The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable; the works of William Shakespeare and Beethoven, most early silent films, are in the public domain either by virtue of their having been created before copyright existed, or by their copyright term having expired. Some works are not covered by copyright, are therefore in the public domain—among them the formulae of Newtonian physics, cooking recipes, all computer software created prior to 1974. Other works are dedicated by their authors to the public domain; the term public domain is not applied to situations where the creator of a work retains residual rights, in which case use of the work is referred to as "under license" or "with permission". As rights vary by country and jurisdiction, a work may be subject to rights in one country and be in the public domain in another; some rights depend on registrations on a country-by-country basis, the absence of registration in a particular country, if required, gives rise to public-domain status for a work in that country.
The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". Although the term "domain" did not come into use until the mid-18th century, the concept "can be traced back to the ancient Roman Law, as a preset system included in the property right system." The Romans had a large proprietary rights system where they defined "many things that cannot be owned" as res nullius, res communes, res publicae and res universitatis. The term res nullius was defined as things not yet appropriated; the term res communes was defined as "things that could be enjoyed by mankind, such as air and ocean." The term res publicae referred to things that were shared by all citizens, the term res universitatis meant things that were owned by the municipalities of Rome. When looking at it from a historical perspective, one could say the construction of the idea of "public domain" sprouted from the concepts of res communes, res publicae, res universitatis in early Roman law.
When the first early copyright law was first established in Britain with the Statute of Anne in 1710, public domain did not appear. However, similar concepts were developed by French jurists in the 18th century. Instead of "public domain", they used terms such as publici juris or propriété publique to describe works that were not covered by copyright law; the phrase "fall in the public domain" can be traced to mid-19th century France to describe the end of copyright term. The French poet Alfred de Vigny equated the expiration of copyright with a work falling "into the sink hole of public domain" and if the public domain receives any attention from intellectual property lawyers it is still treated as little more than that, left when intellectual property rights, such as copyright and trademarks, expire or are abandoned. In this historical context Paul Torremans describes copyright as a, "little coral reef of private right jutting up from the ocean of the public domain." Copyright law differs by country, the American legal scholar Pamela Samuelson has described the public domain as being "different sizes at different times in different countries".
Definitions of the boundaries of the public domain in relation to copyright, or intellectual property more regard the public domain as a negative space. According to James Boyle this definition underlines common usage of the term public domain and equates the public domain to public property and works in copyright to private property. However, the usage of the term public domain can be more granular, including for example uses of works in copyright permitted by copyright exceptions; such a definition regards work in copyright as private property subject to fair-use rights and limitation on ownership. A conceptual definition comes from Lange, who focused on what the public domain should be: "it should be a place of sanctuary for individual creative expression, a sanctuary conferring affirmative protection against the forces of private appropriation that threatened such expression". Patterson and Lindberg described the public domain not as a "territory", but rather as a concept: "here are certain materials – the air we breathe, rain, life, thoughts, ideas, numbers – not subject to private ownership.
The materials that compose our cultural heritage must be free for all living to use no less than matter necessary for biological survival." The term public domain may be interchangeably used with other imprecise or undefined terms such as the "public sphere" or "commons", including concepts such as the "commons of the mind", the "intellectual commons", the "information commons". A public-domain book is a book with no copyright, a book, created without a license, or a book where its copyrights expired or have been forfeited. In most countries the term of protection of copyright lasts until January first, 70 years after the death of the latest living author; the longest copyright term is in Mexico, which has life plus 100 years for all deaths since July 1928. A notable exception is the United States, where every book and tale published prior to 1924 is in the public domain.
King of All Peoples
King of All Peoples was a attested title of great prestige claimed by some of the kings of Assyria. It was one of several ancient Mesopotamian titles explicitly claiming world domination, the others being šar kibrāt erbetti and šar kiššatim. Unlike these other two titles, which had their origins during the Akkadian Empire ~2300 BC and had endured widespread recognition and usage throughout more than a thousand years of Mesopotamian history, the title of šar kiššat nišē appears to have been a Assyrian invention only used by a handful of kings. Unlike the other titles of supposed world domination, "king of all peoples" does not refer to a territorial domain, but rather that the Assyrian king was superior to foreign people and that he possessed a legitimate right to govern them, it appears in the titularies of the Middle-Assyrian kings Shalmaneser I and Tukulti-Ninurta I. Šar kiššat nišē was one of several titles used by the Neo-Assyrian king Ashurnasirpal II, other similar titles and epithets used by him include šapir kal nišē and ša naphar kiššat nišē ipellu.
To enforce his right to rule over all peoples, Ashurnasirpal made sure that his new capital of Kalhu had a distinct multi-ethnic character as the result of moving people from throughout his empire to its location. The title of šar kiššat nišē was a used and important title of Ashurnasirpal's successor Shalmaneser III. Shalmaneser I Tukulti-Ninurta I Ashurnasirpal II Shalmaneser III Liverani, Mario. "Universal Control". International Relations in the Ancient Near East, 1600–1100 BC: 23–28. Karlsson, Mattias. Early Neo-Assyrian State Ideology Relations of Power in the Inscriptions and Iconography of Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III. Instutionen för lingvistik Uppsala Universitet. ISBN 978-91-506-2363-5. Karlsson, Mattias. Relations of Power in Early Neo-Assyrian State Ideology. Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. Sazonov, Vladimir. Die mittelassyrischen, universalistischen Königstitel und Epitheta Tukultī-Ninurtas I.. Ugarit-Verlag. Yamada, Shigeo. "Inscriptions of Tiglath-pileser III: Chronographic-Literary Styles and the King's Portrait".
ORIENT. 49: 31–50
Mitanni called Hanigalbat in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC. Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Amorite Babylon and a series of ineffectual Assyrian kings created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. At the beginning of its history, Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. However, with the ascent of the Hittite Empire and Egypt struck an alliance to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination. At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, Mitanni had outposts centred on its capital, whose location has been determined by archaeologists to be on the headwaters of the Khabur River; the Mitanni dynasty ruled over the northern Euphrates-Tigris region between c. 1475 and c. 1275 BC. Mitanni succumbed to Hittite and Assyrian attacks and was reduced to the status of a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. While the Mitanni kings were Indo-Aryan, they used the language of the local people, at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian.
Their sphere of influence is shown in Hurrian place names, personal names and the spread through Syria and the Levant of a distinct pottery type. The Mitanni controlled trade routes down the Khabur to Mari and up the Euphrates from there to Carchemish. For a time they controlled the Assyrian territories of the upper Tigris and its headwaters at Nineveh, Erbil and Nuzi, their allies included Kizuwatna in southeastern Anatolia. To the east, they had good relations with the Kassites; the land of Mitanni in northern Syria extended from the Taurus mountains to its west and as far east as Nuzi and the river Tigris in the east. In the south, it extended from Aleppo across to Mari on the Euphrates in the east, its centre was in the Khabur River valley, with two capitals: Taite and Washshukanni, called Taidu and Ushshukana in Assyrian sources. The whole area supported agriculture without artificial irrigation and cattle and goats were raised, it is similar to Assyria in climate, was settled by both indigenous Hurrian and Amoritic-speaking populations.
The Mitanni kingdom was referred to as the Maryannu, Nahrin or Mitanni by the Egyptians, the Hurri by the Hittites, the Hanigalbat by the Assyrians. The different names seem to have referred to the same kingdom and were used interchangeably, according to Michael C. Astour. Hittite annals mention. A Hittite fragment from the time of Mursili I, mentions a "King of the Hurri"; the Assyro-Akkadian version of the text renders "Hurri" as Hanigalbat. Tushratta, who styles himself "king of Mitanni" in his Akkadian Amarna letters, refers to his kingdom as Hanigalbat. Egyptian sources call Mitanni "nhrn", pronounced as Naharin/Naharina from the Assyro-Akkadian word for "river", cf. Aram-Naharaim; the name Mitanni is first found in the "memoirs" of the Syrian wars of the official astronomer and clockmaker Amenemhet, who returned from the "foreign country called Me-ta-ni" at the time of Thutmose I. The expedition to the Naharina announced by Thutmosis I at the beginning of his reign may have taken place during the long previous reign of Amenhotep I.
Helck believes that this was the expedition mentioned by Amenhotep II. The ethnicity of the people of Mitanni is difficult to ascertain. A treatise on the training of chariot horses by Kikkuli, a Mitanni writer, contains a number of Indo-Aryan glosses. Kammenhuber suggested that this vocabulary was derived from the still undivided Indo-Iranian language, but Mayrhofer has shown that Indo-Aryan features are present; the names of the Mitanni aristocracy are of Indo-Aryan origin, their deities show Indo-Aryan roots, though some think that they are more related to the Kassites. The common people's language, the Hurrian language, is neither Semitic. Hurrian is related to Urartian, the language of Urartu, both belonging to the Hurro-Urartian language family, it had been held. A Hurrian passage in the Amarna letters – composed in Akkadian, the lingua franca of the day – indicates that the royal family of Mitanni was by speaking Hurrian as well. Bearers of names in the Hurrian language are attested in wide areas of Syria and the northern Levant that are outside the area of the political entity known to Assyria as Hanilgalbat.
There is no indication. In the 14th century BC numerous city-states in northern Syria and Canaan were ruled by persons with Hurrian and some Indo-Aryan names. If this can be taken to mean that the population of these states was Hurrian as well it is possible that these entities were a part of a larger polity with a shared Hurrian identity; this is assumed, but without a critical examination of the sources. Differences in dialect and regionally different pantheons point to the existence of several groups of Hurrian speakers. No native sources for the history of Mitanni have been found so far; the account is based on Assyrian, Hittite
Assyria called the Assyrian Empire, was a Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant. It existed as a state from as early as the 25th century BC until its collapse between 612 BC and 609 BC - spanning the periods of the Early to Middle Bronze Age through to the late Iron Age. From the end of the seventh century BC to the mid-seventh century AD, it survived as a geopolitical entity, for the most part ruled by foreign powers such as the Parthian and early Sasanian Empires between the mid-second century BC and late third century AD, the final part of which period saw Mesopotamia become a major centre of Syriac Christianity and the birthplace of the Church of the East. A Semitic-speaking realm, Assyria was centred on the Tigris in Upper Mesopotamia; the Assyrians came to rule powerful empires in several periods. Making up a substantial part of the greater Mesopotamian "cradle of civilization", which included Sumer, the Akkadian Empire, Babylonia, Assyria reached the height of technological and cultural achievements for its time.
At its peak, the Neo-Assyrian Empire of 911 to 609 BC stretched from Cyprus and the East Mediterranean to Iran, from present-day Armenia and Azerbaijan in the Caucasus to the Arabian Peninsula and eastern Libya. The name "Assyria" originates with the Assyrian state's original capital, the ancient city of Aššur, which dates to c. 2600 BC - one of a number of Akkadian-speaking city-states in Mesopotamia. In the 25th and 24th centuries BC, Assyrian kings were pastoral leaders. From the late 24th century BC, the Assyrians became subject to Sargon of Akkad, who united all the Akkadian- and Sumerian-speaking peoples of Mesopotamia under the Akkadian Empire, which lasted from c. 2334 BC to 2154 BC. After the Assyrian Empire fell from power, the greater remaining part of Assyria formed a geopolitical region and province of other empires, although between the mid-2nd century BC and late 3rd century AD a patchwork of small independent Assyrian kingdoms arose in the form of Assur, Osroene, Beth Nuhadra, Beth Garmai and Hatra.
The region of Assyria fell under the successive control of the Median Empire of 678 to 549 BC, the Achaemenid Empire of 550 to 330 BC, the Macedonian Empire, the Seleucid Empire of 312 to 63 BC, the Parthian Empire of 247 BC to 224 AD, the Roman Empire and the Sasanian Empire of 224 to 651 AD. The Arab Islamic conquest of the area in the mid-seventh century dissolved Assyria as a single entity, after which the remnants of the Assyrian people became an ethnic, linguistic and religious minority in the Assyrian homeland, surviving there to this day as an indigenous people of the region. Assyria was sometimes known as Subartu and Azuhinum prior to the rise of the city-state of Ashur, after which it was Aššūrāyu, after its fall, from 605 BC through to the late seventh century AD variously as Achaemenid Assyria, referenced as Atouria, Ator and sometimes as Syria which etymologically derives from Assyria according to Strabo, Assyria and Asōristān. "Assyria" can refer to the geographic region or heartland where Assyria, its empires and the Assyrian people were centered.
The indigenous modern Eastern Aramaic-speaking Assyrian Christian ethnic minority in northern Iraq, north east Syria, southeast Turkey and northwest Iran are the descendants of the ancient Assyrians. As Babylonia is called after the city of Babylon, Assyria means "land of Asshur"Etymologically, Assyria is connected to the name of Syria, with both being derived from the Akkadian Aššur. Theodor Nöldeke in 1881 was the first to give philological support to the assumption that Syria and Assyria have the same etymology, a suggestion going back to John Selden. A 21st-century discovery of the Çineköy inscription confirmed that Syria, being a Greek corruption of the name Assyria, is derived from the Assyrian term Aššūrāyu. In prehistoric times, the region, to become known as Assyria was home to a Neanderthal culture such as has been found at the Shanidar Cave; the earliest Neolithic sites in what will be Assyria were the Jarmo culture c. 7100 BC, the Halaf culture c. 6100 BC, the Hassuna culture c. 6000 BC.
The Akkadian-speaking people who would found Assyria appear to have entered Mesopotamia at some point during the latter 4th millennium BC intermingling with the earlier Sumerian-speaking population, who came from northern Mesopotamia, with Akkadian names appearing in written record from as early as the 29th century BC. During the 3rd millennium BC, a intimate cultural symbiosis developed between the Sumerians and the Akkadians throughout Mesopotamia, which included widespread bilingualism; the influence of Sumerian on Akkadian, vice versa, is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic and phonological convergence. This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium BC as a sprachbund. Akkadian replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere after the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC, although Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD, as did use of the Akkadian cuneiform.
The cities of A
Nineveh was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq. It is located on the eastern bank of the Tigris River, was the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Today it is a common name for the half of Mosul, it was the largest city in the world for some fifty years until the year 612 BC when, after a bitter period of civil war in Assyria, it was sacked by a coalition of its former subject peoples, the Babylonians, Chaldeans, Persians and Cimmerians. Its ruins are across the river from the modern-day major city of Mosul, in the Ninawa Governorate of Iraq; the two main tells, or mound-ruins, within the walls are Kouyunjik, the Northern Palace, Tell Nabī Yūnus. Large amounts of Assyrian sculpture and other artifacts have been excavated and are now located in museums around the world; the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant occupied the site during the mid-2010s, during which time they bulldozed several of the monuments there and caused considerable damage to the others.
Iraqi forces recaptured the area in January 2017. The English placename Nineveh comes from Latin Ninive and Septuagint Greek Nineuḗ under influence of the Biblical Hebrew Nīnewēh, from the Akkadian Ninua or Old Babylonian Ninuwā; the original meaning of the name may have referred to a patron goddess. The cuneiform for Ninâ is a fish within a house; this may have intended "Place of Fish" or may have indicated a goddess associated with fish or the Tigris originally of Hurrian origin. The city was said to be devoted to "the goddess Ishtar of Nineveh" and Nina was one of the Sumerian and Assyrian names of that goddess; the city was known as Ninii or Ni in Ancient Egyptian. Nabī Yūnus is the Arabic for "Prophet Jonah". Kouyunjik was, according to Layard, a Turkish name, it was known as Armousheeah by the Arabs, is thought to have some connection with the Kara Koyunlu dynasty; the remains of ancient Nineveh, the mound-ruins of Kouyunjik and Nabī Yūnus, are located on a level part of the plain near the junction of the Tigris and the Khosr Rivers within an area of 750 hectares circumscribed by a 12-kilometre brick rampart.
This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins overlaid in parts by new suburbs of the city of Mosul. Nineveh was an important junction for commercial routes crossing the Tigris on the great highway between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean, thus uniting the East and the West, it received wealth from many sources, so that it became one of the greatest of all the region's ancient cities, the capital of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. Nineveh was one of the greatest cities in antiquity; the area was settled as early as 6000 BC during the late Neolithic. The deep sounding at Nineveh uncovered layers now dated to early Hassuna culture period. By 3000 BC, the area had become an important religious center for the Mesopotamian goddess Ishtar; the early city was constructed on a fault line and suffered damage from a number of earthquakes. One such event destroyed the first temple of Ishtar, rebuilt in 2260 BC by the Akkadian king Manishtushu. Texts from the Hellenistic period offered an eponymous Ninus as the founder of Nineveh, although there is no historical basis for this.
The regional influence of Nineveh became pronounced during the archaeological period known as Ninevite 5, or Ninevite V. This period is defined by the characteristic pottery, found throughout northern Mesopotamia. For the northern Mesopotamian region, the Early Jezirah chronology has been developed by archaeologists. According to this regional chronology,'Ninevite 5' is equivalent to the Early Jezirah I–II period. Ninevite 5 was preceded by the Late Uruk period. Ninevite 5 pottery is contemporary to the Early Transcaucasian culture ware, the Jemdet Nasr ware. Iraqi Scarlet Ware culture belongs to this period. Scarlet Ware was first documented in the Diyala River basin in Iraq, it was found in the nearby Hamrin Basin, in Luristan. The historic Nineveh is mentioned in the Old Assyrian Empire during reign of Shamshi-Adad I in about 1800 BC as a centre of worship of Ishtar, whose cult was responsible for the city's early importance; the goddess's statue was sent to Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt in the 14th century BC, by orders of the king of Mitanni.
The Assyrian city of Nineveh became one of Mitanni's vassals for half a century until the early 14th century BC, when the Assyrian king Ashur-uballit I reclaimed it in 1365 BC while overthrowing the Mitanni Empire and creating the Middle Assyrian Empire. There is a large body of evidence to show that Assyrian monarchs built extensively in Nineveh during the late 3rd and 2nd millenniums BC. Monarchs whose inscriptions have appeared on the high city include the Middle Assyrian Empire kings Shalmaneser I and Tiglath-Pileser I, both of whom were active builders in Assur. During the Neo-Assyrian Empire from the time of Ashurnasirpal II onward, there was considerable architectural expansion. Successive monarchs such as Tiglath-pileser III, Sargon II, Sennacherib and Ashurbanipal kept in repair and founded new palaces, as well as temples to Sîn, Nergal, Ninurta, Isht
Middle Assyrian Empire
The Middle Assyrian Empire is the period in the history of Assyria between the fall of the Old Assyrian Empire in the 14th century BC and the establishment of the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the 10th century BC. By the reign of Eriba-Adad I Mitanni influence over Assyria was on the wane. Eriba-Adad I became involved in a dynastic battle between Tushratta and his brother Artatama II and after this his son Shuttarna III, who called himself king of the Hurri while seeking support from the Assyrians. A pro-Assyria faction appeared at the royal Mitanni court. Eriba-Adad I had thus broken Mitanni influence over Assyria, in turn had now made Assyria an influence over Mitanni affairs. Ashur-uballit I succeeded the throne of Assyria in 1365 BC, proved to be a fierce and powerful ruler. Assyrian pressure from the southeast and Hittite pressure from the north-west, enabled Ashur-uballit I to break Mitanni power, he met and decisively defeated Shuttarna II, the Mitanni king in battle, making Assyria once more an imperial power at the expense of not only the Mitanni themselves, but Kassite Babylonia, the Hurrians and the Hittites.
This marriage led to disastrous results for Babylonia, as the Kassite faction at court murdered the half Assyrian Babylonian king and placed a pretender on the throne. Assur-uballit I promptly invaded Babylonia to avenge his son-in-law, entering Babylon, deposing the king and installing Kurigalzu II of the royal line king there. Ashur-uballit I attacked and defeated Mattiwaza, the Mitanni king, despite attempts by the Hittite king Suppiluliumas, now fearful of growing Assyrian power, to help the Mitanni; the lands of the Mitanni and Hurrians were duly appropriated by Assyria, making it a large and powerful empire. Enlil-nirari succeeded Ashur-uballit I, he described himself as a "Great-King" in letters to the Hittite kings. He was attacked by Kurigalzu II of Babylon, installed by his father, but succeeded in defeating him, repelling Babylonian attempts to invade Assyria and appropriating Babylonian territory in the process, thus further expanding Assyria; the successor of Enlil-nirari, Arik-den-ili, consolidated Assyrian power, campaigned in the Zagros Mountains to the east, subjugating the Lullubi and Gutians.
In Syria, he defeated Semitic tribes of the so-called Ahlamu group, who were predecessors of the Arameans or an Aramean tribe. He was followed by Adad-nirari I who made Kalhu his capital, continued expansion to the northwest at the expense of the Hittites and Hurrians, conquering Hittite territories such as Carchemish and beyond, he moved into north eastern Asia Minor, conquering Shupria. Adad-nirari I made further gains to the south, annexing Babylonian territory and forcing the Kassite rulers of Babylon into accepting a new frontier agreement in Assyria's favor. Adad-nirari's inscriptions are more detailed than any of his predecessors, he declares that the gods of Mesopotamia called him to war, a statement used by most subsequent Assyrian kings. He referred to himself again as Sharru Rabi and conducted extensive building projects in Ashur and the provinces. In 1274 BC, Shalmaneser I ascended the throne, he proved to be a great warrior king. During his reign he conquered the Hurrian kingdom of Urartu that would have encompassed most of Eastern Anatolia and the Caucasus Mountains in the 9th century BC, the fierce Gutians of the Zagros.
He attacked the Mitanni-Hurrians, defeating both King Shattuara and his Hittite and Aramaean allies completely destroying the Hurri-Mitanni kingdom in the process. During the campaign against the Hittites, Shattuara cut off the Assyrian army from their supply of food and water, but the Assyrians broke free in a desperate battle and conquered and annexed what remained of the Mitanni kingdom. Shalmaneser I installed an Assyrian prince, Ilu-ippada as ruler of Mitanni, with Assyrian governors such as Meli-sah, installed to rule individual cities; the Hittites, having failed to save Mitanni, allied with Babylon in an unsuccessful economic war against Assyria for many years. Assyria was now a large and powerful empire, a major threat to Egyptian and Hittite interests in the region, was the reason that these two powers, fearful of Assyrian might, made peace with one another. Like his father, Shalmaneser was a great builder and he further expanded the city of Kalhu at the juncture of the Tigris and Zab Rivers.
Shalmaneser's son and successor, Tukulti-Ninurta I, won a major victory against the Hittites and their king Tudhaliya IV at the Battle of Nihriya and took thousands of prisoners. He conquered Babylonia, taking Kashtiliash IV as a captive and ruled there himself as king for seven years, taking on the old title "King of Sumer and Akkad" first used by Sargon of Akkad. Tukulti-Ninurta I thus became the first Akkadian speaking native Mesopotamian to rule the state of Babylonia, its founders having been foreign Amorites, succeeded by foreign Kassites. Tukulti-Ninurta petitioned the god Shamash before beginning his counter offensive. Kashtiliash IV was captured, single-handed by Tukulti-Ninurta according to his account, who "trod with my feet upon his lordly neck as though it were a footstool" and deported him ignominiously in chains to Assyria; the victorious Assyrians demolished the walls of Babylon, massacred many of the inhabitants and plundered his way across the city to the
Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located 30 kilometres south of the city of Mosul, 5 kilometres south of the village of Selamiyah, in the Nineveh plains in Upper Mesopotamia. It was a major Assyrian city between 1350 BC and 610 BC; the city is located in a strategic position 10 kilometres north of the point that the river Tigris meets its tributary the Great Zab. The city covered an area of 360 hectares; the ruins of the city were found within one kilometre of the modern-day Assyrian village of Noomanea in Nineveh Province, Iraq. The name Nimrud was recorded as the local name by Carsten Niebuhr in the mid-18th century. In the mid 19th century, biblical archaeologists proposed the Biblical name of Kalhu, based on a description of the travels of Nimrod in Genesis 10. Archaeological excavations at the site began in 1845, were conducted at intervals between and 1879, from 1949 onwards. Many important pieces were discovered, with most being moved to museums in Iraq and abroad. In 2013, the UK's Arts and Humanities Research Council funded the "Nimrud Project", directed by Eleanor Robson, whose aims were to write the history of the city in ancient and modern times, to identify and record the dispersal history of artefacts from Nimrud, distributed amongst at least 76 museums worldwide.
In 2015, the terrorist organization Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant announced its intention to destroy the site because of its "un-Islamic" Assyrian nature. In March 2015, the Iraqi government reported that ISIL had used bulldozers to destroy excavated remains of the city. Several videos released by ISIL showed the work in progress. In November 2016 Iraqi forces retook the site, visitors confirmed extensive destruction. Others have suggested; the Assyrian king Shalmaneser. However, the ancient city of Assur remained the capital of Assyria, as it had been since c. 3500 BC. The city gained fame when king Ashurnasirpal II of the Neo-Assyrian Empire made it his capital at the expense of Assur, he built a large palace and temples in the city, which had fallen into a degree of disrepair during the Bronze Age Collapse of the mid-11th to mid-10th centuries BC. Thousands of men worked to build an 8-kilometre-long wall surrounding a grand palace. There were many inscriptions carved into limestone including one that said: "The palace of cedar, juniper, mulberry, pistachio wood, tamarisk, for my royal dwelling and for my lordly pleasure for all time, I founded therein.
Beasts of the mountains and of the seas, of white limestone and alabaster I fashioned and set them up on its gates." The inscriptions described plunder stored at the palace: "Silver, lead and iron, the spoil of my hand from the lands which I had brought under my sway, in great quantities I took and placed therein. The inscriptions described great feasts he had to celebrate his conquests; however his victims were horrified by his conquests. The text said: "Many of the captives I have taken and burned in a fire. Many I took alive. I burned their young men and children to death." About a conquest in another vanquished city he wrote: "I flayed the nobles as many as rebelled. He wanted the city to become the luxuriant in the empire, he created a zoo and botanical gardens in the city which featured exotic animals and flowers he had brought back from his military campaigns. A grand opening ceremony with festivities and an opulent banquet in 879 BC is described in an inscribed stele discovered during archeological excavations.
By 800 BC Nimrud had grown to 75,000 inhabitants making it the largest city in the world. King Ashurnasirpal's son Shalmaneser III continued. At Nimrud he built a palace, it was twice the size and it covered an area of about 5 hectares and included more than 200 rooms. He built the monument known as the Great Ziggurat, an associated temple. Nimrud remained the capital of the Assyrian Empire during the reigns of Shamshi-Adad V, Adad-nirari III, Queen Semiramis, Adad-nirari III, Shalmaneser IV, Ashur-dan III, Ashur-nirari V, Tiglath-Pileser III and Shalmaneser V. Tiglath-Pileser III in particular, conducted major building works in the city, as well as introducing Eastern Aramaic as the lingua franca of the empire, whose dialects still endure among the Christian Assyrians of the region today. However, in 706 BC Sargon II moved the capital of the empire to Dur Sharrukin, after his death, Sennacherib moved it to Nineveh, it remained a major city and a royal residence until the city was destroyed during the fall of the Assyrian Empire at the hands of an alliance of former subject peoples, including the Babylonians, Medes, Persians and Cimmerians.
The Nineveh Province, in which the ruins of Nimrud lie, is still the major center of Iraq's indigenous Assyrian population to this day. Ruins of a located city named "Larissa" were described by Xenophon in his Anabasis in the 5th century BC. A similar locality was described