sophie Ellis-Bextor, Jade Jagger, Pierce Brosnan. Anastacia, Rachel Roberts, Melanie C presented awards. Winners are in bold text. Enrique Iglesias — "Hero" Nelly — "Hot In Herre" Nickelback — "How You Remind Me" Pink — "Get the Party Started" Shakira — "Whenever, Wherever" Basement Jaxx — "Where's Your Head At" Eminem — "Without Me" Primal Scream — "Miss Lucifer" Röyksopp — "Remind Me" The White Stripes — "Fell in Love with a Girl" Eminem — The Eminem Show Coldplay — A Rush of Blood to the Head Kylie Minogue — Fever No Doubt — Rock Steady Pink — Missundaztood Jennifer Lopez Kylie Minogue Pink Shakira Britney Spears Eminem Enrique Iglesias Lenny Kravitz Nelly Robbie Williams Coldplay Linkin Park No Doubt Red Hot Chili Peppers U2 The Calling Avril Lavigne Röyksopp Shakira The Strokes Anastacia Enrique Iglesias Kylie Minogue Pink Shakira Sophie Ellis-Bextor DB Boulevard Kylie Minogue Moby Röyksopp Bon Jovi Coldplay Nickelback Red Hot Chili Peppers U2 Korn Linkin Park P.
O. D. Puddle of Mudd System of a Down Ashanti Beyoncé Mary J. Blige Alicia Keys Jennifer Lopez Busta Rhymes Eminem Ja Rule Nelly P. Diddy Depeche Mode Korn Lenny Kravitz Red Hot Chili Peppers U2 Black Rebel Motorcycle Club David Bowie Linkin Park Moby U2 FARE Winners are in bold text. Brainpower Di-Rect Kane Sita Tiësto David Guetta Indochine MC Solaar Pleymo Saian Supa Crew Die Toten Hosen Herbert Grönemeyer Xavier Naidoo No Angels Sportfreunde Stiller Articolo 31 Tiziano Ferro Planet Funk Francesco Renga Subsonica The Crash The Hives Kim Loudrup Röyksopp Saybia Blue Café Futro Myslovitz T. Love Wilki Animal X BUG Mafia Class Partizan Zdob si Zdub Ariana Diskoteka Avariya Epidemia Kasta t. A. T.u. Amaral Enrique Bunbury El Canto del Loco Enrique Iglesias Sôber Atomic Kitten Coldplay Ms. Dynamite Sugababes Underworld t. A. T.u. — "All the Things She Said" Röyksopp — "Remind Me / Poor Leno" Pink — "Get the Party Started / Don't Let Me Get Me / Just Like a Pill" Eminem — "Cleanin' Out My Closet / Lose Yourself" Foo Fighters — "All My Life" Christina Aguilera — "Dirrty" Whitney Houston — "Whatchulookinat" Bon Jovi — "Everyday" Enrique Iglesias — "Maybe / Love to See You Cry" Coldplay — "In My Place" Robbie Williams — "Feel" Wyclef Jean — "Pussycat" Moby — "In My Heart" / Bodyrock Pamela Anderson and Wyclef Jean — presented Best Group Jade Jagger and Pharrell Williams — presented Best R&B Sophie Ellis-Bextor and Holly Valance — presented Best Pop Pierce Brosnan — presented Best Male Ronan Keating and Esther Cañadas — presented Best Live Act Nick Carter and Rachel Roberts — presented Web Award Dolce & Gabbana and Sara Montiel — presented Best Female Moby and Ms. Dynamite — presented Best New Act Anastacia and Melanie C — presented Best Song Kylie Minogue — presented Best Hard Rock t.
A. T.u. and The Calling— presented Best Dance Marilyn Manson and Kelis — presented Best Hip-Hop Patrick Kluivert — presented Free Your Mind Las Ketchup and Tiziano Ferro — presented Best Rock Sugababes and Patrick Kluivert — presented Best Album Jean Paul Gaultier and Rupert Everett — presented Best Video 2002 MTV Video Music Awards Nominees
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
The guitar is a fretted musical instrument that has six strings. It is played with both hands by strumming or plucking the strings with either a guitar pick or the finger/fingernails of one hand, while fretting with the fingers of the other hand; the sound of the vibrating strings is projected either acoustically, by means of the hollow chamber of the guitar, or through an electrical amplifier and a speaker. The guitar is a type of chordophone, traditionally constructed from wood and strung with either gut, nylon or steel strings and distinguished from other chordophones by its construction and tuning; the modern guitar was preceded by the gittern, the vihuela, the four-course Renaissance guitar, the five-course baroque guitar, all of which contributed to the development of the modern six-string instrument. There are three main types of modern acoustic guitar: the classical guitar, the steel-string acoustic guitar, the archtop guitar, sometimes called a "jazz guitar"; the tone of an acoustic guitar is produced by the strings' vibration, amplified by the hollow body of the guitar, which acts as a resonating chamber.
The classical guitar is played as a solo instrument using a comprehensive finger-picking technique where each string is plucked individually by the player's fingers, as opposed to being strummed. The term "finger-picking" can refer to a specific tradition of folk, blues and country guitar playing in the United States; the acoustic bass guitar is a low-pitched instrument, one octave below a regular guitar. Electric guitars, introduced in the 1930s, use an amplifier and a loudspeaker that both makes the sound of the instrument loud enough for the performers and audience to hear, given that it produces an electric signal when played, that can electronically manipulate and shape the tone using an equalizer and a huge variety of electronic effects units, the most used ones being distortion and reverb. Early amplified guitars employed a hollow body, but solid wood guitars began to dominate during the 1960s and 1970s, as they are less prone to unwanted acoustic feedback "howls"; as with acoustic guitars, there are a number of types of electric guitars, including hollowbody guitars, archtop guitars and solid-body guitars, which are used in rock music.
The loud, amplified sound and sonic power of the electric guitar played through a guitar amp has played a key role in the development of blues and rock music, both as an accompaniment instrument and performing guitar solos, in many rock subgenres, notably heavy metal music and punk rock. The electric guitar has had a major influence on popular culture; the guitar is used in a wide variety of musical genres worldwide. It is recognized as a primary instrument in genres such as blues, country, folk, jota, metal, reggae, rock and many forms of pop. Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, a flat back, most with incurved sides." The term is used to refer to a number of chordophones that were developed and used across Europe, beginning in the 12th century and in the Americas. A 3,300-year-old stone carving of a Hittite bard playing a stringed instrument is the oldest iconographic representation of a chordophone and clay plaques from Babylonia show people playing an instrument that has a strong resemblance to the guitar, indicating a possible Babylonian origin for the guitar.
The modern word guitar, its antecedents, has been applied to a wide variety of chordophones since classical times and as such causes confusion. The English word guitar, the German Gitarre, the French guitare were all adopted from the Spanish guitarra, which comes from the Andalusian Arabic قيثارة and the Latin cithara, which in turn came from the Ancient Greek κιθάρα. Which comes from the Persian word "sihtar"; this pattern of naming is visible in setar and sitar. The word "tar" at the end of all of these words is a Persian word that means "string". Many influences are cited as antecedents to the modern guitar. Although the development of the earliest "guitars" is lost in the history of medieval Spain, two instruments are cited as their most influential predecessors, the European lute and its cousin, the four-string oud. At least two instruments called "guitars" were in use in Spain by 1200: the guitarra latina and the so-called guitarra morisca; the guitarra morisca had a rounded back, wide fingerboard, several sound holes.
The guitarra Latina had a narrower neck. By the 14th century the qualifiers "moresca" or "morisca" and "latina" had been dropped, these two cordophones were referred to as guitars; the Spanish vihuela, called in Italian the "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries, is considered to have been the single most important influence in the development of the baroque guitar. It had six courses, lute-like tuning in fourths and a guitar-like body, although early representations reveal an instrument with a cut waist, it was larger than the contemporary four-course guitars. By the 16th century, the vihuela's construction had more in common with the modern guitar, with its curved one-piece ribs, than with the viols, more like a larger version of the contemporary four-course guita
2001 MTV Europe Music Awards
The 2001 MTV Europe Music Awards were held in The Festhalle, Frankfurt. The ceremony attracted the largest television audience for the awards until the MTV Europe Music Awards 2007 and was one of the first entertainment broadcasts following the September 11th attacks in New York City. Performances included Blink-182 with "First Date", Depeche Mode with "Never Let Me Down Again", Rammstein with "Ich Will" and Kylie Minogue with "Can't Get You Out of My Head". Jay-Z performed his track "Girls, Girls" and Craig David took to the stage with a version of "Walking Away" that sampled U2's "One"; the presenter line up included actress Christina Ricci, girl group Atomic Kitten, Nelly Furtado and Claudia Schiffer. Winners are in bold text. Christina Aguilera, Lil' Kim, Mýa and Pink — "Lady Marmalade" Crazy Town — "Butterfly" Destiny's Child — "Survivor" Eminem — "Stan" Gorillaz — "Clint Eastwood" The Avalanches — "Since I Left You" Fatboy Slim — "Weapon of Choice" Gorillaz — "Clint Eastwood" Outkast — "Ms. Jackson" Robbie Williams — "Supreme" Dido — No Angel Limp Bizkit — Chocolate Starfish and the Hot Dog Flavored Water Madonna — Music Travis — The Invisible Band U2 — All That You Can't Leave Behind Mariah Carey Dido Janet Jackson Jennifer Lopez Madonna Craig David Eminem Ricky Martin Shaggy Robbie Williams Destiny's Child Gorillaz Limp Bizkit R.
E. M. U2 Craig David Dido Nelly Furtado Gorillaz Wheatus Anastacia Atomic Kitten'N Sync Shaggy Britney Spears Basement Jaxx Daft Punk Faithless Gorillaz Roger Sanchez Blink-182 Crazy Town Limp Bizkit Linkin Park U2 Craig David Destiny's Child Janet Jackson Wyclef Jean Outkast D12 Missy Elliott Eminem Outkast P. Diddy Daft Punk Depeche Mode Gorillaz Limp Bizkit U2 Treatment Action Campaign Winners are in bold text. Anouk Bastian Brainpower Johan Kane Daft Punk Demon Manu Chao St. Germain Supermen Lovers Die Ärzte Echt No Angels Rammstein Samy Deluxe Elisa Marlene Kuntz Neffa Valeria Rossi Tiromancino Briskeby Emmi Eskobar Safri Duo Titiyo Fiolka Reni Jusis Kasia Kowalska Myslovitz Smolik Alsou Bi-2 Mumiy Troll t. A. T.u. Zemfira Jarabe de Palo La Oreja de Van Gogh Los Piratas Najwa Alejandro Sanz Craig David Artful Dodger Feeder Gorillaz S Club 7 Kylie Minogue — "Can't Get You Out of My Head" Dido — "Hunter" Basement Jaxx — "Where's Your Head At" Blink-182 — "First Date" Craig David — "Walking Away" Mary J. Blige — "Family Affair" Jay-Z — "Izzo / Girls, Girls" Depeche Mode — "Never Let Me Down Again" Fred Durst, Wes Scantlin and Jimmy Page — "Thank You" Rammstein — "Ich Will" R.
E. M. — "Imitation Of Life" Travis — "Side" Ben Stiller and Claudia Schiffer — presented Best Group Emma Bunton and Eddy Grant — presented Best Male Sophie Ellis-Bextor and Bomfunk MC's — presented Best Dance Kelis and Gavin Rossdale — presented Best Female Pink and Pedro Almodóvar — presented Best Video Sugababes and Roger Sanchez — presented The Web Award Alicia Keys and — presented Best Song Heidi Klum and Boris Becker — presented Best R&B Xavier Naidoo and Nelly Furtado — presented Best Hip-Hop Joshua Jackson and Christina Ricci — presented Best Album Nina Persson and Herbert Gronemeyer — presented Best Pop Shaggy and Andrea Corr — presented Best New Act Atomic Kitten and Ronan Keating — presented Best Rock 2001 MTV Video Music Awards Nominees
Saint-Denis is a commune in the northern suburbs of Paris, France. It is located 9.4 km from the centre of Paris. Saint-Denis is a subprefecture of the department of Seine-Saint-Denis, being the seat of the arrondissement of Saint-Denis. Saint-Denis is home to the royal necropolis of the Basilica of Saint-Denis and was the location of the associated abbey, it is home to France's national football and rugby stadium, the Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup. Saint-Denis is a industrial suburb changing its economic base. Inhabitants of Saint-Denis are called Dionysiens; until the 3rd century, Saint-Denis was a small settlement called Catolacus or Catulliacum meaning "estate of Catullius", a Gallo-Roman landowner. About 250 AD, the first bishop of Paris, Saint Denis, was martyred on Montmartre hill and buried in Catolacus. Shortly after 250 his grave became a shrine and a pilgrimage centre, with the building of the Abbey of Saint Denis, the settlement was renamed Saint-Denis. In 1793, during the French Revolution, Saint-Denis was renamed Franciade in a gesture of rejection of religion.
In 1803, under the Consulate of Napoléon Bonaparte, the city reverted to its former name of Saint-Denis. During its history, Saint-Denis has been associated with the French royal house. Starting from Dagobert I every French king was buried in the Basilica. However, Saint-Denis is older than that. In the 2nd century, there was a Gallo-Roman village named Catolacus on the location that Saint-Denis occupies today. Saint Denis, the first bishop of Paris and patron saint of France, was martyred in about 250 and buried in the cemetery of Catolacus. Denis' tomb became a place of worship. Around 475, Sainte Geneviève had a small chapel erected on Denis' tomb, which by had become a popular destination for pilgrims, it was this chapel that Dagobert I had turned into a royal monastery. Dagobert granted many privileges to the monastery: independence from the bishop of Paris, the right to hold a market, most he was buried in Saint-Denis. During the Middle Ages, because of the privileges granted by Dagobert, Saint-Denis grew to become important.
Merchants from all over Europe came to visit its market. In 1140, Abbot Suger, counselor to the King, granted further privileges to the citizens of Saint-Denis, he started the work of enlarging the Basilica of Saint Denis that still exists today cited as the first example of high early Gothic Architecture. The new church was consecrated in 1144. Saint-Denis suffered in the Hundred Years' War. During the French Wars of Religion, the Battle of Saint-Denis was fought between Catholics and Protestants on 10 November 1567; the Protestants were defeated. In 1590, the city surrendered to Henry IV, who converted to Catholicism in 1593 in the abbey of Saint-Denis. King Louis XIV started several industries in Saint-Denis: weaving and spinning mills and dyehouses, his successor, Louis XV, whose daughter was a nun in the Carmelite convent, took a lively interest in the city: he added a chapel to the convent and renovated the buildings of the royal abbey. During the French Revolution, not only was the city renamed "Franciade" from 1793 to 1803, but the royal necropolis was looted and destroyed.
The remains were thrown together. The last king to be interred in Saint-Denis was Louis XVIII. After France became a republic and an empire, Saint-Denis lost its association with royalty. On 1 January 1860, the city of Paris was enlarged by annexing neighbouring communes. On that occasion, the commune of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis was disbanded and divided between the city of Paris, Saint-Denis, Saint-Ouen, Aubervilliers. Saint-Denis received the north-western part of La Chapelle-Saint-Denis. During the 19th century, Saint-Denis became industrialised. Transport was much improved: in 1824 the Canal Saint-Denis was constructed, linking the Canal de l'Ourcq in the northeast of Paris to the River Seine at the level of L'Île-Saint-Denis, in 1843 the first railway reached Saint-Denis. By the end of the century, there were 80 factories in Saint-Denis; the presence of so many industries gave rise to an important socialist movement. In 1892, Saint-Denis elected its first socialist administration, by the 1920s, the city had acquired the nickname of la ville rouge, the red city.
Until Jacques Doriot in 1934, all mayors of Saint-Denis were members of the Communist Party. During the Second World War, after the defeat of France, Saint-Denis was occupied by the Germans on 13 June 1940. There were several acts of sabotage and strikes, most notably on 14 April 1942 at the Hotchkiss factory. After an insurgency which started on 18 August 1944, Saint-Denis was liberated by General Leclerc on 27 August 1944. After the war, the economic crisis of the 1970s and 1980s hit the city, dependent on its heavy industry. During the 1990s, the city started to grow again; the 1998 FIFA World Cup provided an enormous impulse. The stadium is used by rugby teams for friendly matches; the Coupe de France, Coupe de la Ligue and Top 14 final match