The term Shambhala Buddhism was introduced by Sakyong Mipham in the year 2000 to describe his presentation of the Shambhala teachings conceived by Chögyam Trungpa as secular practices for achieving enlightened society, in concert with the Kagyu and Nyingma schools of Tibetan Buddhism. The Shambhala Buddhist sangha considers Sakyong Mipham to be its head and the second in a lineage of Sakyongs. Shambhala Buddhism derives from the teachings of Shambhala, as proclaimed by Chögyam Trungpa, which state that "there is a natural source of radiance and brilliance in the world, the innate wakefulness of human beings; this is the basis, in myth and inspiration, of the Kingdom of Shambhala, an enlightened society of fearlessness and compassion." Furthermore, "Shambhala vision applies to people of any faith, not just people who believe in Buddhism. The Shambhala vision does not distinguish a Buddhist from a Catholic, a Protestant, a Jew, a Moslem, a Hindu. That's. A kingdom should have lots of spiritual disciplines in it."
The Shambhala Buddhist sangha expresses this vision within Tibetan Buddhist concepts and practices, continuing its ties to contemporary Kagyu and Nyingma lineage holders, among them the Karmapa, Penor Rinpoche, other important lamas. Many prominent lamas offer teachings to the community on a regular basis. However, certain aspects of Shambhala Buddhism, known as Shambhalian practices, are unique to the sangha. At the 1976 Seminary in Land O'Lakes, Trungpa Rinpoche began giving teachings, some of which were gathered and presented as Shambhala Training, inspired by his vision of the legendary Kingdom of Shambhala. Shambhalian practices focus on using mindfulness/awareness meditation as a means of connecting with one's basic sanity and using that insight as inspiration for one's encounter with the world; the Shambhala of Chögyam Trungpa is a secular approach to meditation, with roots in Buddhism as well as in other traditions, but accessible to individuals of any, or no religion. The greater social vision of Shambhala is that it is possible, moment by moment, for individuals to establish enlightened society.
Trungpa's book Shambhala: The Sacred Path of the Warrior provides a concise collection of the Shambhala views. Shambhala Training is administered worldwide by Shambhala International. Shambhala Training is presented in a series of weekend programs, the first five of which are called "The Heart of Warriorship", the subsequent seven "The Sacred Path"; the Warrior Assembly is the fruition of the Shambhala Training Sacred Path program. During Warrior Assembly, students study the Shambhala terma text, The Golden Sun of the Great East, receive the ashé practices of stroke and lungta. After the year 2000, with the merging of the secular teachings of Shambhala and the Buddhist teachings of Vajradhatu into Shambhala Buddhism, completion of Shambhala Vajrayana Seminary became a condition for receiving the highest Shambhala teachings, such as those of Werma and the Scorpion Seal Retreat. In turn, Warrior Assembly became a prerequisite for attending the Vajrayana Seminary; the Shambhala Seminary is a two-part seminary designed to deepen students' practice and understanding of the Buddhist and Shambhala teachings and to enter them into the vajrayana practices of the Shambhala Buddhist mandala.
Part 1, Sutrayana Seminary, is led by a Shambhala acharya and provides in-depth training and study of the Hinayana and Shambhala teachings. Part 2, Vajrayana Seminary, is led by Sakyong Mipham Rinpoche and authorizes students to begin their Shambhala ngöndro—the preliminary practices for receiving the Rigden Abhisheka; the Rigden Abhisheka enters the student into the practice of the Werma Sadhana. It is open to graduates of Shambhala Vajrayana Seminary who have completed their Shambhala ngöndro and to students who have received the Werma Sadhana and completed their Kagyü Ngöndro. Certain Shambhala practices derive from specific terma texts of Trungpa Rinpoche's such as Letter of the Black Ashe, Letter of the Golden Key that Fulfills Desire, Golden Sun of the Great East, the Scorpion Seal of the Golden Sun, in long and short versions. Trungpa Rinpoche is believed by his students to have received these teachings directly from Gesar of Ling, an emanation of Padmasambhava, the Rigden kings, their terma status was confirmed by the Nyingma master Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche.
The Shambhala dharma practices derived or in part from these texts include those of werma, Wind Horse, meditations on four "dignities of Shambhala": tiger, lion and dragon. Jamgon Ju Mipham Gyatso, a great 19th century Nyingma lama and the predecessor of Sakyong Mipham Rinpoche, wrote about many of these practices and concepts as well. Some, such as the "stroke of Ashé", have no known precedents; the Kalachakra tradition is central to Shambhala Buddhism. Trungpa Rinpoche requested that the Kagyu Kalachakra master Kalu Rinpoche perform the initiation for his Vajrayana students, which he did in 1986 in Boulder, Colorado; the Rigden Kings of Shambhala are central figures to the community, a thangka of the Rigden king is the centerpiece of all public Shambhala Buddhist shrines. Gesar of Ling, a mythical Tibetan king, is an important figure to Shambhala Buddhists, to whom he represents enlightened wisdom manifesting in the world as a leader. Many of the teachings of the Shambhala lineage derive from the Epic of Gesar as propagated by Mipham the Great.
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Known as "Tail of the Tiger", Karmê Chöling is a Shambhala Buddhist meditation retreat center and community in Barnet, Vermont. The staff there offers meditation programs and retreats in the Shambhala Buddhist tradition to hundreds of students each year. Karmê Chöling facilities include 717 acres of wooded land, seven meditation halls, a Zen archery range, an organic garden, dining facilities and double rooms, dormitory housing, seven retreat cabins; the center houses visitors and staff in tents on wooden platforms in the warmer months of May through September. The center gives retreats and workshops on meditation, gardening and theater. In 1970, Karmê Chöling was founded in Vermont by the Vidyadhara, Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Karmê Chöling is the first teaching seat in North America of Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche, a 20th-century Buddhist meditation master, credited with bringing Buddhism to the western world. A dairy farm, the building was purchased by Chögyam Trungpa Rinpoche’s students and was converted under his supervision into a Shambhala Buddhist retreat center.
It was called “Tail of the Tiger”, but in 1974 the name was changed to Karmê Chöling, which remains its name today. Since its purchase, meditation rooms, sleeping quarters for key staff and members of certain programs have been added. Karmê Chöling is affiliated with Shambhala International, led by Sakyong Mipham Rinpoche, a holder of the Karma Kagyu and Shambhala Buddhism Lineages. Karmê Chöling works with both experienced practitioners of Shambhala Buddhism as well as novices and people interested in learning more about meditation or their way of life, it is run by a core residential staff with help from paid employees, community members, volunteers. There are different types of retreats. Introductory Meditation Retreats include many of the retreats, they introduce the practice of mindfulness/awareness meditation, last a week or weekend, although some are longer. A complete listing of these retreats can be found on. Way of Shambhala Retreats are designed for those who have never meditated before and beginners in meditation, although there are some programs for those who have mastered these basics.
Details about individual retreats can be found at. Dathün is a one-month-long group meditation retreat, it includes sitting and walking meditation, Buddhist chants and short work sessions, all in silence or functional talking only. Qigong is a Daoist spiritual discipline. Children, Youth and Family Retreats are designed to “support families in raising children in an awakened way and to help families deepen their connection to meditation practice and the Shambhala Buddhist tradition.” These programs address families, youth 13–17 years old, younger children. Garden Programs are two-week sessions teaching connecting with the earth and combining this with meditation, or longer apprenticeship program which teaches organic gardening principles with meditation. Advanced Programs include prerequisites within Shambhala Buddhism, they are no more than 11 days long
Barnet is a town in Caledonia County, United States. The population was 1,708 at the 2010 census. Barnet contains the locations of Barnet Center, East Barnet, McIndoe Falls, Mosquitoville and West Barnet; the main settlement of Barnet is recorded as a census-designated place by the U. S. Census Bureau, with a population of 129 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 43.6 square miles, of which 42.2 square miles is land and 1.3 square miles, or 3.04%, is water. The Barnet CDP, comprising the town center, has a total area of 0.64 square miles, of which 0.62 square miles is land and 0.019 square miles, or 2.96%, is water. The eastern border of the town is the Connecticut River, the boundary between Vermont and New Hampshire; the Passumpsic River enters the Connecticut at East Barnet. Neighboring communities are Ryegate to the south, Groton to the southwest, Peacham to the west, Danville to the northwest, St. Johnsbury to the north, Waterford, Vermont, to the northeast.
Across the Connecticut River is the New Hampshire town of Monroe. Barnet is traversed from north to south by Interstate 91, with access to the town at Exit 18, West Barnet Road. U. S. Route 5, a two-lane highway, passes through the town center; the highest point in town is 2,103-foot Roy Mountain in the southern part of town, east of Harvey Lake. This climatic region is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot summers and cold winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Barnet has a humid continental climate, abbreviated "Dfb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,690 people, 638 households, 440 families residing in the town. The population density was 39.9 people per square mile. There were 831 housing units at an average density of 19.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.75% White, 0.71% African American, 1.01% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 1.01% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.36% of the population.
There were 638 households out of which 32.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.11. In the town, the population was spread out with 26.7% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 27.5% from 45 to 64, 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $36,089, the median income for a family was $43,403. Males had a median income of $32,768 versus $23,173 for females; the per capita income for the town was $17,690. About 7.0% of families and 12.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.4% of those under age 18 and 11.2% of those age 65 or over.
The town of Barnet, Vermont took its name from the town of Barnet, England. On September 16, 1763, the town received its charter from the royal governor of New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth; the first European descendants to work the land and stay in the town were three brothers, Daniel and Elijah Hall, along with Jonathan Fowler. Their homestead was built to the north near McIndoe Falls. Elijah Hall built the first house near the base of Stevens Falls. Colonel Alexander Harvey came from Dundee, for those in the town who wished to find new land in the American colonies. Despite losing contact with all of them after the American Revolution broke out, he decided to stay, claiming 7,000 acres of land and a lake, now known as Harvey's Lake. Two governors of the state of Vermont were from Barnet: Erastus Fairbanks, who served two terms from 1852–1853 and 1860–1861, his son, Horace Fairbanks, who served from 1876 to 1878; the Fairbanks family left Barnet for nearby St. Johnsbury, where they were known for manufacturing the first platform scale.
Ocean explorer and scuba inventor Jacques Cousteau had influential experiences on Harvey's Lake as a young boy in the early 1920s. While attending a summer camp he experimented with staying underwater by breathing through hollow reeds found in the lake shallows. Though he could not yet swim well, this allowed him to stay underwater for extended periods. On January 24, 1784, the town of Barnet voted unanimously to make the Presbyterian denomination the official one of the town, as it was "founded on the word of God as expressed in the Confession of Faith, Catechisms Longer and Shorter, with the form of church government agreed upon by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster, practiced by the Church of Scotland." The United Presbyterian Church was established by Reverend John Huston in 1786. The Passumpsic Calvinistic Baptist church was first created by a council of neighboring churches on July 1, 1812; the village of Passumpsic was chosen due to its centralized location. The First Congregational Church of Barnet was created by Reverend David Sutherland in September 1829 after a new brick church had been built.
Its first permanent minister was the Reverend Henry Fairbanks. The church which stands now was constructed in 1854; the earliest Reformed Presbyterian Church in Vermont was organized in Ryegate in October 1798. In the early part of the nineteenth century, a group of members in Barnet built a new meeting house on the land owned
The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya
The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya Which Liberates Upon Seeing is located at the Shambhala Mountain Center in Colorado, USA. It was built to inter the ashes of Chogyam Trungpa, who died in 1987. In many Buddhist traditions it is common to build a stupa to honour a respected teacher after their death; the site of the Great Stupa of Dharmakaya was first identified as an auspicious location by the 16th Karmapa, head of the Kagyü school of Tibetan Buddhism, on his first visit to North America in 1974. Construction of the stupa began in 1988; the structure took thirteen years to complete and used a special concrete formula designed to last one thousand years. The Stupa was consecrated in a ceremony that lasted several days in the summer of 2001; this ceremony was attended by many important students of Chogyam Trungpa. In September 2006, The Dalai Lama visited the Great Stupa for the first time; the Great Stupa of Dharmakaya The Great Stupa of Dharmakaya video
Shambhala Training is a secular approach to meditation developed by Tibetan Buddhist teacher Chogyam Trungpa and his students. It is based on what Trungpa calls Shambhala Vision, which sees enlightened society as not purely mythical, but as realizable by people of all faiths through practices of mindfulness/awareness, non-aggression, sacred outlook, he writes: The Shambhala Training teachings cover art and politics and the goal of creating an enlightened society. That goal is presented as not a social and political process, but one requiring individuals to develop an awareness of the basic goodness and inherent dignity of themselves, of others, of the everyday details of the world around them; this is facilitated by cultivating bravery. Shambhala Training is administered worldwide by Shambhala International; the Satdharma community offers a comparable "Shambhala Education" course of training in Ojai, California. Though Shambhala Training is a personal, ongoing practice of meditation and engaged activities, the Shambhala Training curriculum is presented in a series of progressive weekend programs, a longer retreat.
"The Heart of Warriorship" curriculum consist of five weekend programs with each weekend followed by a corresponding'Everyday Life' class. The latter seven weekends are called "The Sacred Path," as follows: Level I: The Art of Being Human Meditation in Everyday Life Level II: Birth of the Warrior Contentment in Everyday Life Level III: Warrior in the World Joy in Everyday Life Level IV: Awakened Heart Fearlessness in Everyday Life Level V: Open Sky Wisdom in Everyday Life Great Eastern Sun Windhorse Drala Meek Perky Outrageous and Inscrutable Golden Key The Warrior Assembly is a residential program of less than two weeks duration These weekends are intended to be completed in order, though Windhorse and Drala are sometimes exchanged in the sequence. Students may continue onto an intensive nine- to fourteen-day-long residential retreat called Warriors Assembly. Practices and root texts are made available as students complete the prerequisite study and practice stages. However, it is claimed by Shambhala adherents that much of their content is found in the book Shambhala: The Sacred Path of the Warrior and others.
The basic meditation technique presented in Shambhala Training includes sitting with legs loosely crossed, taking good posture, leaving the eyes open, focusing attention on the out-breath. A feeling of dissolving accompanies the out-breath but no specific attention is prescribed during the in-breath; the hands are placed face down on the thighs. Thoughts may be labeled neutrally as "thinking". Variations on the technique are taught during the first five "Heart of Warriorship" weekends. Meditation is described in Shambala as "a natural state of the human mind—at rest, alert." Shambhala Training contains teachings relating to personal and societal situations. One central teaching is on natural hierarchy. At first glance this appears to suggest that hierarchy is inherent to human societies and therefore oppression and subjugation are inevitable, but conventional social hierarchies or privilege based on class, race, etc. would be considered unnatural hierarchies. Instead the Shambhala Training notion of natural hierarchy is akin to an arranged mandala where people are connected and communicate in natural ways.
The Chinese triune notion of Heaven and Man is considered the prototypical pattern of natural hierarchy. Natural hierarchy recognizes that some people are better than others at things and communities benefit from a natural arrangement. However, these arrangements of people are fluid and ossification creates unnatural hierarchy; some key concepts presented include: basic goodness - our essential nature is good and worthwhile. This is sometimes contrasted with the idea of original sin, although it is arguable that both notions include the concept of a primordial purity, stained or covered over. Cocoon - conceptualization can become armor that cuts us off from the vividness of the world around us, we are better to discard that armor. Wind Horse - akin to Qi or life force, practitioners cultivate windhorse through a variety of practices and disciplines. Drala - akin to kami or spirit conventionally, this refers to the use of direct sense perceptions to overcome conceptual mental fixation; the four dignities - Meek Tiger, Perky Lion, Outrageous Garuda and Inscrutable Dragon heaven and man - the role of humanity is to connect the ground of the situation with the vision of possibility, so to rule oneself or society is to join heaven and man.
During the Sacred Path weekends and Warriors Assembly, students study Shambhala texts composed by Chögyam Trungpa, as well as practices such as that of the stroke of ashé. The stroke of ashé was first produced on the night of October 25, 1976, while Trungpa was leading a three-month seminary in Land O' Lakes, Wisconsin, it was followed by subsequent texts, some of which were considered to be terma, which were received over the next few years. Chogyam Trungpa wrote a number of Shambhala texts throughout his life, received a number of them as terma. Long-time students and members of his Nalanda Translation Committee elaborated on his reception of terma in a 2006 newsletter: At the first Kalapa Assembly in the fall of 1978, during one of our translation sessions with the Vidyadhara, Larry Mermelstein engaged him in an interesting discussion about the nature of the Shambhala texts he was presenting to us; when asked whether they were terma, he replied, “Yes, sort of.” When w
Yoga is a group of physical and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India. Yoga is one of the six orthodox schools of Hindu philosophical traditions. There is a broad variety of yoga schools and goals in Hinduism and Jainism; the term "yoga" in the Western world denotes a modern form of Hatha yoga, consisting of the postures called asanas. The origins of yoga have been speculated to date back to pre-Vedic Indian traditions; the chronology of earliest texts describing yoga-practices is unclear, varyingly credited to Upanishads. The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali date from the first half of the 1st millennium CE, but only gained prominence in the West in the 20th century. Hatha yoga texts emerged around the 11th century with origins in tantra. Yoga gurus from India introduced yoga to the West, following the success of Swami Vivekananda in the late 19th and early 20th century with his adaptation of yoga tradition, excluding asanas. In the 1980s, a different form of modern yoga, with an increasing number of asanas and few other practices, became popular as a system of exercise across the Western world.
Yoga in Indian traditions, however, is more than physical exercise. One of the six major orthodox schools of Hinduism is called Yoga, which has its own epistemology and metaphysics, is related to Hindu Samkhya philosophy. Many studies have tried to determine the effectiveness of modern yoga as a complementary intervention for cancer, schizophrenia and heart disease; the results of these studies have been inconclusive. On December 1, 2016, yoga was listed by UNESCO as an intangible cultural heritage; the Sanskrit noun योग yoga is derived from the root yuj "to attach, harness, yoke". The word yoga is cognate with English "yoke"; the spiritual sense of the word yoga first arises in Epic Sanskrit, in the second half of the 1st millennium BCE, is associated with the philosophical system presented in the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, with the chief aim of "uniting" the human spirit with the Divine. The term kriyāyoga has a technical meaning in the Yoga Sutras, designating the "practical" aspects of the philosophy, i.e. the "union with the supreme" due to performance of duties in everyday life.
According to Pāṇini, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. In the context of the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali, the root yuj samādhau is considered by traditional commentators as the correct etymology. In accordance with Pāṇini, Vyasa who wrote the first commentary on the Yoga Sutras, states that yoga means samādhi. According to Dasgupta, the term yoga can be derived from either of two roots, yujir yoga or yuj samādhau. Someone who practices yoga or follows the yoga philosophy with a high level of commitment is called a yogi or yogini; the term yoga has been defined in various ways in the many different Indian philosophical and religious traditions. The ultimate goal of Yoga is moksha, although the exact definition of what form this takes depends on the philosophical or theological system with which it is conjugated. According to Jacobsen, Yoga has five principal meanings: a disciplined method for attaining a goal. According to David Gordon White, from the 5th century CE onward, the core principles of "yoga" were more or less in place, variations of these principles developed in various forms over time: a meditative means of discovering dysfunctional perception and cognition, as well as overcoming it for release from suffering, inner peace and salvation.
White clarifies that the last principle relates to legendary goals of "yogi practice", different from practical goals of "yoga practice," as they are viewed in South Asian thought and practice since the beginning of the Common Era, in the various Hindu and Jain philosophical schools. The origins of yoga are a matter of debate. There is no consensus on its chronology or specific origin other than that yoga developed in ancient India. Suggested origins are the Indus Valley Civilization and pre-Vedic Eastern states of India, the Vedic period (1500–5
Chögyam Trungpa was a Buddhist meditation master and holder of both the Kagyu and Nyingma lineages, the eleventh Trungpa tülku, a tertön, supreme abbot of the Surmang monasteries, teacher, poet and originator of a radical re-presentation of Shambhala vision. Recognized both by Tibetan Buddhists and by other spiritual practitioners and scholars as a preeminent teacher of Tibetan Buddhism, he was a major figure in the dissemination of Buddhism to the West, founding Vajradhatu and Naropa University and establishing the Shambhala Training method. Among his contributions are the translation of numerous Tibetan texts, the introduction of the Vajrayana teachings to the West, a presentation of the Buddhadharma devoid of ethnic trappings. Trungpa coined the term crazy wisdom; some of his teaching methods and actions were the topic of controversy during his lifetime and afterwards. Born in the Nangchen region of Tibet in March 1939, Chögyam Trungpa was eleventh in the line of Trungpa tülkus, important figures in the Kagyu lineage, one of the four main schools of Tibetan Buddhism.
Among his three main teachers were Jamgon Kongtrul of Sechen, HH Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, Khenpo Gangshar. The name Chögyam is a contraction of Chökyi Gyamtso, which means "ocean of dharma". Trungpa means "attendant", he was trained in the Kagyu tradition and received his khenpo degree at the same time as Thrangu Rinpoche. Chögyam Trungpa was trained in the Nyingma tradition, the oldest of the four schools, was an adherent of the ri-mé ecumenical movement within Tibetan Buddhism, which aspired to bring together and make available all the valuable teachings of the different schools, free of sectarian rivalry. At the time of his escape from Tibet, Trungpa was head of the Surmang group of monasteries. On April 23, 1959, twenty-year-old Trungpa set out on an epic nine-month escape from his homeland. Masked in his account in Born in Tibet to protect those left behind, the first, preparatory stage of his escape had begun a year earlier, when he fled his home monastery after its occupation by the Chinese People’s Liberation Army.
After spending the winter in hiding, he decided definitively to escape after learning that his monastery had been destroyed. Trungpa started with Akong Rinpoche and a small party of monastics, but as they traveled people asked to join until the party numbered 300 refugees, from the elderly to mothers with babies – additions which slowed and complicated the journey. Forced to abandon their animals, over half the journey was on foot as the refugees journeyed through an untracked mountain wilderness to avoid the PLA. Sometimes lost, sometimes traveling at night, after three months’ trek they reached the Brahmaputra River. Trungpa, the monastics and about 70 refugees managed to cross the river under heavy gunfire eating their leather belts and bags to survive, they climbed 19,000 feet over the Himalayas before reaching the safety of Pema Ko. After reaching India, on January 24, 1960 the party was flown to a refugee camp. Between 2006 and 2010, independent Canadian and French researchers using satellite imagery tracked and confirmed Trungpa’s escape route.
In 2012, five survivors of the escape in Nepal and the U. S. supplied their personal accounts. More recent analysis has shown the journey to be directly comparable to such sagas as Shackleton’s 1914/17 Antarctic Expedition. In 2016 accumulated research and survivors’ stories were published in a full retelling of the story, in the year preliminary talks began on the funding and production of a movie. In exile in India, Trungpa began his study of English. In collaboration with Freda Bedi, who had initiated the project and Akong Tulku founded the Young Lamas Home School and, after seeking endorsement from the Dalai Lama, were appointed its spiritual head and administrator respectively. In 1963, with the assistance of sympathetic Westerners, Trungpa received a Spalding sponsorship to study comparative religion at St Antony's College, Oxford University. In 1967, upon the departure of the western Theravadan monk Anandabodhi and Akong Rinpoche were invited by the Johnstone House Trust in Scotland to take over a meditation center, which became Samye Ling, the first Tibetan Buddhist monastery in the West.
In 1970, after a break with Akong, Trungpa moved to the United States at the invitation of several students. Shortly after his move to Scotland, a variety of experiences, including a car accident that left him paralyzed on the left side of his body, led Trungpa to give up his monastic vows and work as a lay teacher, he made that decision principally to mitigate students' becoming distracted by exotic cultures and dress and to undercut their preconceptions of how a guru should behave. He drank, slept with students, kept students waiting for hours before giving teachings. Much of his behavior sparked controversy. In one account, he encouraged students to give up smoking marijuana, claiming that the smoking was not of benefit to their spiritual progress and that it exaggerated neurosis. Students were angered and intimidated by him, but many remained fiercely loyal and devoted. Upon moving to the United States in 1970, Trungpa traveled around North America, gaining renown for his ability to present the essence of the highest Buddhist teachings in a form understandable to Western students.
During this pe