Bhoja was an Indian king from the Paramara dynasty. His kingdom was centered around the Malwa region in central India, where his capital Dhara-nagara was located. Bhoja fought wars with nearly all his neighbours in attempts to extend his kingdom, with varying degrees of success. At its zenith, his kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to upper Konkan in the south, from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east. Bhoja is best known as a patron of arts and sciences; the establishment of the Bhoj Shala, a centre for Sanskrit studies, is attributed to him. He was a polymath, several books covering a wide range of topics are attributed to him, he is said to have constructed a large number of Shiva temples, although Bhojeshwar Temple in Bhojpur is the only surviving temple that can be ascribed to him with certainty. Because of his patronage to scholars, Bhoja became one of the most celebrated kings in the Indian history. After his death, he came to be featured in several legends as a righteous scholar-king.
The body of legends clustered around him is comparable to that of the fabled Vikramaditya. Bhoja's father and predecessor was Sindhuraja. According to Bhoja-Prabandha, his mother's name was Savitri. Bhoja's reputation as a scholar-king suggests; the Bhoja-Prabandha states. According to Bhoja-Prabandha, early in his life, Bhoja suffered from intense headaches. Two Brahmin surgeons from Ujjain made him unconscious using an anaesthetic powder called moha-churna, opened his cranial bone, removed a tumor, made him regain his consciousness by administering another powder called sanjivani. According to Tilaka-Manjari, composed by Bhoja's contemporary Dhanapala, Bhoja's feet had auspicious birthmarks indicating that he was fit to be a king, his uncle Munja loved him and appointed him as the king. However, several legendary accounts state that Munja was jealous of Bhoja, tried to prevent him from becoming a king. For example, the 14th century Prabandha-Chintamani states that during the reign of Munja, an astrologer prophesied Bhoja's long reign.
Munja, who wanted his own son to become the king, ordered Bhoja's killing. Bhoja was appointed as the king by the royal ministers after Munja's death. According to a Gujarati legend documented in Rasmala, Munja ordered Bhoja's murder, but appointed him as the crown prince. Bhoja-Prabandha states that Munja ordered one Vatsaraja to kill Bhoja at the Mahamaya temple in Bhuvaneshvari forest. On hearing Bhoja's cultured manner of talking and his men abandoned the murder plan, they faked Bhoja's death, presented to Munja a fake head and a verse from Bhoja. The verse described how great kings like Mandhata and Yudhishthira died leaving behind all their property; the verse moved Munja to tears, made him realize his mistake. When he learned that Bhoja was still alive, he invited Bhoja to back to his court. To repent for his sin, he went on a pilgrimage to Dharmaranya, where he established a town called Munjapuram; the sarcastic verse, purportedly written by Bhoja to Munja appears as an antonymous extract in Sharngadhara-paddhati.
These stories of Bhoja's persecution by Munja are mythical. This legend is not found in the works composed by the contemporaries of Munja and Bhoja. For example, the Nava-Sahasanka-Charita makes no mention of this story; the legend appears to be the poetic imagination of composers. Ain-i-Akbari contains a variation of this account, but distorts the legend, naming Munja as the one, persecuted by Bhoja; this account is completely unreliable from a historical point of view. Some literary works suggest; these works include Tilaka-Manjari, Prabandha-Chintamani, Rasmala. However, several other works as well as epigraphic evidence indicate that Bhoja succeeded his father Sindhuraja. Padmagupta, the court poet of Sindhuraja and Bhoja supports this fact. According to Bhoja-Prabandha, Munja left the Paramara administration in hands of Sindhuraja before departing on a military expedition. Munja unexpectedly died in this campaign, as a result, Sindhuraja succeeded him as the king. Sindhuraja's court poet Padmagupta, in his Nava-Sahasanka-Charita, states that Munja "placed the world in Sindhuraja's hands" before leaving for Ambika's town.
This indicates that he left the administration in Sindhuraja's hands before leaving for his fatal expedition against Tailapa II. Udaipur Prashasti inscription seems to confirm this; the Modasa copper plates are the earliest historical record of Bhoja's reign. The Chintamani-Sarnika was composed by Bhoja's court poet Dasabala. An inscription of Bhoja's successor Jayasimha I is dated 1055 CE. Thus, 1055 CE can be taken as the last year of Bhoja's reign. Based on these evidences, scholars such as Pratipal Bhatia assign Bhoja's reign to 1010–1055 CE. However, some scholars assign the beginning of Bhoja's reign variously between 1000 CE and 1010 CE, based on their interpretations of inscriptions and legendary texts. For example, Merutunga's Prabandha-Chintamani states that Bhoja ruled for 55 years, 7 months and 3 days. Based on this, scholars such as D. C. Ganguly and K. C. Jain assign Bhoja's reign to 1000–1055 CE. However, as K. M. Munshi states, dates are "the weakest point in Merutunga's narratives".
A. K. Warder, who dismisses Merutunga as "completely unreliable" and his narratives as "essentially fiction", believes there is no evidenc
The Paramara dynasty was an Indian dynasty that ruled Malwa and surrounding areas in west-central India between 9th and 14th centuries. The medieval bardic literature classifies them among the Agnivanshi Rajput dynasties; the dynasty was established in either 10th century. The earliest extant Paramara inscriptions, issued by the 10th century ruler Siyaka, have been found in Gujarat and suggest that he was a vassal of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. Around 972 CE, Siyaka sacked the Rashtrakuta capital Manyakheta, established the Paramaras as a sovereign power. By the time of his successor Munja, the Malwa region in present-day Madhya Pradesh had become the core Paramara territory, with Dhara as their capital; the dynasty reached its zenith under Munja's nephew Bhoja, whose kingdom extended from Chittor in the north to Konkan in the south, from the Sabarmati River in the west to Vidisha in the east. The Paramara power rose and declined several times as a result of their struggles with the Chaulukyas of Gujarat, the Chalukyas of Kalyani, the Kalachuris of Tripuri and other neighbouring kingdoms.
The Paramara rulers moved their capital to Mandapa-Durga after Dhara was sacked multiple times by their enemies. Mahalakadeva, the last known Paramara king, was defeated and killed by the forces of Alauddin Khalji of Delhi in 1305 CE, although epigraphic evidence suggests that the Paramara rule continued for a few years after his death. Malwa enjoyed a great level of cultural prestige under the Paramaras; the Paramaras were well known for their patronage to Sanskrit poets and scholars, Bhoja was himself a renowned scholar. Most of the Paramara kings were Shaivites and commissioned several Shiva temples, although they patronized Jain scholars; the Harsola copper plates issued by the Paramara king Siyaka II establish that the early Paramara rulers were the feudatories of the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta. This inscription mentions a king called Akalavarsha, followed by the expression tasmin kule, followed by the name "Vappairaja". Based on the Harsola inscription, some historians such as D. C. Ganguly theorized.
Ganguly tried to find support for his theory in Ain-i-Akbari, whose variation of the Agnikula myth states that the founder of the Paramara kingdom came to Malwa from Deccan, that "Aditya Ponwar" was the first sovereign ruler of the dynasty. Moreover, Siyaka's successor Munja assumed titles such as Amoghavarsha, Sri-vallabha and Prithvi-vallabha: these are distinctively Rashtrakuta titles. Several historians have been critical of this theory. Dasharatha Sharma notes that the Agnikula myth about the Paramara origin had come into being by the time of Siyaka's son Sindhuraja. Sharma argues that the Rashtrakuta royal origin of the Paramaras could not have been forgotten within a generation. K. C. Jain theorizes that Vappairaja's mother was related to the Rashtrakuta family, because the other Paramara records do not boast of the Rashtrakuta royals as their ancestors. Siyaka and other Paramara kings before Munja did not adopt any Rashtrakuta titles: Munja may have adopted these titles to commemorate his predecessor's victory over the Rashtrakutas, to strengthen his claim over the former Rashtrakuta territories.
The Paramara kings claimed to be members of the Agnikula or Agnivansha. The Agnikula myth of origin, which appears in several of their inscriptions and literary works, goes like this: The sage Vishvamitra forcibly took a wish-granting cow from another sage Vashistha on the Arbuda mountain. Vashistha conjured a hero from a sacrificial fire pit, who defeated Vashistha's enemies and brought back the cow. Vashistha gave the hero the title Paramara; the earliest known source to mention this story is the Nava-sahasanka-charita of Padmagupta Parimala, a court-poet of the Paramara king Sindhuraja. The legend is not mentioned in literary works. By this time, all the neighbouring dynasties claimed divine or heroic origin, which might have motivated the Paramaras to invent a legend of their own. In the period, the Paramaras were categorized as one of the Rajput clans, although the Rajput identity did not exist during their time. A legend mentioned in a recension of Prithviraj Raso extended their Agnikula legend to describe other dynasties as fire-born Rajputs.
The earliest extant copies of Prithviraj Raso do not contain this legend. Some colonial-era historians interpreted this mythical account to suggest a foreign origin for the Paramaras. According to this theory, the ancestors of the Paramaras and other Agnivanshi Rajputs came to India after the decline of the Gupta Empire around the 5th century CE, they were admitted in the Hindu caste system after performing a fire ritual. However, this theory is weakened by the fact that the legend is not mentioned in the earliest of the Paramara records, the earliest Paramara-era account does not mention the other dynasties as Agnivanshi; some historians, such as Dasharatha Sharma and Pratipal Bhatia, have argued that the Paramaras were Brahmins from the Vashistha gotra. This theory is based on the fact that Halayudha, patronized by Munja, describes the king as "Brahma-Kshtra" in Pingala-Sutra-Vritti. According to Bhatia this expression means that Munja came from a family of Brahmins who became Kshatriyas. In addition, the Patanarayana temple inscription states that the
In Hindu tradition Triveni Sangam is the "confluence" of three rivers. The point of confluence is a sacred place for Hindus, with a bath here said to flush away all of one's sins and free one from the cycle of rebirth. One such Triveni Sangam, in Allahabad, has the confluence of three rivers — the Ganges, the Yamuna and a third mythical river the Saraswati; the two rivers can be identified by their different colours. The water of the Ganges is clear. A place of religious importance and the site for historic Kumbh Mela held every 12 years, over the years it has been the site of immersion of ashes of several national leaders, including Mahatma Gandhi in 1948; the auspiciousness of the confluence of two rivers is referred to in the Rigveda, which says,"Those who bathe at the place where the two rivers flow together, rise up to heaven" Bhagamandala is a pilgrimage place in Kodagu district of Karnataka. It is situated on the river Kaveri in its upstream stretches. At this place, the Kaveri is joined by the Kannike and the mythical Sujyoti river.
It is considered sacred as a river confluence. The Triveni Sangam in Erode is a confluence of 3 rivers, the Cauvery and Amudha. Of these three, the river Amudha is invisible and is said to flow underground and join the other two rivers from below, it is called as Kooduthurai, where the famous Sangameswarar Temple is located. Tirumakudalu Narasipura known as T. Narasipura, is a panchayat town in Mysore district in the Indian state of Karnataka; the first name refers to the land at the confluence, at the confluence of the Kaveri and Spatika Sarovara. This is the place in South India. Kaliyar and Kothayar merge and becomes Moovattupuzha river in Kerala and hence this place is called Moovattupuzha. Munnar city is where Mudhirapuzha and Kundaly rivers merge, the name Munnar means "three rivers" in Malayalam and Tamil. Kandakurthi is a village in Renjal mandal of Nizamabad district in the Indian state of Telangana; the river Godavari merges with the rivers Manjira and Haridra
The Indus River is one of the longest rivers in Asia. Originating in the Tibetan Plateau in the vicinity of Lake Manasarovar, the river runs a course through the Ladakh region of Jammu and Kashmir, India towards the Gilgit-Baltistan region of Pakistan and the Hindukush ranges, flows in a southerly direction along the entire length of Pakistan to merge into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi in Sindh, it is the longest river and national river of Pakistan. The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 km2, its estimated annual flow stands at around 243 km3, twice that of the Nile River and three times that of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers combined, making it one of the largest rivers in the world in terms of annual flow. The Zanskar is its left bank tributary in Ladakh. In the plains, its left bank tributary is the Panjnad which itself has five major tributaries, the Chenab, the Ravi, the Beas, the Sutlej, its principal right bank tributaries are the Shyok, the Gilgit, the Kabul, the Gomal, the Kurram.
Beginning in a mountain spring and fed with glaciers and rivers in the Himalayas, the river supports ecosystems of temperate forests and arid countryside. The northern part of the Indus Valley, with its tributaries, forms the Punjab region, while the lower course of the Indus is known as Sindh and ends in a large delta; the river has been important to many cultures of the region. The 3rd millennium BC saw the rise of a major urban civilization of the Bronze Age. During the 2nd millennium BC, the Punjab region was mentioned in the hymns of the Hindu Rigveda as Sapta Sindhu and the Zoroastrian Avesta as Hapta Hindu. Early historical kingdoms that arose in the Indus Valley include Gandhāra, the Ror dynasty of Sauvīra; the Indus River came into the knowledge of the West early in the Classical Period, when King Darius of Persia sent his Greek subject Scylax of Caryanda to explore the river, ca. 515 BC. This river was known to the ancient Indians in Sanskrit as Sindhu and the Persians as Hindu, regarded by both of them as "the border river".
The variation between the two names is explained by the Old Iranian sound change *s > h, which occurred between 850–600 BCE according to Asko Parpola. From the Persian Achaemenid Empire, the name passed to the Greeks as Indós, it was adopted by the Romans as Indus. The meaning of Sindhu as a "large body of water, sea, or ocean" is a meaning in Classical Sanskrit. A Persian name for the river was Darya, which has the connotations of large body of water and sea. Other variants of the name Sindhu include Assyrian Sinda, Persian Ab-e-sind, Pashto Abasind, Arab Al-Sind, Chinese Sintow, Javanese Santri. India is a Greek and Latin term for "the country of the River Indus"; the region through which the river drains into sea owes its name to the river. Megasthenes' book Indica derives its name from the river's Greek name, "Indós", describes Nearchus's contemporaneous account of how Alexander the Great crossed the river; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as "Indói" meaning "the people of the Indus".
The Rigveda describes several rivers, including one named "Sindhu". The Rigvedic "Sindhu" is thought to be the present-day Indus river, it is attested 176 times in its text, 94 times in the plural, most used in the generic sense of "river". In the Rigveda, notably in the hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, e.g. in the list of rivers mentioned in the hymn of Nadistuti sukta. The Rigvedic hymns apply a feminine gender to all the rivers mentioned therein, except the Bramhaputra and the "Sindhu" which carry the masculine gender; this gender usage could mean that the Sindhu river was believed to be a warrior, thus one of the greatest among all the rivers in the whole world. In other languages of the region, the river is known as सिन्धु in Hindi and Nepali, سنڌو in Sindhi, سندھ in Shahmukhi Punjabi, ਸਿੰਧ ਨਦੀ in Gurmukhī Punjabi, اباسين in Pashto, نهر السند in Arabic, སེང་གེ་གཙང་པོ། in Tibetan, 印度 in Chinese, Nilab in Turki; the Indus River provides key water resources for Pakistan's economy – the breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, Sindh.
The word Punjab means "land of five rivers" and the five rivers are Jhelum, Ravi and Sutlej, all of which flow into the Indus. The Indus supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan; the ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet. The Indus flows northwest through Ladakh and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range; the Shyok and Gilgit rivers carry glacial waters into the main river. It bends to the south and descends into the Punjab plains at Kalabagh, Pakistan; the Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500–5,200 metres deep near the Nanga Parbat massif. It is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir; the Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in the plains of the Punjab and Sindh, where the flow of the river becomes slow and braided, it is joined by the Panjnad at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one tim
Fantasy is a genre of speculative fiction set in a fictional universe inspired by real world myth and folklore. Its roots are in oral traditions, which became literature and drama. From the twentieth century it has expanded further into various media, including film, graphic novels and video games. Fantasy is distinguished from the genres of science fiction and horror by the absence of scientific or macabre themes though these genres overlap. In popular culture, the fantasy genre is predominantly of the medievalist form. In its broadest sense, fantasy consists of works by many writers, artists and musicians from ancient myths and legends to many recent and popular works. Most fantasy uses other supernatural elements as a main plot element, theme, or setting. Magic and magical creatures are common in many of these worlds. An identifying trait of fantasy is the author's reliance on imagination to create narrative elements that do not have to rely on history or nature to be coherent; this differs from realistic fiction in that realistic fiction has to attend to the history and natural laws of reality, where fantasy does not.
An author applies his or her imagination to come up with characters and settings that are impossible in reality. Many fantasy authors use real-world mythology as inspiration. For instance, a narrative that takes place in an imagined town in the northeastern United States could be considered realistic fiction as long as the plot and characters are consistent with the history of a region and the natural characteristics that someone, to the northeastern United States expects. Fantasy has been compared to science fiction and horror because they are the major categories of speculative fiction. Fantasy is distinguished from science fiction by the plausibility of the narrative elements. A science fiction narrative is unlikely, though possible through logical scientific or technological extrapolation, where fantasy narratives do not need to be scientifically possible. Authors have to rely on the readers' suspension of disbelief, an acceptance of the unbelievable or impossible for the sake of enjoyment, in order to write effective fantasies.
Despite both genres' heavy reliance on the supernatural and horror are distinguishable. Horror evokes fear through the protagonists' weaknesses or inability to deal with the antagonists. Elements of the supernatural and the fantastic were a part of literature from its beginning. Fantasy elements occur throughout the ancient Akkadian Epic of Gilgamesh; the ancient Babylonian creation epic, the Enûma Eliš, in which the god Marduk slays the goddess Tiamat, contains the theme of a cosmic battle between good and evil, characteristic of the modern fantasy genre. Genres of romantic and fantasy literature existed in ancient Egypt; the Tales of the Court of King Khufu, preserved in the Westcar Papyrus and was written in the middle of the second half of the eighteenth century BC, preserves a mixture of stories with elements of historical fiction and satire. Egyptian funerary texts preserve mythological tales, the most significant of which are the myths of Osiris and his son Horus. Folk tales with fantastic elements intended for adults were a major genre of ancient Greek literature.
The comedies of Aristophanes are filled with fantastic elements his play The Birds, in which an Athenian man builds a city in the clouds with the birds and challenges Zeus's authority. Ovid's Metamorphoses and Apuleius's The Golden Ass are both works that influenced the development of the fantasy genre by taking mythic elements and weaving them into personal accounts. Both works involve complex narratives in which humans beings are transformed into animals or inanimate objects. Platonic teachings and early Christian theology are major influences on the modern fantasy genre. Plato used allegories to convey many of his teachings, early Christian writers interpreted both the Old and New Testaments as employing parables to relay spiritual truths; this ability to find meaning in a story, not true became the foundation that allowed the modern fantasy genre to develop. The most well known fiction from the Islamic world was The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, a compilation of many ancient and medieval folk tales.
Various characters from this epic have become cultural icons in Western culture, such as Aladdin and Ali Baba. Hindu mythology was an evolution of the earlier Vedic mythology and had many more fantastical stories and characters in the Indian epics; the Panchatantra, for example, used various animal fables and magical tales to illustrate the central Indian principles of political science. Chinese traditions have been influential in the vein of fantasy known as Chinoiserie, including such writers as Ernest Bramah and Barry Hughart. Beowulf is among the best known of the Nordic tales in the English speaking world, has had deep influence on the fantasy genre. Norse mythology, as found in the Elder Edda and the Younger Edda, includes such figures as Odin and his fellow Aesir, dwarves, elves and giants; these elements have been directly imported into various fantasy works. The separate folklore of Ireland and Scotland has sometimes been us
Acharya Hemachandra was a Jain scholar and polymath who wrote on grammar, philosophy and contemporary history. Noted as a prodigy by his contemporaries, he gained the title kalikālasarvajña, "the all-knowing of the Kali Yuga". Hemachandra was born in present-day Gujarat, on Kartika Sud Purnima, his date of birth differs according to sources but 1088 is accepted. His father, Chachiga-deva was a Modh Bania Vaishnava, his mother, was a Jain. Hemchandra's original given name was Changadeva. In his childhood, the Jain monk Devachandra Suri visited Dhandhuka and was impressed by the young Hemachandra's intellect, his mother and maternal uncle concurred with Devachandra, in opposition to his father, that Hemachandra be a disciple of his. Devachandra took Hemachandra to Khambhat, where Hemachandra was placed under the care of the local governor Udayana. Chachiga came to Udayana's place to take his son back, but was so overwhelmed by the kind treatment he received, that he decided to willingly leave his son with Devachandra.
Some years Hemachandra was initiated a Jain monk on Magha Sud Chauth and was given a new name, Somchandra. Udayana helped Devchandra Suri in the ceremony, he was trained in religious discourse, philosophy and grammar and became well versed in Jain and non–Jain scriptures. At the age of 21, he was ordained an acharya of the Śvētāmbara school of Jainism at Nagaur in present-day Rajasthan. At this time, he was named Hemachandra Suri. At the time, Gujarat was ruled by the Chaulukya dynasty from Anhilavada, it is not certain. As Jain monks are mendicants for eight months and stay at one place during Chaturmas, the four monsoon months, he started living at Patan during these periods and produced the majority of his works there. Around 1125, he was introduced to the Jayasimha Siddharaja and soon rose to prominence in the Chaulukya royal court. According to the Prabhavaka Charita of Chandraprabha, the earliest biography of Hemachandra, Jayasimha spotted Hemachandra while passing through the streets of his capital.
The king was impressed with an impromptu verse uttered by the young monk. In 1135, when the Siddharaja conquered Malwa, he brought the works of Bhoja from Dhar along with other things. One day Siddhraja came across the manuscript of Sarasvati-Kanthabharana, a treatise on Sanskrit grammar, he was so impressed by it that he told the scholars in his court to produce a grammar, as easy and lucid. Hemachandra requested Siddharaja to find the eight best grammatical treatises from Kashmir, he studied them and produced a new grammar work in the style of Pāṇini's Aṣṭādhyāyī. He named his work Siddha-Hema-Śabdanuśāśana after the king. Siddharaja was so pleased with the work that he ordered it to be placed on the back of an elephant and paraded through the streets of Anhilwad Patan. Hemachandra composed the Dvyashraya Kavya, an epic on the history of the Chaulukya dynasty, to illustrate his grammar. According to the Prabhachandra, there was an incident where Siddharaja wanted to kill his nephew Kumarapala because it was prophesied that the kingdom would meet its demise at Kumarapala's hands.
Hemachandra hid Kumarapala under a pile of manuscripts to save him. However, such motifs are common in Indian folk literature, so it is unlikely it was an actual historical event. Many sources differ on Siddharaja's motives. Hemachandra became the advisor to Kumarapala. During Kumarapala's reign, Gujarat became a center of culture. Using the Jain approach of Anekantavada, Hemchandra is said to have displayed a broad-minded attitude, which pleased Kumarapala. Kumarapala ordered the rebuilding of Somnath at Prabhas Patan; some people who were jealous of Hemachandra's rising popularity with the Kumarapala complained that Hemachandra was a arrogant person, that he did not respect the devas and that he refused to bow down to Shiva. When called upon to visit the temple on the inauguration with Kumarapala, Hemachandra bowed before the lingam but said:Bhava Bijankaura-janana Ragadyam Kshayamupagata Yasya, Brahma va Vishnu va Haro Jino va Namastasmai. I bow down to him who has destroyed the passions like attachment and malice which are the cause of the cycle of birth and death.
The king became a devoted follower of Hemachandra and a champion of Jainism. Starting in 1121, Hemachandra was involved in the construction of the Jain temple at Taranga, his influence on Kumarapala resulted in Jainism becoming the official religion of Gujarat and animal slaughter was banned in the state. The tradition of animal sacrifice in the name of religion was uprooted in Gujarat; as a result almost 900 years after Hemchandra, Gujarat still continues to be a predominantly lacto-vegetarian state, despite having an extensive coastline. He announced about his death six months in advance and fasted in his last days, a Jain practice called sallekhana, he died at Anhilavad Patan. The year of death differs according to sources but 1173 is accepted. A prodigious writer, Hemachandra wrote grammars of Sanskrit and Prakrit, prosody, texts on science and logic and many branches of Indian philosophy, it is said. His systematic exposition of the Jain path in the Yogaśāstra and its auto-commentary is a influential text in Jain thought.
According to Olle Quarnström it is "the most comprehensive treatise on Svetambara Jainism known to us". This Sanskrit grammar was written in the style of Pāṇini, it has seven chapters with each chapter having
Hunas or Huna was the name given by the ancient Indians to a group of Central Asian tribes who, via the Khyber Pass, entered India at the end of the 5th or early 6th century. Huna Kingdom occupied areas as far as Eran and Kausambi weakening the Gupta Empire; the Hunas were defeated by the Indian Gupta Empire and the Indian king Yasodharman. The Hunas are thought to have included the Xionite and/or Hephthalite, the Kidarites, the Alchon Huns and the Nezak Huns; such names, along with that of the Harahunas mentioned in Hindu texts, have sometimes been used for the Hunas in general. The relationship, if any, of the Hunas to the Huns, a Central Asian people who invaded Europe during the same period, is unclear. In its farthest geographical extent in India, the territories controlled by the Hunas covered the region up to Malwa in central India, their repeated invasions and war losses were the main reason for the decline of the Gupta Empire. The Mongolian-Tibetan historian de:Sumpa Yeshe Peljor lists the Hunas alongside other peoples found in Central Asia since antiquity, including the Yavanas, Tukharas and Daradas.
Chinese sources link the Central Asian tribes comprising the Hunas to both the Xiongnu of north east Asia and the Huns who invaded and settled in Europe. Gerald Larson suggests that the Hunas were a Turkic-Mongolian grouping from Central Asia; the works of Ptolemy are among the first European texts to mention the Huns, followed by the texts by Marcellinus and Priscus. They too suggest; the 6th-century Roman historian Procopius of Caesarea, related the Huns of Europe with the Hephthalites or "White Huns" who subjugated the Sassanids and invaded northwestern India, stating that they were of the same stock, "in fact as well as in name", although he contrasted the Huns with the Hephthalites, in that the Hephthalites were sedentary, white-skinned, possessed "not ugly" features: The Ephthalitae Huns, who are called White Huns The Ephthalitae are of the stock of the Huns in fact as well as in name, however they do not mingle with any of the Huns known to us, for they occupy a land neither adjoining nor very near to them.
They are the only ones among the Huns who have white countenances which are not ugly. It is true that their manner of living is unlike that of their kinsmen, nor do they live a savage life as they do; the Gujars are sometimes said to have been a sub-tribe of the Hunas. The religious beliefs of the Hunas is unknown, believed to be a combination of ancestor worship and animism. Song Yun and Hui Zheng, who visited the chief of the Hephthalite nomads at his summer residence in Badakshan and in Gandhara, observed that they had no belief in the Buddhist law and served a large number of divinities." Kushan Empire 36 royal races Ancient India and Central Asia Hon Huna Kingdom Iaroslav Lebedynsky, "Les Nomades", Paris 2007, ISBN 978-2-87772-346-6