Leader of the Opposition (United Kingdom)
The Leader of Her Majesty's Most Loyal Opposition is the politician who leads the official opposition in the United Kingdom. The Leader of the Opposition by convention leads the largest party not within the government: where one party wins outright this is the party leader of the second largest political party in the House of Commons; the current Leader of the Opposition is Jeremy Corbyn, Leader of the Labour Party, elected to the leadership of the Labour Party on 12 September 2015. The Leader of the Opposition is viewed as an alternative or shadow Prime Minister, is appointed to the Privy Council, they lead an Official Opposition Shadow Cabinet which scrutinises the actions of the Cabinet led by the Prime Minister, as well as offer alternative policies. There is a Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords. In the nineteenth century party affiliations were less fixed and leaders in the two Houses were of equal status. A single, clear Leader of the Opposition was only definitively settled if the opposition leader in Commons or Lords was the outgoing prime minister.
However, since the Parliament Act 1911 there has been no dispute that the leader in the House of Commons is pre-eminent and holds the main title. The Leader of the Opposition is entitled to a salary in addition to their salary as a Member of Parliament. In 2010, this additional entitlement was available up to £73,617; the first modern Leader of the Opposition was Charles James Fox, who led the Whigs as such for a generation, except during the Fox–North Coalition in 1783. He rejoined the government in 1806, died that year. For there to be a recognised Leader of the Opposition, it is necessary for there to be a sufficiently cohesive opposition to need a formal leader; the emergence of the office thus coincided with the period when wholly united parties became the norm. This situation was normalised in the Parliament of 1807–1812, when the members of the Grenvillite and Foxite Whig factions resolved to maintain a joint, dual-house leadership for the whole party; the Ministry of all the Talents, in which both Whig factions participated fell at the 1807 general election, during which the Whigs had re-adopted traditional factions, forming an opposition.
The prime minister of the Talents ministry, Lord Grenville had led his eponymous faction from the House of Lords. Meanwhile, the government leader of the House of Commons, Viscount Howick, led his faction, the Foxite whigs, from the House of Commons. Howick's father, the 1st Earl Grey died on 14 November 1807; as such the new Earl Grey moved to the House of Lords. This left no obvious Whig leader in the House of Commons. Grenville's article in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography confirms that he was considered the Whig leader in the House of Lords between 1807 and 1817, despite Grey leading the larger faction. Grenville and Grey, political historian Archibald Foord describes as being "duumvirs of the party from 1807 to 1817" and consulted about what was to be done. Grenville was at first reluctant to name a Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons, commenting "... all the elections in the world would not have made Windham or Sheridan leaders of the old Opposition while Fox was alive...".
They jointly recommended George Ponsonby to the Whig MPs, whom they accepted as the first Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons. Ponsonby, an Irish lawyer, the uncle of Grey's wife, had been Lord Chancellor of Ireland during the Ministry of all the Talents and had only just been re-elected to the House of Commons in 1808 when he became leader. Ponsonby proved a weak leader but as he could not be persuaded to resign and the duumvirs did not want to depose him, he remained in place until he died in 1817. Lord Grenville retired from active politics in 1817, leaving Grey as the Leader of the Opposition in the House of Lords. Grey was not a former prime minister in 1817, unlike Grenville, so under the convention that developed in the century he would have been in theory of equal status to whoever was leader in the other House. However, there was little doubt that if a Whig ministry was possible, Grey rather than the less distinguished Commons leaders would have been invited to form that government.
In this respect Grey's position was like that of the Earl of Derby in the Protectionist Conservative opposition of the late 1840s and early 1850s. Earl Grey witnessed a delay of about a year, until 1818, before a new Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons was chosen; this was George Tierney, reluctant to accept the leadership and had weak support from his party. On 18 May 1819, Tierney moved a motion in the Commons for a committee on the state of the nation; this motion was defeated by 357 to 178, a division involving the largest number of MPs until the debates over the Reform bill in the early 1830s. Foord comments that "this defeat put an effective end to Tierney's leadership... Tierney did not disclaim the leadership till 23 Jan. 1821... but he had ceased to exercise its functions since the great defeat". Between 1821 and 1830 the Whig Commons leadership was left vacant; the leadership in the House of Lords was not much more effective: in 1824 Grey retired from active leadership, asking the party to follow the Marquess of Lansdowne "as the person whom his friends were to look upon as their leader".
Lansdowne disclaimed the title of leader. Following the retirement of Lord Liverpool from the prime ministership in 1827, the party political situation change
Puck (A Midsummer Night's Dream)
Puck known as Robin Goodfellow, is a character in William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, based on the ancient figure of Puck found in English mythology. Puck is a mischievous fairy, sprite, or jester, he is the first of the main fairy characters to appear, creates the drama of the human lovers' story by splitting up a young couple lost in an enchanted forest. As a "shrewd and knavish sprite", he is an impish trickster and delights in pranks and practical jokes, like replacing Bottom's head with that of an ass; the audience is introduced to Puck in Act 2 Scene 1 when one of Titania's fairies encounters Puck: Puck is the servant of the fairy king Oberon, angry with Titania the fairy queen. Oberon is jealous of Titania's fondness for her Indian slave boy. Puck is sent to fetch a flower that, having been struck by Cupid's arrows, now has the power to induce love in anyone who drinks its juices. Puck is instructed by Oberon to use the love flower to fix the love entanglement occurring between the Athenian lovers who are on a merry chase in the forest.
He mistakenly administers the charm to the sleeping Lysander instead of Demetrius. Puck provides Nick Bottom with a donkey's head so that Titania will fall in love with a beast and forget her attachment to the slave boy, allowing Oberon to take the child from her. Puck is ordered by Oberon to fix the mistake he has made, by producing a dark fog, leading the lovers astray within it by imitating their voices, applying the flower to Lysander's eyes, which will cause him to fall back in love with Hermia; the four lovers wonder if the events that occurred in the forest were real, or a shared delusion. At the end of the play Puck delivers a speech in which he addresses the audience directly, suggests that anyone who might have been offended by the play's events should, like the characters, consider that the whole performance was just a bad dream: The original texts of Shakespeare's plays do not have cast lists, can sometimes be inconsistent about what they call characters, but Puck's is a awkward case.
Both the Quarto and the First Folio call the character "Robin Goodfellow" on the first entrance, but "Puck" in the same scene, they remain inconsistent. The Arden Shakespeare calls the character "Puck," and amends all stage directions that refer to the character as "Robin" or "Robin Goodfellow". Mickey Rooney, in the Oscar-winning 1935 film. Ian Holm, in the 1968 film. Phil Daniels, in the 1981 BBC Shakespeare television production. Robert Sean Leonard plays Puck in a high-school production in the 1989 film Dead Poets Society. Stanley Tucci, in the 1999 film. Tanner Cohen, in a high-school production depicted in the 2008 film Were the World Mine. Hiran Abeysekera in the 2016 film. Avan Jogia, in the 2017 film. Brent Spiner as Puck is a recurring character in Disney's 1995 Gargoyles, first appearing in the season two episode "The Mirror". Ken Nwosu played Puck on Upstart Crow in 2018. John Kane, with The Royal Shakespeare Company in 1970. Adam Darius, with the Stora Teatern in Göteborg, Sweden in 1961.
Matthew Tennyson, with Shakespeare's Globe Theatre in 2013. Frederick Peisley in Donald Wolfit's production in 1947. Puck is renamed "Dr. Wheelgood" in Diane Paulus's production The Donkey Show in 1999. Laurence Olivier, with St Edward's School, Oxford in 1923. Sebastian de Souza, with St Edward's School, Oxford. Sculpture Puck, by Carl Andersson, bronze, 1912, in the Stockholm suburb of Midsommarkransen in Sweden. Puck by Brenda Putnam, marble, 1932, at the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D. C; the Puck Building built in 1885-8 in Nolita, New York City, features two gilded statues of Puck by sculptor Henry Baerer. In Neil Gaiman's comic-book The Sandman and other fairies watch Shakespeare's company of actors perform A Midsummer Night's Dream. After the play, Puck decides to remain in the "mortal" world and appear in stories. Media related to Puck at Wikimedia Commons
Oberon is a king of the fairies in medieval and Renaissance literature. He is best known as a character in William Shakespeare's play A Midsummer Night's Dream, in which he is Consort to Titania, Queen of the Fairies. Oberon's status as king of the fairies comes from the character of Alberich, a sorcerer in the legendary history of the Merovingian dynasty. In the legend, he is the otherworldly "brother" of Merowech, whose name is the eponym of the Merovingians but whose actual existence is unproven. Alberich wins for his eldest son, the hand of a princess of Constantinople. In the Nibelungenlied, a Burgundian poem written around the turn of the 13th century, Alberich guards the treasure of the Nibelungen, but is overcome by Siegfried; the name Oberon is first attested to in the early 13th century chanson de geste entitled Les Prouesses et faitz du noble Huon de Bordeaux, wherein it refers to an elven man of the forest encountered by the eponymous hero. Huon, son of Seguin count of Bordeaux, passed through the forest inhabited by Oberon.
He was warned by a hermit not to speak to Oberon, but his courtesy had him answer Oberon's greetings, so gain his aid in his quest. Huon had killed Charlot, the Emperor's son, in self-defense, so he must visit the court of the amir of Babylon and perform various feats to win a pardon, he succeeds only with Oberon's aid. This elf is dwarfish in height, though handsome, he explains that, at his christening, an offended fairy cursed him to dwarfish height but relented and gave him great beauty as compensation. Alberich features as a dwarf in the Nibelungen; the real Seguin was Count of Bordeaux under Louis the Pious in 839, died fighting against the Normans in 845. Charles l'Enfant, a son of Charles the Bald, died in 866 of wounds inflicted by a certain Aubouin in the circumstances of an ambush similar to the Charlot of the story. Thus, Oberon appears in a 13th-century French courtly fantasy, based on a shred of 9th century fact, he is given some Celtic trappings, such as a magical cup, full for the virtuous.
"The magic cup supplied their evening meal. In this story, he is said to be the child of Julius Caesar. A manuscript of the romance in the city of Turin contains a prologue to the story of Huon de Bordeaux in the shape of a separate romance of Auberon and four sequels, there are French versions, as well. Shakespeare saw or heard of the French heroic song through the c. 1540 translation of John Bourchier, Lord Berners, called Huon of Burdeuxe. In Philip Henslowe's diary, there is a note of a performance of a play Hewen of Burdocize on 28 December 1593. In William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream Oberon is the king of all of the fairies and is engaged in a dispute with his wife Titania, the fairy queen, they are arguing over custody of a child. Titania wants to keep and raise the child for the sake of her mortal friend and follower who died giving birth to him. To make it look as if he didn't disappear, Titania put a fairy in his place; because Oberon and Titania are both powerful spirits connected to nature, their feuding disrupts the weather.
Titania describes the consequences of their fighting: Oberon tricks Titania into giving him back the child using the juice from a special flower that makes you "madly dote upon the next live thing that it sees". The flower was accidentally struck by Cupid's arrow when he attempted to shoot a young maiden in a field, instead infusing the flower with love. Oberon sends Puck, to fetch the flower, which he does successfully. Furious that Titania will not give him the child, he puts juice from a magical flower into her eyes while she is asleep; the effect of the juice will cause Titania to fall in love with the first live thing. Titania awakens and finds herself madly in love with Bottom, an actor from the rude mechanicals whose head was just transformed into that of a donkey, thanks to a curse from Puck. Meanwhile, two couples have entered the forest: Lovers Hermia and Lysander are pursued by Demetrius, who loves Hermia, Helena, who loves Demetrius. Oberon witnesses Demetrius rejecting Helena, admires her amorous determination, decides to help her.
He sends Puck to put some of the juice in Demetrius's eyes, describing him as “a youth in Athenian clothing”, to make him fall in love with Helena. Puck finds Lysander –, a youth wearing Athenian clothing – and puts the love potion on Lysander's eyes; when Lysander wakes, he falls in love with her. Meanwhile, Demetrius has been anointed with the flower and awakes to see Helena, pursued by Lysander, a fight breaks out between the two young men. Oberon is furious with Puck, casts a sleeping spell on the forest, making Puck reverse the potion on Lysander, admonishing Puck to not reverse the effects on Demetrius. Both begin the journey back to Athens. Oberon now looks upon Titania and her lover and feels sorry for what he has done, he reverses the spell using a magic herb. When she wakes, she is confused. Oberon explains that the dream was real, the two reunite happily, they return to Athens in the epilogue to bless the couples, becoming once again the benevolent fairy king and queen. Oberon is a character in The Scottish History of a play written c. 1590 by Robert Greene.
In 1610, Ben Jonson wrote a masque of the Faery Prince. It was performed by Henry Frederick Stuart
Billie Paul Piper is an English actress and former singer, from Swindon, Wiltshire. She made her debut in Scratchy & Co. and at the age of 15, she signed a recording contract and released her debut single "Because We Want To", which entered at the top of the UK Singles Chart and made her the youngest artist to enter at number one on the chart. The single was followed by Piper's album Honey to the B, certified double platinum by the Recording Industry Association of New Zealand and platinum by the British Phonographic Industry. In 2000, she released Walk of Life. In 2003, she retired from the recording industry and launched an acting career. Piper's transition into acting began in 2003, she played Rose Tyler, companion to The Doctor from 2005 to 2006, in the BBC sci-fi series Doctor Who, reprising the role in 2008, 2010, 2013. From 2007 until 2011, she starred as the high-flying escort Belle de Jour in the television series Secret Diary of a Call Girl, she starred as Brona Croft/Lily in the Showtime series Penny Dreadful.
More Piper has taken to the stage. She has starred in five plays and picked up numerous Best Actress awards, most notably a Laurence Olivier Award for her performance in Yerma, she went on to pick up a total of six Best Actress awards for that one performance, including the Olivier Award, making Piper the only actor to have picked up six out of an available six Best Actress awards for a single performance. Piper was born in Wiltshire, her first name, was changed to Billie on 25 April 1983, by her parents, Paul Victor Piper and Mandy Kane Kent. She has one younger brother and two younger sisters and Elle, she studied at Bradon Forest School. Piper's career began when she was selected to appear on the Saturday-morning children's television show Scratchy & Co, she landed a role in a television commercial promoting the pop magazine Smash Hits. She was offered a record deal at the age of 15, in 1998, became the youngest artist to debut at number one in the UK Singles Chart with "Because We Want To", released under the stage mononym "Billie".
Her follow-up single "Girlfriend" debuted at number one. Piper's debut album Honey to the B was released afterwards, debuted and peaked at number 14 in the UK album charts, selling more than 300,000 copies in the UK alone along with a platinum certification, a 2x platinum certification in New Zealand, where it reached number three. However, Honey to the B found limited success in other territories, such as Australia, where it debuted and peaked at number 31 despite the success of "Honey to the Bee", in the US, it went unnoticed, peaking at number 17 on the Heatseekers. At the 1998 Smash Hits Poll Winners' party, Piper was nominated for Best New Act and won Princess of Pop, she released "She Wants You" as the third single from the album. The song reached number three. "Honey to the Bee" was released as the fourth single from the album. At the same time, "She Wants You" was released in the US, reaching number 9 on the "Hot Club Dance Play" chart. In 1999, Piper was nominated for two BRIT Awards and won two awards at the 1999 Smash Hits Poll Winners' party, although she was reduced to tears at the latter ceremony after being booed by fans of Ritchie Neville, whom she was dating at the time.
She started to tour and release in Asia. The singles and the album were released during mid- to late 1999. In August of that year, the follow-up to "Because We Want To" was released in Japan, a single comprising "Girlfriend" and "She Wants You" combined, she recorded a song for Pokémon: The First Movie titled "Makin' My Way". During that time, Piper recorded her second album, she decided to release further records under her full name of Billie Piper. She returned to the Singles Chart in May 2000 with her third number-one single "Day & Night", she waited until September to release "Something Deep Inside", which reached number four, but her success waned. In October 2000, Piper released her second album, Walk of Life, which reached #14 in the UK Album Chart, but fell off the charts and was certified silver in the UK; the album only charted in two other countries: New Zealand, where it reached #17 only, Australia, where it was a minor success and peaked at #23. In Piper's autobiography, she states that the album was a "commercial bomb".
The song "Walk of Life", the final single off this album, was released in December 2000 and reached #25 in the UK Singles Chart. In February 2001, Piper appeared in court to testify against a woman named Juliet Peters. Peters was charged with, convicted of, stalking as well as making numerous threats against Piper and members of her family. Peters received psychiatric treatment as part of her sentence. According to her autobiography, Piper was reluctant about the court case, but was pushed by her parents and her label, she stated in the book that this was why "The Tide Is High" was not released as a single, writing: "The court case succeeded in doing what I alone could not – cutting the ties. Without it I might have been tempted back." In January 2007, BBC Radio 1 DJ Chris Moyles started a campaign to get "Honey to the Bee" back into the top 100 on download sales as a way of testing out new chart rules that favour download sales. The campaign was successful, with "Honey to the Bee" re-entering the official UK singles chart at #17, eight years after it was first released.
In the autumn of 2003, it was announced that Doctor Who would be resurrected in 2005 after a
Dame Lesley Lawson is an English model and singer known by the nickname Twiggy. She was a prominent teenage model in swinging sixties London. Twiggy was known for her thin build and her androgynous look consisting of big eyes, long eyelashes, short hair, she voted British Woman of the Year. By 1967, she had modeled in France and the US, had landed on the covers of Vogue and The Tatler, her fame had spread worldwide. After modelling, Twiggy enjoyed a successful career as a screen and television actress, her role in The Boy Friend brought her two Golden Globe Awards. In 1983 she made her Broadway debut in the musical, My One and Only, for which she earned a Tony nomination for Best Actress in a Musical, she hosted her own series Twiggy's People, in which she interviewed celebrities. Her 1998 autobiography Twiggy in Black and White entered. Since 2005, she has modeled for Marks and Spencer, most to promote their recent rebranding, appearing in television advertisements and print media, alongside Myleene Klass, Erin O'Connor, Lily Cole, others.
In 2012, she worked alongside Marks & Spencer's designers to launch an exclusive clothing collection for the M&S Woman range. Lesley Hornby was born on 19 September 1949, was brought up in Neasden, she was the third daughter of Nellie Lydia, a factory worker for a printing firm, William Norman Hornby, a master carpenter and joiner from Lancashire. According to Hornby, her maternal grandfather was Jewish. However, her mother’s genealogy, examined on the series Who Do You Think You Are? in 2014, does not contain Jewish ancestry. Their first daughter, had been born fifteen years earlier. Twiggy's mother taught her to sew from an early age, she used this skill to make her own clothing. She attended Kilburn High School. Twiggy's great-great-grandmother, Grace Meadows, died in a stampede of excitable shoppers at a bargain sale at Messrs McIllroys store in Mare Street in Hackney in 1897; this event made the news at the time. Twiggy married American actor Michael Witney in 1977, their daughter, was born in 1978.
They remained married until his death in 1983 from a heart attack. She met Leigh Lawson in 1984. In 1988, they worked on the film Madame Sousatzka, married that year in Sag Harbor, New York. Lawson adopted Twiggy's daughter; the couple reside in London, own a home in Southwold, Suffolk. On Twiggy's official website, she states she is a supporter of breast cancer research, animal welfare and anti-fur campaigns, she was one of the celebrities, including Tom Hiddleston, Jo Brand, E. L. James and Rachel Riley, to design and sign her own card for the UK-based charity Thomas Coram Foundation for Children; the campaign was launched by crafting company Stampin' Up! UK, the cards were auctioned off on eBay during May 2014. Twiggy is best remembered as one of the first international supermodels and a fashion icon of the 1960s, her greatest influence is Jean Shrimpton. She has said she based her "look" on Pattie Boyd. Twiggy herself has been described as the successor to Shrimpton. In January 1966, aged 16, she had her hair coloured and cut short in London at Leonard of Mayfair, owned by celebrity hairdresser Leonard.
The hair stylist was looking for models on whom to try out his new crop haircut and he styled her hair in preparation for a few test head shots. A professional photographer Barry Lategan took several photos for Leonard, which the hairdresser hung in his salon. Deirdre McSharry, a fashion journalist from the Daily Express, saw the images and asked to meet the young girl. McSharry arranged to have more photos taken. A few weeks the publication featured an article and images of Hornby, declaring her "The Face of'66". In it, the copy read: "The Cockney kid with a face to launch a thousand shapes... and she's only 16". Hornby's career took off, she was short for a model at 5'6", weighed eight stone and had a 31-23-32 figure, "with a new kind of streamlined, androgynous sex appeal" Her hairdresser boyfriend, Nigel Davies, became her manager, changed his name to Justin de Villeneuve, persuaded her to change her name to Twiggy. De Villeneuve credits himself for Twiggy's discovery and her modelling success, his version of events is quoted in other biographies.
In her 1998 book Twiggy In Black and White, she says that she met Justin through his brother, when she worked as a Saturday girl at a hairdressers in London. This is where she began to see the models in the magazines, but never thought she could do something like that. Jean Shrimpton was her idol so she grew her hair long to look like her, before having to have it cut off for her headshots by Barry Lategan. Ten years her senior, De Villeneuve managed her lucrative career for seven years, overseeing her finances and enterprises during her heyday as a model. Twiggy was soon seen in all the leading fashion magazines, commanding fees of £80 an hour, bringing out her own line of clothes called "Twiggy Dresses" in 1967, taking the fashion world by storm. "I hated what I looked like," she said once, "so I thought everyone had gone stark raving mad." Twiggy's look centred on three qualities: her stick-thin figure, a boyishly short haircut and strikingly dark eyelashes. Describing how she obtained her prominent eyelashes, now known
Michelin Guides are a series of guide books published by the French tyre company Michelin for more than a century. The term refers to the annually published Michelin Red Guide, the oldest European hotel and restaurant reference guide, which awards up to three Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments; the acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. Michelin publishes a series of general guides to cities and countries, the Green Guides. In 1900, there were fewer than 3,000 cars on the roads of France. To increase the demand for cars and, car tires, car tire manufacturers and brothers Édouard and André Michelin published a guide for French motorists in 1900, the Michelin Guide. Nearly 35,000 copies of this first, free edition of the guide were distributed. Four years in 1904, the brothers published a guide to Belgium similar to the Michelin Guide. Michelin subsequently introduced guides for Tunisia. In 1909, an English-language version of the guide to France was published.
During World War I, publication of the guide was suspended. After the war, revised editions of the guide continued to be given away until 1920, it is said that André Michelin, whilst visiting a tire merchant, noticed copies of the guide being used to prop up a workbench. Based on the principle that "man only respects what he pays for", Michelin decided to charge a price for the guide, about 750 francs or $2.15 in 1922. They made several changes, notably listing restaurants by specific categories, adding hotel listings, removing advertisements in the guide. Recognizing the growing popularity of the restaurant section of the guide, the brothers recruited a team of inspectors to visit and review restaurants, who were always anonymous. Following the usage of the Murray's and Baedeker guides, the guide began to award stars for fine dining establishments in 1926. There was only a single star awarded. In 1931, the hierarchy of zero, one and three stars was introduced. In 1936, the criteria for the starred rankings were published:: "A good restaurant in its category": "Excellent cooking, worth a detour": "Exceptional cuisine, worth a special journey".
In 1931 the cover of the guide was changed from blue to red, has remained so in all subsequent editions. During World War II, publication was again suspended, but in 1944, at the request of the Allied Forces, the 1939 guide to France was specially reprinted for military use. Publication of the annual guide resumed on 16 May 1945, a week after VE Day. In the early post-war years the lingering effects of wartime shortages led Michelin to impose an upper limit of two stars; the first Michelin Guide to Italy was published in 1956. It awarded no stars in the first edition. In 1974, the first guide to Britain since 1931 was published. Twenty-five stars were awarded. In 2005, Michelin published its first American guide, covering 500 restaurants in the five boroughs of New York City and 50 hotels in Manhattan. In 2007, a Tokyo Michelin Guide was launched. In the same year, the guide introduced Étoile. In 2008, a Hong Kong and Macau volume was added; as of 2013, the guide is published in 14 editions covering 23 countries.
In 2008, the German restaurateur Juliane Caspar was appointed editor-in-chief of the French edition of the guide. She had been responsible for the Michelin guides to Germany and Austria, she became first non-French national to occupy the French position. The German newspaper Die Welt commented on the appointment, "In view of the fact German cuisine is regarded as a lethal weapon in most parts of France, this decision is like Mercedes announcing that its new director of product development is a Martian." Red Guides have listed many more restaurants than rival guides, relying on an extensive system of symbols to describe each one in as little as two lines. Reviews of starred restaurants include two to three culinary specialties. Short summaries were added in 2002/2003 to enhance descriptions of many establishments; these summaries are written in the language of the country for which the guide is published but the symbols are the same throughout all editions. Michelin reviewers are anonymous. Many of the company's top executives have never met an inspector.
The inspectors write reports that are distilled, in annual "stars meetings" at the guide's various national offices, into the r