Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, drying them into flexible sheets. It is a versatile material with many uses, including writing, packaging, decorating, a number of industrial and construction processes. Papers are essential in non-legal documentation; the pulp papermaking process is said to have been developed in China during the early 2nd century CE as early as the year 105 CE, by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun, although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BCE in China. The modern pulp and paper industry is global, with China leading its production and the United States right behind it; the oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to the 2nd century BCE in China. The pulp paper-making process is ascribed to a 2nd-century CE Han court eunuch. In the 13th century, the knowledge and uses of paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe, where the first water powered paper mills were built.
Because paper was introduced to the West through the city of Baghdad, it was first called bagdatikos. In the 19th century, industrialization reduced the cost of manufacturing paper. In 1844, the Canadian inventor Charles Fenerty and the German F. G. Keller independently developed processes for pulping wood fibres. Before the industrialisation of paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags; the rags were from hemp and cotton. A process for removing printing inks from recycled paper was invented by German jurist Justus Claproth in 1774. Today this method is called deinking, it was not until the introduction of wood pulp in 1843 that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers. The word "paper" is etymologically derived from Latin papyrus, which comes from the Greek πάπυρος, the word for the Cyperus papyrus plant. Papyrus is a thick, paper-like material produced from the pith of the Cyperus papyrus plant, used in ancient Egypt and other Mediterranean cultures for writing before the introduction of paper into the Middle East and Europe.
Although the word paper is etymologically derived from papyrus, the two are produced differently and the development of the first is distinct from the development of the second. Papyrus is a lamination of natural plant fibres, while paper is manufactured from fibres whose properties have been changed by maceration. To make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibres; this is accomplished by dissolving lignin in a cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose. Paper made from chemical pulps are known as wood-free papers–not to be confused with tree-free paper; the pulp can be bleached to produce white paper, but this consumes 5% of the fibres. There are three main chemical pulping processes: the sulfite process dates back to the 1840s and it was the dominant method extent before the second world war; the kraft process, invented in the 1870s and first used in the 1890s, is now the most practiced strategy, one of its advantages is the chemical reaction with lignin, that produces heat, which can be used to run a generator.
Most pulping operations using the kraft process are net contributors to the electricity grid or use the electricity to run an adjacent paper mill. Another advantage is that this process reuses all inorganic chemical reagents. Soda pulping is another specialty process used to pulp straws and hardwoods with high silicate content. There are two major mechanical pulps: groundwood pulp. In the TMP process, wood is chipped and fed into steam heated refiners, where the chips are squeezed and converted to fibres between two steel discs. In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones to be made into fibres. Mechanical pulping does not remove the lignin, so the yield is high, >95%, however it causes the paper thus produced to turn yellow and become brittle over time. Mechanical pulps have rather short fibres. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than the chemical kind. Paper recycling processes can use mechanically produced pulp.
Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre for the sake of quality. There are three main classifications of recycled fibre:. Mill broke or internal mill waste – This incorporates any substandard or grade-change paper made within the paper mill itself, which goes back into the manufacturing system to be re-pulped back into paper; such out-of-specification paper is not sold and is therefore not classified as genuine reclaimed recycled fibre, however most paper mills have been reusing their own waste fibre for many years, long before recycling became popular. Preconsumer waste – This is offcut and processing waste, such as guillotine trims and envelope blank waste.
A kannushi called shinshoku, is the person responsible for the maintenance of a Shinto shrine as well as for leading worship of a given kami. The characters for kannushi are sometimes read jinshu with the same meaning; the kannushi were intermediaries between kami and could transmit their will to common humans. A kannushi was a man capable of miracles or a holy man who, because of his practice of purificatory rites, was able to work as a medium for a kami; the term evolved to being synonymous with shinshoku, that is, a man who works at a shrine and holds religious ceremonies there. In ancient times, because of the overlap of political and religious power within a clan, it was the head of the clan who led the clansmen during religious functions, or else it could be another official; the role evolved into a separate and more specialized form. The term appears in both the Nihon Shoki. In them Empress Jingū and Emperor Sujin became kannushi. Within the same shrine, for example at Ise Jingū or Ōmiwa Shrine, there can be different types of kannushi at the same time called for example Ō-kannushi, Sō-kannushi, or Gon-kannushi.
Kannushi can marry and their children inherit their position. Although this hereditary status is no longer granted, it continues in practice; the clothes they wear, for example the jōe, the eboshi and the kariginu, do not have any special religious significance, but are official garments used in the past by the Imperial court. This detail reveals the figure of the Emperor. Other implements used by kannushi include a baton called shaku and a wand decorated with white paper streamers called ōnusa. Kannushi are assisted in their religious or clerical work by women called miko. To become a kannushi, a novice must study at a university approved by the Association of Shinto Shrines Tokyo's Kokugakuin University or Ise's Kogakkan University, or pass an exam that will certify his qualification. Women can become kannushi and widows can succeed their husbands in their job. Miko, female equivalent Norito Kannushi, Encyclopedia of Shinto
A sceptre or scepter is a symbolic ornamental staff or wand held in the hand by a ruling monarch as an item of royal or imperial insignia. Figuratively, it means royal or imperial sovereignty; the Was and other types of staves were signs of authority in Ancient Egypt. For this reason they are described as "sceptres" if they are full-length staffs. One of the earliest royal sceptres was discovered in the 2nd Dynasty tomb of Khasekhemwy in Abydos. Kings were known to carry a staff, Pharaoh Anedjib is shown on stone vessels carrying a so-called mks-staff; the staff with the longest history seems to be the heqa-sceptre. The sceptre assumed a central role in the Mesopotamian world, was in most cases part of the royal insignia of sovereigns and gods; this is valid throughout the whole Mesopotamian history, as illustrated by both literary and administrative texts and iconography. The Mesopotamian sceptre was called ĝidru in Sumerian and ḫaṭṭum in Akkadian; the ancient Indian work of Tirukkural dedicates one chapter each to the ethics of the sceptre.
According to Valluvar, "it was not his spear but the sceptre which bound a king to his people."Among the early Greeks, the sceptre was a long staff, such as Agamemnon wielded or was used by respected elders, came to be used by judges, military leaders and others in authority. It is represented on painted vases as a long staff tipped with a metal ornament; when the sceptre is borne by Zeus or Hades, it is headed by a bird. It was this symbol of Zeus, the king of the gods and ruler of Olympus, that gave their inviolable status to the kerykes, the heralds, who were thus protected by the precursor of modern diplomatic immunity. When, in the Iliad, Agamemnon sends Odysseus to the leaders of the Achaeans, he lends him his sceptre. Among the Etruscans, sceptres of great magnificence were used by kings and upper orders of the priesthood. Many representations of such sceptres occur on the walls of the painted tombs of Etruria; the British Museum, the Vatican, the Louvre possess Etruscan sceptres of gold, most elaborately and minutely ornamented.
The Roman sceptre derived from the Etruscan. Under the Republic, an ivory sceptre was a mark of consular rank, it was used by victorious generals who received the title of imperator, its use as a symbol of delegated authority to legates was revived in the marshal’s baton. In the First Persian Empire, the Biblical Book of Esther mentions the sceptre of the King of Persia. Esther 5:2 "When the king saw Esther the queen standing in the court, she obtained favor in his sight. So Esther came near, touched the top of the scepter." Under the Roman Empire, the sceptrum Augusti was specially used by the emperors, was of ivory tipped with a golden eagle. It is shown on medallions of the empire, which have on the obverse a half-length figure of the emperor, holding in one hand the sceptrum Augusti, in the other the orb surmounted by a small figure of Victory; the codes of the right and the cruel sceptre are found in the ancient Tamil work of Tirukkural, dating back to the first century BCE. In Chapters 55 and 56, the text deals with the right and the cruel sceptre furthering the thought on the ethical behaviour of the ruler discussed in many of the preceding and the following chapters.
The ancient treatise says it was not the king's spear but the sceptre that bound him to his people—and to the extent that he guarded them, his own good rule would guard him. With the advent of Christianity, the sceptre was tipped with a cross instead of with an eagle. However, during the Middle Ages, the finials on the top of the sceptre varied considerably. In England, from a early period, two sceptres have been concurrently used, from the time of Richard I, they have been distinguished as being tipped with a cross and a dove respectively. In France, the royal sceptre was tipped with a fleur de lys, the other, known as the main de justice, had an open hand of benediction on the top. Sceptres with small shrines on the top are sometimes represented on royal seals, as on the great seal of Edward III, where the king, bears such a sceptre, but it was an unusual form; this sceptre was, it is believed, made in France around 1536 for James V. Great seals represent the sovereign enthroned, holding a sceptre in the right hand, the orb and cross in the left.
Harold Godwinson appears thus in the Bayeux tapestry. The earliest English coronation form of the 9th century mentions a sceptre, a staff. In the so-called coronation form of Ethelred II a sceptre, a rod appear, as they do in the case of a coronation order of the 12th century. In a contemporary account of Richard I’s coronation, the royal sceptre of gold with a gold cross, the gold rod with a gold dove on the top, enter the historical record for the first time. About 1450, Sporley, a monk of Westminster, compiled a list of the relics there; these included the articles used at the coronation of Saint Edward the Confessor, left by him for the coronations of his successors. A golden sceptre, a wooden rod gilt, an iron rod are named; these survived until the Commonwealth, are minutely described in an inventory of the
Ilex, or holly, is a genus of about 480 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, the only living genus in that family. The species are evergreen or deciduous trees and climbers from tropics to temperate zones worldwide; the genus Ilex includes about 480 species, divided into three subgenera: Ilex subg. Byronia, with the type species Ilex polypyrena Ilex subg. Prinos, with 12 species Ilex subg. Ilex, with the rest of the speciesThe genus is widespread throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world, it includes species of trees and climbers, with evergreen or deciduous foliage and inconspicuous flowers. Its range was more extended in the Tertiary period and many species are adapted to laurel forest habitat, it occurs from sea level to more than 2,000 metres with high mountain species. It is a genus of evergreen trees with smooth, glabrous, or pubescent branchlets; the plants are slow-growing with some species growing to 25 m tall. The type species is the European holly Ilex aquifolium described by Linnaeus.
Plants in this genus have simple, alternate glossy leaves with a spiny leaf margin. The inconspicuous flower is greenish white, with four petals, they are dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants. The small fruits of Ilex, although referred to as berries, are technically drupes, they range in color from red to brown to black, green or yellow. The "bones" contain up to ten seeds each; some species produce fruits parthenogenetically, such as the cultivar'Nellie R. Stevens'; the fruits ripen in winter and thus provide winter colour contrast between the bright red of the fruits and the glossy green evergreen leaves. Hence the cut branches of I. aquifolium, are used in Christmas decoration. The fruits are slightly toxic to humans, can cause vomiting and diarrhea when ingested. However, they are an important food source for birds and other animals, which help disperse the seeds; this can have negative impacts as well. Along the west coast of North America, from California to British Columbia, English holly, grown commercially, is spreading into native forest habitat, where it thrives in shade and crowds out native species.
It has been placed on the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board's monitor list, is a Class C invasive plant in Portland. Ilex in Latin means the evergreen oak. Despite the Linnaean classification of Ilex as holly, as late as the 19th century in Britain, the term Ilex was still being applied to the oak as well as the holly – due to the superficial similarity of the leaves; the name "holly" in common speech refers to Ilex aquifolium stems with berries used in Christmas decoration. By extension, "holly" is applied to the whole genus; the origin of the word "holly" is considered a reduced form of Old English holen, Middle English Holin Hollen. The French word for holly, derives from the Old Low Franconian *hulis. Both are related to Old High German hulis, huls, as are Low German/Low Franconian terms like Hülse or hulst; these Germanic words appear to be related to words for holly in Celtic languages, such as Welsh celyn, Breton kelen and Irish cuileann. Several Romance languages use the Latin word acrifolium "sharp leaf", so Italian agrifoglio, Occitan grefuèlh, etc.
The phylogeography of this group provides examples of various speciation mechanisms at work. In this scenario ancestors of this group became isolated from the remaining Ilex when the Earth mass broke away into Gondwana and Laurasia about 82 million years ago, resulting in a physical separation of the groups and beginning a process of change to adapt to new conditions; this mechanism is called allopatric speciation. Over time, survivor species of the holly genus adapted to different ecological niches; this led to an example of ecological speciation. In the Pliocene, around five million years ago, mountain formation diversified the landscape and provided new opportunities for speciation within the genus; the fossil record indicates that the Ilex lineage was widespread prior to the end of the Cretaceous period. Based on the molecular clock, the common ancestor of most of the extant species appeared during the Eocene, about 50 million years ago, suggesting that older representatives of the genus belong to now extinct branches.
The laurel forest covered great areas of the Earth during the Paleogene, when the genus was more prosperous. This type of forest extended during the Neogene, more than 20 million years ago. Most of the last remaining temperate broadleaf evergreen forests are believed to have disappeared about 10,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene. Many of the then-existing species with the strictest ecological requirements became extinct because they could not cross the barriers imposed by the geography, but others found refuge as a species relict in coastal enclaves and coastal mountains sufficiently far from areas of extreme cold and aridity and protected by the oceanic influence; the genus is distributed throughout the world's different climates. Most species make their home in the tropics and subtropics, with a worldwide distribution in temperate zones; the greatest diversity of species is found in Southeast Asia. Ilex mucronata the type species of Nemopanthus, is native to eastern North America.
Nemopanthus was treated as a separate genus with eight species. Of the family Aquifoliaceae, now transferred to Ilex on molecular data. In Europe the genus is represented by a single species, th
Cleyera japonica is a flowering evergreen tree native to warm areas of Japan, China, Myanmar and northern India. It can reach a height of 10 m; the leaves are 6–10 cm long, oval, leathery and dark green above, yellowish-green below, with deep furrows for the leaf stem. The bark is dark reddish smooth; the small, cream-white flowers open in early summer, are followed by berries which start red and turn black when ripe. Sakaki is one of the common trees in the second layer of the evergreen oak forests, it is considered sacred to Japanese Shintō faith, is one of the classical offerings at Shintō shrines. Sakaki wood is used for making utensils, building materials, fuel, it is planted in gardens and shrines. Sakaki is considered a sacred tree in the Shinto religion, along with other evergreens such as hinoki and kansugi. Shinto shrines are traditionally encircled with shinboku. In Shinto ritual offerings to the "gods; the Japanese word sakaki is written with the kanji character 榊, which combines 木 and 神 to form the meaning "sacred tree.
The lexicographer Michael Carr notes: In modern Japanese, sakaki is written 榊 with a doubly exceptional logograph. It is an ideograph and is a kokuji 国字'Japanese logograph.' Ideograms and kokuji are two of the rarest logographic types, each constituting a small percentage of a typical written Japanese sample. First, the idea of sakaki is expressed with a melding of ki 木 ` tree' and shin or kami 神 ` god. Second, the sakaki 榊 ideograph is a kokuji'national logograph' rather than a usual kanji 漢字'Chinese logograph' borrowing. Kokuji denote Japanese plants and animals not native to China, thus not written with Chinese logographs; the kanji 榊 first appears in the Konjaku Monogatarishū, but two 8th-century transcriptions of the word sakaki are 賢木, meaning "sage tree", 坂木, meaning "slope tree". Sakaki is the title of Chapter 10 in The Tale of Genji, it comes from this context. "May I at least come up to the veranda?" he asked, starting up the stairs. The evening moon burst forth and the figure she saw in its light was handsome beyond describing.
Not wishing to apologize for all the weeks of neglect, he pushed a branch of the sacred tree in under the blinds. "With heart unchanging as this evergreen, This sacred tree, I enter the sacred gate." She replied: "You err with sacred gate. No beckoning cedars stand before my house." And he: "Thinking to find you here with the holy maidens, I followed the scent of the leaf of the sacred tree." Though the scene did not encourage familiarity, he made bold to lean inside the blinds. The etymology of the pronunciation sakaki is uncertain. With linguistic consensus that the -ki suffix denotes 木, the two most probable etymologies are either sakae-ki, from sakae. Carr cites historical phonology to support the latter etymon; the Shogakukan Kokugo Dai Jiten Dictionary entry for this term notes that the pitch accent for sakayu – the origin of modern sakae – is different than what would be expected, suggesting that saka-ki may be the more derivation. Aston, William George, tr. 1896. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.
D. 697. Kegan Paul. 1972 Tuttle reprint. Carr, Michael. 1995. "Sacred Twig and Tree: Tamagushi and Sakaki in Japanese-English Dictionaries", The Review of Liberal Arts 小樽商科大学人文研究 89:1–36. Chamberlain, Basil H. tr. 1919. The Kojiki, Records of Ancient Matters. 1981 Tuttle reprint. Min and Bruce Bartholomew, 2015, Cleyera japonica, Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. Seidensticker, Edward G. tr. 1976. The Tale of Genji. Knopf. Shogakukan, 1988, Kokugo Dai Jiten 国語大辞典, rev. ed. Shogakukan. Sakaki, Sacred Tree of Shinto, Mildred E. Mathias Botanical Garden newsletter 1999 Sakaki, Encyclopedia of Shinto Shrubs: Cleyera japonica, NC State University Urban Horticulture NOS CLEYERA PAGE, Plantnames.org
Kōjien is a single-volume Japanese dictionary first published by Iwanami Shoten in 1955. It is regarded as the most authoritative dictionary of Japanese, newspaper editorials cite its definitions; as of 2007, it had sold 11 million copies. Kōjien was the magnum opus of Shinmura Izuru, 1876–1967, a professor of linguistics and Japanese at Kyoto University, he was born in Yamaguchi Prefecture and graduated from the prestigious Tokyo University, where he was a student of Kazutoshi Ueda. After studying in Germany, Ueda taught comparative linguistics and edited foreign-language dictionaries in the latter part of the Meiji era. Through his tutelage, Shinmura became involved in Japanese language lexicography. Kōjien editions published after his death credit Shinmura as the chief editor; the predecessor of Kōjien originated during the Great Depression in East Asia. In 1930, the publisher Shigeo Oka wanted to create a Japanese dictionary for high school students, he asked his friend Shinmura to be chief editor, they chose the title Jien in a classical allusion to the Ziyuan Chinese dictionary.
Shinmura appointed his son Takeshi Shinmura as an editor, in 1935, Hakubunkan published the Jien dictionary. It contained some 160,000 headword entries of old and new Japanese vocabulary, as well as encyclopedic content, became a bestseller; the editors began working on a revised edition, but the 1945 Firebombing of Tokyo destroyed their work. After the war and his lexicographers began anew in September 1948. Iwanami Shoten published the first Kōjien in 1955, it included 200,000 headwords, about 40,000 more than the Jien. The 2nd edition deleted about 20,000 old entries and added about 20,000 new ones scientific terms. On December 1, 1976, a revised and expanded version of the 2nd edition was published; the 3rd edition added 12,000 entries, was published in CD-ROM format in 1987. Three major Japanese publishers released new dictionaries designed to compete with the Iwanami's popular and profitable Kōjien: Sanseidō's Daijirin, Shōgakukan's Daijisen, Kōdansha's Nihongo Daijiten. In response, the 4th edition Kōjien was a major revision that added some 15,000 entry words, bringing the total to over 220,000.
The CD-ROM version was published in 1993 and revised with color illustrations in 1996. In 1992, Iwanami published a useful Gyakubiki Kōjien; the 5th edition includes over 230,000 headwords, its 2996 pages contain an estimated total of 14 million characters. Iwanami Shoten publishes Kōjien in several printed and digital formats, sells dictionary subscription services for cell phone and Internet access. Various manufacturers of Japanese electronic dictionaries have licensed the digital Kōjien, it is the core dictionary in many models. Shinmura's preface to the 1st edition stated his hope that the Kōjien would become regarded as the standard by which other dictionaries would be measured; this has been fulfilled. It remains a bestseller in Japan. According to Iwanami, the 1st edition Kōjien sold over one million copies, the 5th edition brought cumulative total sales to over eleven million in 2000; the sixth edition was released on January 11, 2008, includes more than 10,000 new entries, bringing the total to 240,000.
It contains an additional 1,500 quotations. The seventh edition was released on January 12, 2018. Changes include 10,000 new words were added from 100,000 words collected by its editors firstly, including "apuri", "Isuramu-koku", LGBT, "hanii torappu", "jidori" and "diipu raningu". Other changes include citing available source literature for a given explanation of a term, listing changes of the usages of a term, addition of 140 pages without adding book thickness. However, the definition of LGBT in the edition was written as "individuals whose sexual orientation differs from the majority." Some netizens criticized that the definition only describes the "LGB" portion of the acronym which refers to sexual orientation, while the "T" refers to sexual identity. In addition, Taiwanese government objected the change of definition of Taiwan as'the 26th province of People's Republic of China'. Jien?th printing Kōjien 1st edition?th printing Kōjien 2nd edition?th printing Kōjien 2nd revised edition?th printing Kōjien 3rd edition:?th printing Kōjien 4th edition: Includes 220,000 entries, 2500 illustrations.
Regular edition:?th printing desktop edition: B5 page size.?th printing reverse index regular edition?th printing reverse index desktop edition: B5 page size.?th printing leather edition?th printing EPWING CD-ROM edition: CD-ROM includes 84 bird sounds, 234 colour samples, search engine.?th printing Electronic Kōjien 4th edition (