Malakbêl was a sun deity of the city of Palmyra in pre-Islamic Syria. The meaning, in Aramaic, is “Messenger of Baal" or "Messenger, or Angel, of the Lord"; the Greek identified Malakbel with Hermes, the Romans with Sol. He was similar to the Babylonian sun god Shamash. Malakbel is accompanied by the Moon god Aglibol, sometimes the goddess Allat
Mesopotamian mythology refers to the myths, religious texts, other literature that comes from the region of ancient Mesopotamia in modern-day West Asia. In particular the societies of Sumer and Assyria, all of which existed shortly after 3000 BCE and were gone by 400 CE; these works were preserved on stone or clay tablets and were written in cuneiform by scribes. Several lengthy pieces have survived, some of which are considered the oldest stories in the world, have given historians insight into Mesopotamian ideology and cosmology. There are many different accounts of the creation of the earth from the Mesopotamian region; this is because of the many different cultures in the area and the shifts in narratives that are common in ancient cultures due to their reliance on word of mouth to transmit stories. These myths can share related themes, but the chronology of events vary based on when or where the story was written down. See main article: Atra-Hasis Atra-Hasis refers both to one of the Mesopotamian myths focusing on the earth’s creation, the main character of that myth.
The myth has Assyrian roots, as a fragmented version may have been found in the library of Ashusbanipal, though translations remain unsure. Its most complete surviving version was recorded in Akkadian; the myth begins with humans being created by the mother goddess Mami to lighten the gods' workload. She made them out of a mixture of clay and blood from a slain god. In the story though, the god Enlil attempts to control overpopulation of humans through various methods, including famine, a great flood. Humankind is saved by Atrahasis, warned of the flood by the god Enki and built a boat to escape the waters placating the gods with sacrifices. See main article: Sumerian Creation Myth Eridu Gensis has a similar plot to that of the Akkadian myth, Atra-Hasis, though it is harder to tell what happens in Eridu Gensis because the tablet upon which it was recorded is badly damaged; the two stories share the flood as the major event however, although the hero who survives in Eridu Gensis is called Zi-ud-sura instead of Artahasis.
Eridu Gensis was recorded around the same time as Atra-Hasis, however the fragmented tablet that held it was found in Nippur, located in modern-day east Iraq, while the version of Atra-hasis that came from the same time was found in the library of Ashurbanipal, in modern-day north Iraq. See main article: Enuma Elis Enuma Elis is a Babylonian creation myth with an unclear composition, though it dates back to the Bronze Age; this piece was thought to be recited in a ritual celebration of the Babylonian new year. It chronicles the birth of the gods, the world, man, whose purpose was to serve the gods and lighten their work load; the focus of the narrative is on praising Marduk, the patron god of Babylon, who creates the world, the calendar, humanity. These stories tended to focus on a great hero, following their journey through trials or important events in their life. Stories like these can be found in many different cultures around the world, give insight into the values of those societies. For example, in a culture that celebrated a hero, devout to the gods or respecting their father, it can be inferred that the society valued those traits.
The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the most well known Mesopotamian myths, is regarded as the oldest known piece of literature in the world. It was a number of individual short stories, was not combined into one cohesive epic until the 18th century; the story follows the Sumerian king Gilgamesh regarded as a historical figure, his good friend, Enkidu through various adventures and quests that lead to Enkidu's death. The second half of the epic deal with Gilgamesh, distressed about the death of his friend and his own impending mortality, as he searches for immortality. In the end he fails, but he comes to terms with the fact that he is going to die and returns to his city of Uruk a wiser king; the earliest record of myth of Adapa is from the 14th century. Adapa was a Sumerian citizen, blessed by the god Enki with immeasurable intelligence. However, one day Adapa was knocked into the sea by the south wind, in a rage he broke the south wind’s wings so that it could no longer blow. Adapa was summoned to be judged by An, before he left Enki warned him not to eat or drink anything offered to him.
However, An had a change of heart when he realized just how smart Adapa was, offered him the food of immortality, which Adapa, dutiful to Enki, turned down. This story is used as an explanation for humankind’s mortality, it is associated with the fall of man narrative, present in Christianity. Immortality is a constant goal of the characters in Mesopotamian epics. No matter the version of the story, the man who survives the flood, whether Atrahasis, Zi-ud-sura, or Utnapishtim, is granted immortality by the gods; this character makes a reappearance in the Epic of Gilgamesh, when Gilgamesh is searching for immortality after coming to fear death and the underworld after hearing stories from his friend, about what awaits humanity after death. Enkidu says:On entering the House of Dust,everywhere I looked there were royal crowns gathered in heaps,everywhere I listened, it was the bearers of crowns,who, in the past, had ruled the land,but who now served Anu and Enlil cooked meats,served confections, poured cool water from waterskins.
Upon hearing that his position in life did not matter in the underworld, Gilgamesh is terrified and seeks out Utnapishtim, who has achieved immortality after surviving the flood sent by the gods to wipe out humanity. Immortality is touched on in the myth of Adapa. Adapa
Set or Seth is a god of chaos, the desert, disorder and foreigners in ancient Egyptian religion. In Ancient Greek, the god's name is given as Sēth. Set had a positive role where he accompanies Ra on his solar boat to repel Apep, the serpent of Chaos. Set had a vital role as a reconciled combatant, he was lord of the red land. In the Osiris myth, the most important Egyptian myth, Set is portrayed as the usurper who killed and mutilated his own brother Osiris. Osiris's wife Isis reassembled his corpse and resurrected her dead husband long enough to conceive his son and heir Horus. Horus sought revenge upon Set, the myths describe their conflicts. Set is the son of the Earth and Nut, the Sky, he fathered Anubis. The meaning of the name Set is unknown but it is thought to have been pronounced *sūtiẖ based on spellings of his name in Egyptian hieroglyphs as stẖ and swtẖ; the Late Egyptian spelling stš reflects the palatalization of ẖ while the eventual loss of the final consonant is recorded in spellings like swtj.
The Coptic form of the name, ⲥⲏⲧ Sēt, is the basis for the English vocalization. In art, Set is depicted as an enigmatic creature referred to by Egyptologists as the Set animal, a beast resembling no known creature, although it could be seen as a composite of an aardvark, a donkey, a jackal, or a fennec fox; the animal has a curved snout, long rectangular ears, a thin forked tail and canine body, with sprouted fur tufts in an inverted arrow shape. Some early Egyptologists proposed that it was a stylised representation of the giraffe, owing to the large flat-topped "horns" which correspond to a giraffe's ossicones; the Egyptians themselves, made a distinction between the giraffe and the Set animal. During the Late Period, Set is depicted as a donkey or as having a donkey's head; the earliest representations of what might be the Set animal comes from a tomb dating to the Amratian culture of prehistoric Egypt, though this identification is uncertain. If these are ruled out the earliest Set animal appears on a ceremonial macehead of Scorpion II, a ruler of the Naqada III phase.
The head and the forked tail of the Set animal are present. A major element of Set's mythology was his conflict with his brother or nephew, for the throne of Egypt; the contest between them is violent but is described as a legal judgment before the Ennead, an assembled group of Egyptian deities, to decide who should inherit the kingship. The judge in this trial may be Geb, who, as the father of Osiris and Set, held the throne before they did, or it may be the creator gods Ra or Atum, the originators of kingship. Other deities take important roles: Thoth acts as a conciliator in the dispute or as an assistant to the divine judge, in "Contendings", Isis uses her cunning and magical power to aid her son; the rivalry of Horus and Set is portrayed in two contrasting ways. Both perspectives appear as early as the earliest source of the myth. In some spells from these texts, Horus is the son of Osiris and nephew of Set, the murder of Osiris is the major impetus for the conflict; the other tradition depicts Set as brothers.
This incongruity persists in many of the subsequent sources, where the two gods may be called brothers or uncle and nephew at different points in the same text. The divine struggle involves many episodes. "Contendings" describes the two gods appealing to various other deities to arbitrate the dispute and competing in different types of contests, such as racing in boats or fighting each other in the form of hippopotami, to determine a victor. In this account, Horus defeats Set and is supported by most of the other deities, yet the dispute drags on for eighty years because the judge, the creator god, favors Set. In late ritual texts, the conflict is characterized as a great battle involving the two deities' assembled followers; the strife in the divine realm extends beyond the two combatants. At one point Isis attempts to harpoon Set as he is locked in combat with her son, but she strikes Horus instead, who cuts off her head in a fit of rage. Thoth replaces Isis's head with that of a cow. In a key episode in the conflict, Set sexually abuses Horus.
Set's violation is meant to degrade his rival, but it involves homosexual desire, in keeping with one of Set's major characteristics, his forceful and indiscriminate sexuality. In the earliest account of this episode, in a fragmentary Middle Kingdom papyrus, the sexual encounter begins when Set asks to have sex with Horus, who agrees on the condition that Set will give Horus some of his strength; the encounter puts Horus in danger, because in Egyptian tradition semen is a potent and dangerous substance, akin to poison. According to some texts, Set's semen enters Horus's body and makes him ill, but in "Contendings", Horus thwarts Set by catching Set's semen in his hands. Isis retaliates by putting Horus's semen on lettuce-leaves. Set's defeat becomes apparent, he has been impregnated as a result "gives birth" to the disk. In "Contendings", Thoth places it on his own head. Another important epis
Atargatis or Ataratheh was the chief goddess of northern Syria in Classical antiquity. Ctesias used the name Derketo for her, the Romans called her Dea Syria, or in one word Deasura, she was a goddess of fertility, but, as the baalat of her city and people, she was responsible for their protection and well-being. Her chief sanctuary was at Hierapolis, modern Manbij, northeast of Syria, she is sometimes described as a mermaid-goddess, due to identification of her with a fish-bodied goddess at Ascalon. However, there is no evidence that Atargatis was worshipped at Ascalon, all iconographic evidence shows her as anthropomorphic. Michael Rostovtzeff called her "the great mistress of the North Syrian lands", her consort is Hadad. As Ataratheh and fish were considered sacred to her: doves as an emblem of the Love-Goddess, fish as symbolic of the fertility and life of the waters. According to a third-century Syriac source, "In Syria and in Urhâi the men used to castrate themselves in honor of Taratha.
But when King Abgar became a believer, he commanded that anyone who emasculated himself should have a hand cut off. And from that day to the present no one in Urhâi emasculates himself anymore." Atargatis is seen as a continuation of Bronze Age goddesses. At Ugarit, cuneiform tablets attest the three great Canaanite goddesses: ʾAṭirat, described as a fecund "Lady Goddess of the Sea"; the name Atargatis derives from the Aramaic form ʿAtarʿatheh. At Hierapolis Bambyce on coins of about the 4th century BCE, the legend ʿtrʿth appears, for ʿAtarʿate, ʿtrʿth mnbgyb in a Nabataean inscription; the name ʿAtarʿatheh is held to derive from a compound of the Aramaic form ʿAttar, a cognate of ʿAțtart minus its feminine suffix -t, plus ʿAttah or ʿAtā, a cognate of ʿAnat. Alternatively, the second half may be a Palmyrene divine name ʿAthe, which occurs as part of many compounds, it has been proposed that the element -gatis may relate to the Greek gados "fish".. So Atar-Gatis may mean "the fish-goddess Atar".
As a consequence of the first half of the name, Atargatis has though wrongly, been identified as ‘Ashtart. The two deities were of common origin and have many features in common, but their cults are distinct. There is reference in 2 Maccabees 12.26 and 1 Maccabees 5:43 to an Atargateion or Atergateion, a temple of Atargatis, at Carnion in Gilead, but the home of the goddess was unquestionably not Israel or Canaan, but Syria itself. At Palmyra she appears on the coinage with a lion, or her presence is signalled with a lion and the crescent moon. In the temples of Atargatis at Palmyra and at Dura-Europos she appeared with her consort, in the richly syncretic religious culture at Dura-Europos, was worshipped as Artemis Azzanathkona. Two well preserved temples in Niha, Lebanon are dedicated to Hadad. In the 1930s, numerous Nabatean bas-relief busts of Atargatis were identified by Nelson Glueck at Khirbet et-Tannûr, Jordan, in temple ruins of the early first century CE, her wavy hair, suggesting water to Glueck, was parted in the middle.
At Petra the goddess from the north was syncretised with a North Arabian goddess from the south al-Uzzah, worshipped in the one temple. At Dura-Europus among the attributes of Atargatis are the spindle and the sceptre or fish-spear. At her temples at Ascalon, Hierapolis Bambyce, Edessa, there were fish ponds containing fish only her priests might touch. Glueck noted in 1936 that "to this day there is a sacred fish-pond swarming with untouchable fish at Qubbet el-Baeddwī, a dervish monastery three kilometres east of Tripolis, Lebanon."From Syria her worship extended to Greece and to the furthest West. Lucian and Apuleius give descriptions of the beggar-priests who went round the great cities with an image of the goddess on an ass and collected money; the wide extension of the cult is attributable to Syrian merchants. Again we find the cult in Sicily, introduced, no doubt, by slaves and mercenary troops, who carried it to the farthest northern limits of the Roman Empire; the leader of the rebel slaves in the First Servile War, a Syrian named Eunus, claimed to receive visions of Atargatis, whom he identified with the Demeter of Enna.
In many cases Atargatis, ‘Ashtart, other goddesses who once had independent cults and mythologies became fused to such an extent as to be indistinguishable. This fusion is exemplified by the Carnion temple, identical with the famous temple of ‘Ashtart at Ashtaroth-Karnaim. Atargatis appears as the wife of Hadad, they are the protecting deities of the community. Atargatis, wearing a mural crown, is the ancestor the royal house, the founder of social and re
Eshmun was a Phoenician god of healing and the tutelary god of Sidon. This god was known at least from the Iron Age period at Sidon and was worshipped in Tyre, Cyprus, in Carthage where the site of Eshmun's temple is now occupied by the acropolium of Carthage. According to Eusebius of Caesarea, Phoenician author Sanchuniathon wrote that Sydyk,'The Righteous', first fathered seven sons equated with the Greek Cabeiri or Dioscuri, no mother named, afterwards fathered an eighth son by one of the seven Titanides or Artemides.. The name Eshmun appears to mean'the Eighth'; the Neo-Platonist Damascius stated The Asclepius in Beirut is neither a Greek nor an Egyptian, but some native Phoenician divinity. For to Sadyk were born children who are interpreted as Dioscuri and Cabeiri. Photius summarizes Damascius as saying further that Asclepius of Beirut was a youth, fond of hunting, he was seen by the goddess Astronoë who so harassed him with amorous pursuit that in desperation he castrated himself and died.
Astronoë named the youth Paeon'Healer', restored him to life from the warmth of her body, changed him into a god. A village near Beirut named Qabr Shmoun, "Eshmoun's grave," still exists. A trilingual inscription of the 2nd century BCE from Sardinia identifies Eshmun with the Greek Asclepius and the Latin Aesculapius. Pausanias quotes a Sidonian as saying that the Phoenicians claim Apollo as the father of Asclepius, as do the Greeks, but unlike them do not make his mother a mortal woman; the Sidonian continued with an allegory which explained that Apollo represented the sun, whose changing path imparts to the air its healthiness, to be understood as Asclepius. This allegory seems a late invention. Apollo is equated with the Phoenician plague god Resheph; this might be a variant version of Eshmun's parentage, or Apollo might be equated with Sadyk, Sadyk might be equated with Resheph. The name Astresmunim was applied by Dioscorides to the solanum, regarded as having medicinal qualities; the temple to Eshmun is found one km from Sidon on the modern River Awwali.
Building was begun at the end of the 6th century BCE during the reign of Eshmunazar II, additions were made up into the Roman period. It was excavated by Maurice Dunand in 1963-1978. Many votive offerings were found in the form of statues of persons healed by the god babies and young children. Found near the Sidon temple was a gold plaque of Eshmun and the goddess Hygeia showing Eshmun holding a staff in his right hand around which a serpent is entwined. A coin of the 3rd century CE from Beirut shows Eshmun standing between two serpents. Bterram, a village in Lebanon, possesses a old underground temple called Eshmunit, comprising eight rooms, carved into the bedrock and accessible by stairs, it is thought. Delos Temple of Eshmun near Sidon Lebmania: Eshmoun Atlas Tours: Lebanon: Eshmun Ikama: Eshmoun Bterram: Eshmunit
Montu was a falcon-god of war in ancient Egyptian religion, an embodiment of the conquering vitality of the Pharaoh. He was worshipped in Upper Egypt and in the district of Thebes, despite being a Delta-native, astral deity. Whom victory was foretold as he came from the womb,Whom valor was given while in the egg,Bull firm of heart as he treads the arena,Godly king going forth like Montu on victory day. Montu's name, shown in Egyptian hieroglyphs to the right, is technically transcribed as mntw; because of the difficulty in transcribing Egyptian vowels, it is realized as Mont, Montju, Ment or Menthu. A ancient god, Montu was a manifestation of the scorching effect of Ra, the sun — and as such appeared under the epithet Montu-Ra; the destructiveness of this characteristic led to him gaining characteristics of a warrior, becoming a revered war-god. The Egyptians thought that Montu would attack the enemies of Maat while inspiring, at the same time, glorious warlike exploits, it is possible that Montu-Ra and Atum-Ra symbolized the two kingships of Upper and Lower Egypt.
When linked with Horus, Montu's epithet was "Horus Of The Strong Arm". Because of the association of raging bulls with strength and war, the Egyptians believed that Montu manifested himself as a white, black-snouted bull named Buchis — to the point that, in the Late Period, Montu was depicted with a bull's head too; this special sacred bull wore precious crowns and bibs. In Egyptian art, Montu was depicted as a falcon-headed or bull-headed man, with his head surmounted by the solar disk and two feathers: the falcon as a symbol of sky, the bull as a symbol of strength and war, he could wield various weapons such as a curved sword, a spear and arrows, or knives: such a military iconography was widespread in the New Kingdom. Montu had several consorts, including the little-known Theban goddesses Tjenenyet and Iunit, a female form of Ra, Raet-Tawy, he was revered as one of the patrons of the city of Thebes and its fortresses. The sovereigns of the 11th Dynasty chose Montu as protective and dynastic deity, inserting references to him in their own names: for example, four Pharaohs of the 11th Dynasty were called Mentuhotep, which means "Montu is satisfied": Mentuhotep I — maybe a fictional figure.
The Greeks associated Montu with their god of war Ares — although he did not miss his assimilation to Apollo due to the solar radiance that distinguished him. The cult of this military god enjoyed great prestige under the Pharaohs of the 11th Dynasty, whose expansionism and military successes led, around 2055 BC, to the reunification of Egypt, the end of a period of chaos known as First Intermediate Period, a new era of greatness for the country: the Middle Kingdom, a period in which Montu assumed the role of supreme god — for gradually being outclassed by the other Theban god Amun, destined to become the most important deity of the Egyptian pantheon. Starting from the 11th Dynasty, Montu was considered the symbol of the Pharaohs as rulers and winners, as well as their inspirer on the battlefield; the armies were surmounted by the insignia of the "four Montu", all represented while trampling and piercing enemies with a spear in a classic pugnacious pose. A ceremonial battle ax, belonging to the funeral kit of Queen Ahhotep II, Great Royal Wife of the warlike Pharaoh Kamose, lived between the 17th and 18th Dynasty, represents Montu as a proud winged griffin: an iconography influenced by the same Syriac origin which inspired the Minoan art.
Egypt's greatest general-kings called themselves "Mighty Bull", "Son Of Montu", "Montu Is With His Strong/Right Arm". Thutmose III, "the Napoleon of Egypt", was described in ancient times as a "Valiant Montu On The Battlefield". An inscription from his son Amenhotep II recalls that the eighteen years old Pharaoh was able to shoot arrows through copper targets while driving a war chariot, commenting that he had the skill and strength of Montu; the latter's grandson, Pharaoh Amenhotep III the Magnificent, called himself "Montu Of The Rulers" in spite of his own peaceful reign. In the narrative of the Battle of Kadesh, Ramesses II the Great — who proudly called himself "Montu Of The Two Lands" — was said to have seen the enemy and "raged at them like Montu, Lord of Thebes", his majesty passed the fortress of Tjaru, like Montu. Every country trembled before him, fear was in their hearts The goodly watch in life and health, in the tent of his majesty, was on the highland south of Kadesh; when his majesty appeared like the rising of Re, he assumed the adornments of Montu.
The Temple complex of Montu in Medamud, the ancient Medu, less than 5 kilometers north-east of today's Luxor, was built by the great Pharaoh Senusret III of the 12th Dynasty on a pre-existing sacred site of the Old Kingdom. The temple courtyard was used as a dwelling for the living Buchis bull, revered as an incarnation of Montu; the main entrance was to the north-
Nephthys or Nebthet or Nebet-Het is a goddess in ancient Egyptian religion. A member of the Great Ennead of Heliopolis in Egyptian mythology, she was a daughter of Geb. Nephthys was paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Set. Nephthys is the Greek form of an epithet; the origin of the goddess Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is given as "Lady of the House", which has caused some to mistakenly identify her with the notion of a "housewife", or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. This is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity, her name means quite "Lady of the Enclosure" which associates her with the role of priestess. This title, which may be more of an epithet describing her function than a given name indicates the association of Nephthys with one particular temple or some specific aspect of the Egyptian temple ritual. Along with her sister Isis, Nephthys represented the temple pylon or trapezoidal tower gateway entrance to the temple which displayed the flagstaff.
This entrance way symbolised the akhet. At the time of the Fifth Dynasty Pyramid Texts, Nephthys appears as a goddess of the Heliopolitan Ennead, she is companion of the war-like deity, Set. As sister of Isis and Osiris, Nephthys is a protective goddess who symbolizes the death experience, just as Isis represented the birth experience. Nephthys was known in some ancient Egyptian temple theologies and cosmologies as the "Useful Goddess" or the "Excellent Goddess"; these late Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship. Nephthys is regarded as the mother of the funerary-deity Anubis in some myths. Alternatively Anubis appears as the son of Isis; as the primary "nursing mother" of the incarnate Pharaonic-god, Nephthys was considered to be the nurse of the reigning Pharaoh himself. Though other goddesses could assume this role, Nephthys was most portrayed in this function. In contrast Nephthys is sometimes featured as a rather ferocious and dangerous divinity, capable of incinerating the enemies of the Pharaoh with her fiery breath.
New Kingdom Ramesside Pharaohs, in particular, were enamored of Mother Nephthys, as is attested in various stelae and a wealth of inscriptions at Karnak and Luxor, where Nephthys was a member of that great city's Ennead and her altars were present in the massive complex. Nephthys was paired with her sister Isis in funerary rites because of their role as protectors of the mummy and the god Osiris and as the sister-wife of Set. Less well understood than her sister Isis, Nephthys was no less important in Egyptian Religion as confirmed by the work of E. Hornung, along with the work of several noted scholars. "Ascend and descend. Ascend and descend. Pyramid Text Utterance 222 line 210. In the funerary role, Nephthys was depicted as a kite, or as a woman with falcon wings outstretched as a symbol of protection. Nephthys's association with the kite or the Egyptian hawk evidently reminded the ancients of the lamentations offered for the dead by wailing women. In this capacity, it is easy to see how Nephthys could be associated with death and putrefaction in the Pyramid Texts.
She was without fail, depicted as crowned by the hieroglyphics signifying her name, which were a combination of signs for the sacred temple enclosure, along with the sign for neb, or mistress, on top of the enclosure sign. Nephthys was viewed as a morbid-but-crucial force of heavenly transition, i.e. the Pharaoh becomes strong for his journey to the afterlife through the intervention of Isis and Nephthys. The same divine power could be applied to all of the dead, who were advised to consider Nephthys a necessary companion. According to the Pyramid Texts, along with Isis, was a force before whom demons trembled in fear, whose magical spells were necessary for navigating the various levels of Duat, as the region of the afterlife was termed. Though it has been assumed that Nephthys was married to Set and they have a son Anubis, recent Egyptological research has called this into question. Levai notes that while Plutarch's De Iside et Osiride mentions the deity's marriage, there is little linking Nephthys and Set in the original early Egyptian sources.
She argues that the evidence suggests that: while Nephthys's marriage to Set was a part of Egyptian mythology, it was not a part of the myth of the murder and resurrection of Osiris. She was not paired with Set the villain, but with Set's other aspect, the benevolent figure, the killer of Apophis; this was the aspect of Set worshiped in the western oases during the Roman period, where he is depicted with Nephthys as co-ruler. It is Nephthys who assists Isis in gathering and mourning the dismembered portions of the body of Osiris, after his murder by the envious Set. Nephthys serves as the nursemaid and watchful guardian of the infant Horus; the Pyramid Texts refer to Isis as the "birth-mother" and to Nephthys as the "nursing-mother" of Horus. Nephthys was attested as one of the four "Great Chiefs" ruling in the Osirian cult-center of Busiris, in the Delta and she appears to have occupied an honorary position at the holy city of Abydos. No cult is attested for her there, though she figured as a goddess of great importance in the annual rites conducted, wher