Wattle and daub
Wattle and daub has been used for at least 6,000 years and is still an important construction material in many parts of the world. Many historic buildings include wattle and daub construction, and the technique is becoming popular again in developed areas as a low-impact sustainable building technique. The wattle is made by weaving thin branches or slats between upright stakes, the wattle may be made as loose panels, slotted between timber framing to make infill panels, or it may be made in place to form the whole of a wall. Daub is usually created from a mixture of ingredients from three categories, binders and reinforcement. Binders hold the mix together and can include clay, chalk dust, aggregates give the mix its bulk and dimensional stability through materials such as earth, crushed chalk and crushed stone. Reinforcement is provided by straw, hay or other fibrous materials, the daub may be mixed by hand, or by treading – either by humans or livestock. It is applied to the wattle and allowed to dry, in some regions this building method has itself been overtaken by drywall construction using plasterboard sheets.
The wattle and daub technique was used already in the Neolithic period and it was common for houses of a Linear pottery and Rössen cultures of Central Europe, but is found in Western Asia as well as in North America and South America. In Africa it is common in the architecture of houses such as those of the Ashanti people. Its usage dates back at least 6000 years, there are suggestions that construction techniques such as lath and plaster and even cob may have evolved from wattle and daub. Fragments from prehistoric wattle and daub buildings have found in Africa, Mesoamerica. A review of English architecture especially reveals that the sophistication of this craft is dependent on the styles of timber frame housing. As discussed earlier, there were two choices for wattle and daub paneling, square paneling and close-studded paneling. Close-studding panels create a more narrow space between the timbers, anywhere from 7 to 16 inches. For this style of panel, weaving is too difficult, so the wattles run horizontally and are known as ledgers, the ledgers are sprung into each upright timber through a system of augered holes on one side and short chiseled grooves along the other.
The holes are drilled at an angle towards the outer face of each stud. This allows room for upright hazels to be tied to ledgers from the inside of the building, the horizontal ledgers are placed every two to three feet with whole hazel rods positioned upright top to bottom and lashed to the ledgers. These hazel rods are generally tied a finger widths apart with 6-8 rods each with a 16-inch width, gaps allow key formation for drying
Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, it is thought to have been first performed in 1606. It dramatises the damaging physical and psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I and it was first published in the Folio of 1623, possibly from a prompt book, and is his shortest tragedy. A brave Scottish general named Macbeth receives a prophecy from a trio of witches that one day he will become King of Scotland, consumed by ambition and spurred to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the Scottish throne for himself. He is wracked with guilt and paranoia, forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity and suspicion, he soon becomes a tyrannical ruler. The bloodbath and consequent civil war swiftly take Macbeth and Lady Macbeth into the realms of madness, the events of the tragedy are usually associated with the execution of Henry Garnet for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
In the backstage world of theatre, some believe that the play is cursed, over the course of many centuries, the play has attracted some of the most renowned actors to the roles of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. It has been adapted to film, opera, comics, the play opens amidst thunder and lightning, and the Three Witches decide that their next meeting shall be with Macbeth. Macbeth, the Kings kinsman, is praised for his bravery, in the following scene and Banquo discuss the weather and their victory. As they wander onto a heath, the Three Witches enter, though Banquo challenges them first, they address Macbeth, hailing him as Thane of Glamis, Thane of Cawdor, and that he shall be King hereafter. Macbeth appears to be stunned to silence, when Banquo asks of his own fortunes, the witches respond paradoxically, saying that he will be less than Macbeth, yet happier, less successful, yet more. He will father a line of kings though he himself will not be one, while the two men wonder at these pronouncements, the witches vanish, and another thane, Ross and informs Macbeth of his newly bestowed title, Thane of Cawdor.
The first prophecy is fulfilled, and Macbeth, previously skeptical. King Duncan welcomes and praises Macbeth and Banquo, and declares that he spend the night at Macbeths castle at Inverness. Macbeth sends a message ahead to his wife, Lady Macbeth, Lady Macbeth suffers none of her husbands uncertainty and wishes him to murder Duncan in order to obtain kingship. When Macbeth arrives at Inverness, she overrides all of her husbands objections by challenging his manhood and he and Lady Macbeth plan to get Duncans two chamberlains drunk so that they will black out, the next morning they will blame the chamberlains for the murder. They will be defenseless as they remember nothing. While Duncan is asleep, Macbeth stabs him, despite his doubts and he is so shaken that Lady Macbeth has to take charge
Wilmcote is a village, and since 2004 a separate civil parish, in the English county of Warwickshire, about 3 miles north of Stratford-upon-Avon. Prior to 2004, it was part of the parish as Aston Cantlow. It has a church, a school, a village hall, a village club, one small hotel, a shop. Visitors are attracted to Mary Ardens Farm, the home of Shakespeares mother, listed as Wilmecote in the Domesday Book, is part of the lands of Osbern son of Richard, whose father was Richard FitzScrob, builder of Richards Castle. The entry reads, In Pathlow Hundred, from Osbern, Urso hold 3 hides in Wilmcote. In lordship 2,2 slaves,2 villagers and 2 smallholders with 2 ploughs, the value was 30s, now 60s. Leofwin Doda held it freely before 1066, in 1228 William de Wilmecote was claiming the advowson of the chapel here against the Archdeacon of Gloucester. Palmer and Gibbs held jointly until 1575, when a partition was made, the descent of Palmers portion is not known, but Gibbss, which included Mary Ardens house, remained in the family until another George Gibbs sold it to Matthew Walford of Claverdon in 1704.
Walfords son and heir, married Elizabeth Jones and died in 1729, whatever manorial rights may have attached to this property had by now disappeared. Today the area has many small disused quarries, mostly filled in, a larger quarry, which has not been filled in, is now a nature reserve. There are remains of lime kilns, built to turn the limestone into cement, Wilmcote stone splits well into sheets and was used for paving as well as for building. It was used for paving the floors in the United Kingdom Houses of Parliament when these were rebuilt in the nineteenth century, the last of the quarries closed in the early twentieth century, but they have left a great legacy for the village. There are several rows of former workers cottages, built in Wilmcote stone. The quarries were among the reasons why the canal and railway were routed through Wilmcote, the first Wilmcote railway station opened in 1860, on a site alongside the canal wharves, it was replaced by the present station when the line was doubled in 1908.
Wilmcote is part of the Aston Cantlow ward of Stratford on Avon District Council, nationally it is part of Stratford on Avon constituency, whose member of parliament following the 2010 election is Nadhim Zahawi of the Conservative Party. There was a chapel at Wilmcote, first mentioned in 1228 when the advowson was in dispute between William de Wilmcote, and the Archdeacon of Gloucester. In the 14th century the advowson was held with the manor of Little Wilmcote, the chaplains were instituted and inducted by the vicars of Stratford. The modern church of St. Andrew, built in 1841, is a monument to the influence of the Oxford Movement in the parish
George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, FRS, commonly known simply as Lord Byron, was a British poet, politician, and a leading figure in the Romantic movement. Among his best-known works are the narrative poems, Don Juan and Childe Harolds Pilgrimage. Byron is regarded as one of the greatest British poets and remains widely read and influential and he travelled extensively across Europe, especially in Italy, where he lived for seven years with the struggling poet Percy Bysshe Shelley. Later in his life, Byron joined the Greek War of Independence fighting the Ottoman Empire. He died in 1824 at the age of 36 from a fever contracted while in Missolonghi, ethel Colburn Mayne states that George Gordon Byron was born on 22 January 1788 in a house on 24 Holles Street in London. However, Robert Charles Dallas in his Recollections states that Byron was born in Dover and he was the son of Captain John Mad Jack Byron and his second wife, the former Catherine Gordon, a descendant of Cardinal Beaton and heiress of the Gight estate in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
Byrons father had seduced the married Marchioness of Carmarthen and, after she divorced her husband. His treatment of her was described as brutal and vicious, in order to claim his second wifes estate in Scotland, Byrons father took the additional surname Gordon, becoming John Byron Gordon, and he was occasionally styled John Byron Gordon of Gight. Byron himself used this surname for a time and was registered at school in Aberdeen as George Byron Gordon, at the age of 10, he inherited the English Barony of Byron of Rochdale, becoming Lord Byron, and eventually dropped the double surname. Byrons paternal grandparents were Vice-Admiral the Hon. John Foulweather Jack Byron, vice Admiral John Byron had circumnavigated the globe, and was the younger brother of the 5th Baron Byron, known as the Wicked Lord. He was christened, at St Marylebone Parish Church, George Gordon Byron after his maternal grandfather George Gordon of Gight, a descendant of James I of Scotland, Mad Jack Byron married his second wife for the same reason that he married his first, her fortune.
In a move to avoid his creditors, Catherine accompanied her husband to France in 1786. He was born on 22 January in lodgings at Holles Street in London, Catherine moved back to Aberdeenshire in 1790, where Byron spent his childhood. His father soon joined them in their lodgings in Queen Street, Catherine regularly experienced mood swings and bouts of melancholy, which could be partly explained by her husbands continuing to borrow money from her. As a result, she fell even further into debt to support his demands and it was one of these importunate loans that allowed him to travel to Valenciennes, where he died in 1791. When Byrons great-uncle, the wicked Lord Byron, died on 21 May 1798, described as a woman without judgment or self-command, Catherine either spoiled and indulged her son or vexed him with her capricious stubbornness. Her drinking disgusted him, and he often mocked her for being short and corpulent and she once retaliated and, in a fit of temper, referred to him as a lame brat.
Langley-Moore questions the Galt claim that she over-indulged in alcohol, upon the death of Byrons mother-in-law Judith Noel, the Hon
Most large museums are located in major cities throughout the world and more local ones exist in smaller cities and even the countryside. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public, the goal of serving researchers is increasingly shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, the city with the largest number of museums is Mexico City with over 128 museums. According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries, the English museum comes from the Latin word, and is pluralized as museums. The first museum/library is considered to be the one of Plato in Athens, Pausanias gives another place called Museum, namely a small hill in Classical Athens opposite to the Akropolis. The hill was called Mouseion after Mousaious, a man who used to sing on the hill, the purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public.
The purpose can depend on ones point of view, to a family looking for entertainment on a Sunday afternoon, a trip to a local history museum or large city art museum could be a fun, and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the health of a city. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museums mission, Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithsons bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution for the increase, Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of classification of a field of knowledge for research. As American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students, while many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums.
While there is a debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museums collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect. Much care and expense is invested in efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artworks. All museums display objects that are important to a culture, as historian Steven Conn writes, To see the thing itself, with ones own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting. Museum purposes vary from institution to institution, some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects and they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia
Julius Caesar (play)
The Tragedy of Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written in 1599. It is one of plays written by Shakespeare based on true events from Roman history. The play opens with the commoners of Rome celebrating Caesars triumphant return from defeating Pompeys sons at the battle of Munda, two tribunes and Marrullus, discover the commoners celebrating, insult them for their change in loyalty from Pompey to Caesar, and break up the crowd. There are some made by the commoners, who insult them back. They plan on removing all decorations from Caesars statues and ending any other festivities, in the next scene, during Caesars parade on the feast of Lupercal, a soothsayer warns Caesar to Beware the ides of March, a warning he disregards. The action turns to the discussion between Brutus and Cassius, in this conversation, Cassius attempts to influence Brutus opinions into believing Caesar should be killed, preparing to have Brutus join his conspiracy to kill Caesar. They hear from Casca that Mark Antony has offered Caesar the crown of Rome three times and that each time Caesar refused it, fainting after the last refusal.
He compares Caesar to A serpents egg/ which hatchd, would, as his kind, grow mischievous, / and kill him in the shell. Caesars assassination is one of the most famous scenes of the play, occurring in Act 3, scene 1. After ignoring the soothsayer, as well as his wifes own premonitions, the conspirators create a superficial motive for coming close enough to assassinate Caesar by means of a petition brought by Metellus Cimber, pleading on behalf of his banished brother. As Caesar, rejects the petition, Casca grazes Caesar in the back of his neck, at this point, Shakespeare makes Caesar utter the famous line Et tu, Brute. Shakespeare has him add, Then fall, suggesting that such treachery destroyed Caesars will to live, the conspirators make clear that they committed this act for Rome, not for their own purposes, and do not attempt to flee the scene. After Caesar is killed, Brutus delivers an oration defending his actions, and for the moment, even as he states his intentions against it, rouses the mob to drive the conspirators from Rome.
Amid the violence, an innocent poet, Cinna, is confused with the conspirator Lucius Cinna and is taken by the mob and that night, Caesars ghost appears to Brutus with a warning of defeat. At the battle and Brutus, knowing that they will both die, smile their last smiles to each other and hold hands. During the battle, Cassius has his servant Pindarus kill him after hearing of the capture of his best friend, after Titinius, who was not really captured, sees Cassiuss corpse, he commits suicide. However, Brutus wins that stage of the battle—but his victory is not conclusive, with a heavy heart, Brutus battles again the next day. He loses and commits suicide by running on his own sword, there is a small hint at the friction between Mark Antony and Octavius which characterizes another of Shakespeares Roman plays and Cleopatra. The main source of the play is Thomas Norths translation of Plutarchs Lives, Shakespeare makes Caesars triumph take place on the day of Lupercalia instead of six months earlier
Timber framing and post-and-beam construction are methods of building with heavy timbers rather than dimensional lumber such as 2x4s. Traditional timber framing is the method of creating structures using heavy squared-off and it is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. The method comes from making out of logs and tree trunks without modern high tech saws to cut lumber from the starting material stock. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in parts of the world. These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers. Three basic types of frames in English-speaking countries are the box frame, cruck frame. The distinction presented here is the load is carried by the exterior walls. Purlins are in a timber frame. A cruck is a pair of crooked or curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe, more than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of frames are used, more information follows in English style below.
True cruck or full cruck, straight or curved, base cruck, tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck, blades land on masonry wall, and extend to the ridge, middle cruck, blades land on masonry wall, and are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck, blades land on a tie beam, very similar to knee rafters, jointed cruck, blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also, hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts. These interior posts typically carry more load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church. However, a nave is often called an aisle, and three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, and typically have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus, the frame is often left exposed on the exterior of the building
Susanna Hall was the oldest child of William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway, and the older sister of Judith Quiney and Hamnet Shakespeare. She married John Hall, a physician, in 1607. They had one daughter, named Elizabeth, in 1608, Elizabeth married Thomas Nash, son of Anthony Nash on 22 April,1626 at Holy Trinity Church, Stratford-upon-Avon. Susanna was baptised in the Church of the Holy Trinity, Stratford-upon-Avon on Trinity Sunday, Shakespeares wife Anne was already pregnant with Susanna when the couple were married. The name Susanna derives from the story of Susanna and the elders in the Book of Daniel and suggests purity and spotlessness, and had associations that appealed to the Puritans. It first appeared in Stratford parish registers in 1574, so the name was rather novel. As such it may have been an assertion of virtue for a child born perilously close to the side of marriage as the historian Peter Ackroyd put it. She was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon along with her siblings, twins Hamnet.
Two extant signatures exist, so we know she was able to sign her name, Susanna married John Hall, a respected physician, on 5 June 1607 in Holy Trinity Church. She was 24, he was about 32, some slight evidence indicates that Shakespeare settled a substantial dowry on Susanna of 105 acres of his land in Old Stratford he had bought in 1602, probably retaining a life interest in it. John Halls Select Observations, case studies of his patients, was published in 1657,22 years after his death. The earliest case, a one, dates from 1611. Their one child, Elizabeth was baptised on 21 February 1608 in Holy Trinity Church, the couple had no other children, and Elizabeth was the only grandchild Shakespeare knew, as Judiths children were born after his death. In June 1613, a man named John Lane, Jr.23, accused Susanna of adultery with a Rafe Smith, a 35-year-old haberdasher, on 15 July the Halls brought suit for slander against Lane in the Consistory court at Worcester. Robert Whatcott, who three years witnessed Shakespeares will, testified for the Halls, but Lane failed to appear, Lane was found guilty of slander and excommunicated.
In 1619 Lane was found guilty of slander again, this time for attacks on the vicar and he was named in court as a persistent drunkard. In case no sons were born or they died, the estate would go to her daughter Elizabeth Hall and her male heirs, to Judith and her male heirs. He named the Halls as executors of the will, and she was buried in Holy Trinity Church in Stratford next to her parents
Charles John Huffam Dickens was an English writer and social critic. He created some of the worlds best-known fictional characters and is regarded by many as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era and his works enjoyed unprecedented popularity during his lifetime, and by the twentieth century critics and scholars had recognised him as a literary genius. His novels and short stories enjoy lasting popularity, born in Portsmouth, Dickens left school to work in a factory when his father was incarcerated in a debtors prison. Dickenss literary success began with the 1836 serial publication of The Pickwick Papers, within a few years he had become an international literary celebrity, famous for his humour and keen observation of character and society. His novels, most published in monthly or weekly instalments, pioneered the publication of narrative fiction. The instalment format allowed Dickens to evaluate his audiences reaction, and he modified his plot. For example, when his wifes chiropodist expressed distress at the way Miss Mowcher in David Copperfield seemed to reflect her disabilities and his plots were carefully constructed, and he often wove elements from topical events into his narratives.
Masses of the poor chipped in hapennies to have each new monthly episode read to them, opening up. Dickens was regarded as the literary colossus of his age and his 1843 novella, A Christmas Carol, remains popular and continues to inspire adaptations in every artistic genre. Oliver Twist and Great Expectations are adapted, like many of his novels. His 1859 novel, A Tale of Two Cities, set in London, Dickens has been praised by fellow writers—from Leo Tolstoy to George Orwell and G. K. Chesterton—for his realism, prose style, unique characterisations, and social criticism. On the other hand, Oscar Wilde, Henry James, and Virginia Woolf complained of a lack of depth, loose writing. The term Dickensian is used to something that is reminiscent of Dickens and his writings. Charles John Huffam Dickens was born on 7 February 1812, at 1 Mile End Terrace, Landport in Portsea Island and his father was a clerk in the Navy Pay Office and was temporarily stationed in the district. He asked Christopher Huffam, rigger to His Majestys Navy, Huffam is thought to be the inspiration for Paul Dombey, the owner of a shipping company in Dickenss eponymous Dombey and Son.
In January 1815 John Dickens was called back to London, when Charles was four, they relocated to Sheerness, and thence to Chatham, where he spent his formative years until the age of 11. His early life seems to have been idyllic, though he himself a very small. Charles spent time outdoors but read voraciously, including the novels of Tobias Smollett and Henry Fielding, as well as Robinson Crusoe
Warwickshire is a landlocked county in the West Midlands of England. The county town is Warwick, although the largest town is Nuneaton, the county is famous for being the birthplace of William Shakespeare. Commonly used abbreviations for the county are Warks or Warwicks, the county is divided into five districts of North Warwickshire and Bedworth, Rugby and Stratford-on-Avon. The current county boundaries were set in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972, the historic county boundaries included Coventry and Solihull, as well as much of Birmingham. The northern tip of the county is only 3 miles from the Derbyshire border, an average-sized English county covering an area of almost 2,000 km2, it runs some 60 miles north to south. Equivalently it extends as far north as Shrewsbury in Shropshire and as far south as Banbury in north Oxfordshire, the majority of Warwickshires population live in the north and centre of the county. The market towns of northern and eastern Warwickshire were industrialised in the 19th century, and include Atherstone, Nuneaton, of these, Atherstone has retained most of its original character.
Major industries included coal mining, textiles and cement production, of the northern and eastern towns, only Nuneaton and Rugby are well-known outside of Warwickshire. The south of the county is rural and sparsely populated. The only town in the south of Warwickshire is Shipston-on-Stour, the highest point in the county, at 261 m, is Ebrington Hill, again on the border with Gloucestershire, grid reference SP187426 at the countys southwest extremity. There are no cities in Warwickshire since both Coventry and Birmingham were incorporated into the West Midlands county in 1974 and are now metropolitan authorities in themselves, the largest towns in Warwickshire in 2011 were, Rugby, Leamington Spa, Warwick and Kenilworth. Much of western Warwickshire, including that area now forming part of Coventry, thus the names of a number of places in the central-western part of Warwickshire end with the phrase -in-Arden, such as Henley-in-Arden, Hampton-in-Arden and Tanworth-in-Arden. The remaining area, not part of the forest, was called the Felden – from fielden, areas historically part of Warwickshire include Coventry, Sutton Coldfield and some of Birmingham including Aston and Edgbaston.
These became part of the county of West Midlands following local government re-organisation in 1974. Some organisations, such as Warwickshire County Cricket Club, which is based in Edgbaston, in Birmingham, Coventry is effectively in the centre of the Warwickshire area, and still has strong ties with the county. Coventry and Warwickshire are sometimes treated as an area and share a single Chamber of Commerce. Coventry has been a part of Warwickshire for only some of its history, in 1451 Coventry was separated from Warwickshire and made a county corporate in its own right, called the County of the City of Coventry. In 1842 the county of Coventry was abolished and Coventry was remerged with Warwickshire, in recent times, there have been calls to formally re-introduce Coventry into Warwickshire, although nothing has yet come of this
William James Linton
William James Linton was an English-born American wood-engraver, landscape painter, political reformer and author of memoirs, novels and non-fiction. Born in Mile End, east London, his family moved to Stratford, the young Linton was educated at Chigwell Grammar School, an early 17th-century foundation attended by many sons of the Essex and City of London middle classes. Aged 15, Linton was apprenticed to the wood-engraver George Wilmot Bonner and his earliest known work is to be found in John Martin and Richard Westalls Pictorial Illustrations of the Bible. He worked from 1834 to 1836 with William Henry Powis, another pupil of Bonner, Linton worked for two years for the firm of John Thompson. The firm was immediately employed on the Illustrated London News, just projected, for years he had concerned himself with the social and European political problems of the time, and was now actively engaged in the republican propaganda. In 1844 he took a prominent part in exposing the violation by the English post office of Mazzinis correspondence and this led to a friendship with the Italian revolutionist, and Linton threw himself with ardor into European politics.
He carried the first congratulatory address of English workmen to the French Provisional Government in 1848 and he edited a twopenny weekly paper, The Cause of the People, published in the Isle of Man, and he wrote political verses for the Dublin Nation, signed Spartacus. The same year he wrote a series of articles propounding the views of Mazzini in The Red Republican, most of the paper, which never paid its way and was abandoned in 1855, was written by himself. In 1852 he printed for private circulation an anonymous volume of poems entitled The Plaint of Freedom, after the failure of his paper he returned to his proper work of wood-engraving. In 1857 his wife died, and in the year he married Eliza Lynn. In 1864 he retired to Brantwood, his remaining in London. In 1867, pressed by financial difficulties, Linton decided to try his fortune in America and he separated from his wife, with whom, however, he remained in touch. With his children he settled at Appledore, Connecticut and he died at Hamden on 29 December 1897.
Linton was a gifted man, who, in the words of his wife, if he had not bitten the Dead Sea apple of impracticable politics. As an engraver on wood he reached the highest point of execution in his own line and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. WILLIAM JAMES LINTON. Dictionary of National Biography,1901 supplement, Smith, Elder & Co. W. J. Linton, Memories, F. G. Kitton, article on Eliza Lynn Linton in English Illustrated Magazine, G. S. Layard, Life of Mrs Lynn Linton. Works by William James Linton at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William James Linton at Internet Archive Archival material relating to William James Linton, W. J. Linton at www. gerald-massey. org. uk William James Linton Archive at the Giangiacomo Feltrinelli Foundation - online inventory