Indian road network
India has a road network of over 5,903,293 kilometres as of 31 January 2019, the second largest road network in the world. At 1.70 km of roads per square kilometre of land, the quantitative density of India's road network is higher than that of Japan and the United States to, far higher than that of China, Brazil or Russia. Adjusted for its large population, India has 4.63 km of roads per 1000 people. However, qualitatively India's roads are a mix of modern highways and narrow, unpaved roads, are being improved; as on 31 March 2016, 62.5% of Indian roads were paved. India in its past did not allocate enough resources to maintain its road network; this has changed since 1995, with major efforts underway to modernize the country's road infrastructure. The length of national highways in India has increased from 70,934 km in 2010-11 to 101,011 km in 2015-16; as of May 2017, India had completed and placed in use over 28,900 kilometres of built 4 or 6-lane highways connecting many of its major manufacturing centres and cultural centres.
According to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, as of March 2016, India had about 1,01,011 kilometers of national highways and expressways, plus another 1,76,166 kilometers of state highways. Major projects are being implemented under the National Highways Development Project, a government initiative. Private builders and highway operators are implementing major projects - for example, the Yamuna Expressway between Delhi and Agra was completed ahead of schedule and within budget, while the KMP Expressway started in 2006 is far behind schedule, over budget and incomplete. According to 2009 estimates by Goldman Sachs, India will need to invest US$1.7 trillion on infrastructure projects before 2020 to meet its economic needs, a part of which would be in upgrading India's road network. The investment in national highways increased from ₹14,095.87 crore in 2005-06 to ₹98,988.06 crore in 2015-16. During the same period the total investment in national highways was ₹476,589.37 crore. The Government of India is attempting to promote foreign investment in road projects.
Foreign participation in Indian road network construction has attracted 45 international contractors and 40 design/engineering consultants, with Malaysia, South Korea, United Kingdom and United States being the largest players. The first evidence of road development in the Indian subcontinent can be traced back to 2800 BC from the ancient cities of Harrapa and Mohenjodaro of the Indus Valley Civilization. Ruling emperors and monarchs of ancient India had constructed roads to connect the cities. Archaeological excavations give us fresh information about road connectivity in ancient India; the Grand Trunk Road was built by the Mauryan Empire and expanded over many different dynasties until being revived by Emperor Sher Shah Suri in 1540-45 connecting Sonargaon near Dhaka in Bangladesh with Peshawar in modern-day Pakistan linking several cities from in India. It was further expanded by the Mughal Empire. In the 1830s the East India Company started a programme of metalled road construction, for both commercial and administrative purposes.
The Grand trunk road, from Calcutta, through Delhi to Peshawar was rebuilt at a cost of £1000 / mile, roads from Bombay to Pune Camp, Bombay to Agra, Bombay to Madras, were constructed, a Public Works Department, the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee founded, to train and employ local surveyors and overseers, to perform the work, maintain the roads. The programme resulted in an estimated 2,500 km of metalled roads being constructed by the 1850sIn December 1934 the Indian Road Congress was formed, on the recommendations of the Indian Road Development Committee of the Government of India, they proposed a twenty-year plan, in 1943, to increase the road network from 350,000 km, to 532,700 km by 1963, to achieve a road density of 16 km, per 100 km2 of land. The construction was to be paid in part through the duty imposed, since 1939, on petrol sales, became known as the Nagpur Plan; the construction target was achieved in the late 1950s. In 1956 a Highways Act was passed, a second twenty-year plan proposed for the period 1961-1981, with the ambition of doubling road density to 32 km, per 100 km2.
This second plan became known as the Bombay Road Plan. India inherited a poor road network infrastructure at the time of its independence in 1947. Beyond that, between 1947 and 1988, India witnessed no new major projects, the roads were poorly maintained. Predominantly all roads were single lane, most were unpaved. India had no expressways, less than 200 kilometers of 4-lane highways. In 1988, an autonomous entity called the National Highways Authority of India was established in India by an Act of Parliament, came into existence on 15 June 1989; the Act empowered this entity to develop and manage India's road network through National Highways. However though the Authority was created in 1988, not much happened till India introduced widespread economic liberalization in the early 1990s. Since 1995, the authority has privatized road network development in India. One of the most ambitious projects to improve roads in India was under the National Highways Development Project started in the year 1998 by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
The flagship project of the NHDP is the Golden Quadrilateral, a total of 5,846 km long 4/6 laned highways connecting the four major cities of Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. Total cost of the project is Rs.300 billion, funded by the government’s special petroleum product ta
Auraiya district is one of the districts of Uttar Pradesh state of India, Auraiya town is the district headquarters. It lies on the south-western portion of Uttar Pradesh and forms a part of the Kanpur Division. On 17 September 1997 two tehsils named Auraiya and Bidhuna were separated from district Etawah to form the new district named as Auraiya, it is situated on National Highway 19 and 64 km in the east of district headquarters of Etawah and 105 km in west of Kanpur. Under the Rohillas In 1760 AD Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India. Among other Maratha chieftains Govind Rao Pandit lost his life in the action. Before his departure from India the Durrani chief consigned large tracts of country to the Rohilla chieftains, while Dhunde Khan received Shikohabad, Inayat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan received the district of Etawah; this was in the possession of the Marathas, accordingly in 1762 a Rohilla force was sent under Mullah Mohsin Khan to wrest the assigned property from the Marathas. This force was opposed near the town of Etawah by Kishan Rao and Bala Rao Pandits, who were defeated and compelled to seek safety in flight across the Yamuna.
Siege was laid to the fort of Etawah by Mohsin Khan. The occupation, was nominal at first. Strong reinforcements were sent to the Rohillas, including some artillery, under Sheikh Kuber and Mullah Baz Khan, many of the smaller forts were levelled to the grounds. Hafiz Rahmat and Inayat Khan came in person to Etawah and operations were vigorously pressed against the refractory zamindars. An annual tribute was agreed to by the latter. Hafiz Rahmat departed to Bareilly, Rohilla garrisons were established at convenient places in the district. Meanwhile, a new minister arose at Delhi called Najib Khan, better known as Najib-ud-daula, Amir-ul-umra, Shuja-ud-daula succeeded Safdar Jang as Nawab Wazir and occupied most of the Bangash possessions as far as Aligarh, with the exception of those granted by the Durrani to the Rohillas after he battle of Pandit, but the wazir's hostility to the Farrukhabad Afghans had not abated one jot, in 1762 he persuaded Najib-ud-daula to join him in an attack on Farrukhabad.
The attack was beaten off by the aid of Hafiz Rahmat Khan and matters once more settled down peacefully. In 1766 the Marathas under Mulhar Rao, awaiting their opportunity, once more crossed the Yamuna and attacked Phaphund, where a Rohilla force under Muhammad Hasan Khan eldest son of Mohsin Khan, was posted. On receipt of this news Hafiz Rahmat advanced from Bareilly to oppose the Marathas, he was joined near Phaphund by Sheikh Kuber, the Rohilla governor of Etawah, prepared to give battle. The ambitions Najib-ud-daula had been irritated by the intervention of the Rohillas on behalf of Ahmad Khan Bangladesh in 1762. Accordingly, a Maratha army was invited to Delhi for the purpose of first wresting Farrukhabad from Ahmad Khan and of afterwards invading Rohikhand; the united forces of Najib-ud-daula and the Marathas advanced from Delhi. Zabita Khan however, was by no means disposed to fight against his brother Afghans; the Marathas, knowing this, kept him a prisoner in their camp and he requested Hafiz Rahmat Khan to obtain his release.
Hafiz Rahmat Khan accordingly opened negotiations with the Marathas for the release of Zabita Khan. Hafiz Rahmat Khan was not disposed to agree to those terms, while negotiations were proceeding for buying off the Marathas Zabita Khan escaped. Several desultory engagements now took place between the Afghan forces. Inayat khan was summoned by his father to Farrukhabad in order that he might be consulted regarding the surrendering of his jagirs, but although Dhunde Khan agreed to give up Shikohabad Inayat Khan refused to surrender Etawah. Disgusted with his father's arrangements he returned to Bareilly, his father on his own responsibility sent orders to Sheikh Kuber, the Rohilla governor of Etawah, to surrender the fort to the Marathas; the Marathas now marched to Etawah, but as the orders had not yet reached him Sheikh Kuber gave them battle. Several desperate assaults were made on the fort of Etawah which were all beaten off, but it was handed over to the Marathas in accordance with hafiz Rahmat Khan's orders, the Rohillas quit the district, leaving it once more in the hands of the Marathas.
In the same year, 1771 AD, the Marathas advanced to Delhi and reinstated the emperor Shah Alam, who had cast in his lot with them, on the throne. They were now masters of Zabita Khan determined to oppose them. Assembling his forces, he attacked the Marathas near Delhi but was signally defeated, in 1772 the Marathas overran a large portion of Rohilkhand and captured Najafgarh, where Zabita Khan's family resided and his treasure lay. Under the Government of Oudh Zabita Khan solicited the aid of Shuja-ud-daula, Nawab Wazir of Oudh.
The State Legislative Assembly is the lower house of a state legislature in the States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral state legislature it is the sole legislative house. In 7 states it is the lowest house of their bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being Vidhan Parishad or the State Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories have no legislative body. Each Member of the Legislative Assembly is directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Assemblies, in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India; the Constitution of India states that a State Legislative Assembly must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of Goa, Sikkim and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60 members.
A Vidhan Sabha may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority coalition. To become a member of a State Legislative Assembly, a person must be a citizen of India, not less than 25 years of age, he or she should not be bankrupt. He or she should state an affidavit that there are no criminal procedures against him or her. Speaker of State Legislative Assembly, responsible for the conduct of business of the body, a Deputy Speaker to preside during the Speaker's absence; the Speaker manages all debates and discussions in the house. He or she is a member of the stronger political party A State Legislative Assembly holds equal legislative power with the upper house of state legislature, the State Legislative Council, except in the area of money bills in which case the State Legislative Assembly has the ultimate authority. A motion of no confidence against the government in the state can only be introduced in the State Legislative Assembly.
If it is passed by a majority vote the Chief Minister and his Council of Ministers must collectively resign. A money bill can only be introduced in State Legislative Assembly. In bicameral jurisdictions, after it is passed in the State Legislative Assembly, it is sent to the Vidhan Parishad, where it can be kept for a maximum time of 14 days. In matters related to ordinary bills, the will of Legislative Assembly prevails and there is no provision of joint sitting. In such cases, Legislative council can delay the legislation by maximum 4 months. † – In these fourteen legislative assemblies, one seat is reserved for the nominated Anglo-Indian member. ‡ – In Jammu and Kashmir Legislative Assembly, two seats are reserved for the nominated women members. # – In Puducherry Legislative Assembly, three seats are reserved for the nominated members by the Union Government of India. Legislative assembly Legislative council State governments of India State Assembly elections in India Politics of India Legislative Bodies in India website Assembly constituency level publications website Laws of India website to download laws made by different states Punjab State Legislative Assembly Election Results 2012
Barabanki district is one of four districts of Ayodhya division, lies at the heart of Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh state of India, forms as it were a centre from which no less than seven other districts radiate. It is situated between 27°19' and 26°30' north latitude, 80°05' and 81°51’ east longitude. With its most northern point it impinges on the Sitapur district, while its north-eastern boundary is washed by the waters of the Ghagra, beyond which lie the districts of Bahraich district and Gonda district, its eastern frontier marches with Faizabad district, the Gomti forms a natural boundary to the south, dividing it from the Sultanpur district. On the west it adjoins the Lucknow district; the extreme length of the district from east to west may be taken at 57 miles, the extreme breadth at 58 mi. Barabanki city is the district headquarters; the district under British rule had an area of 1,769 sq mi. In 1856 it came, under British rule. During the Sepoy war of 1857-1858 the whole of the Barabanki talukdars joined the mutineers, but offered no serious resistance after the capture of Lucknow.
It stretches out in a level plain interspersed with numerous marshes. In the upper part of the district the soil is sandy, while in the lower part it is clayey and produces finer crops; the district is well fed by rivers Ghaghra and Kalyani and their tributaries, for the major part of the year. Some rivers dry out in the summer, get flooded during the rainy season; the changing course of the river Ghagra changes the land area in the district, year to year. The principal crops are rice, wheat and other food grains and sugarcane. Trade in agricultural produce is active. Both the bordering rivers are navigable, it has good road connectivity including National Highways NH 28, State Highways and various link roads. The district was known before the Muslim conquest as Jasnaul, from Jas, a raja of the Bharpasi tribe, said to have founded it before 1000 AD. With a change of proprietors came a change of name; the Muslim owners divided the lands into twelve shares, over which the respective proprietors quarrelled so incessantly that they were called the Barah Banke, or twelve quarrelsome men.
Banka, in Awadhi, meaning a bully or brave. Others derive the name from ban, meaning wood or jungle, interpret Barabanki as the twelve shares of jungle. Parijaat tree a sacred baobab tree in the village of Kintoor on the banks of Ghaghra. Located near the Kunteshwar Mahadeva temple, the tree is said to grow from Kunti's ashes; the tree is old. Greater part of Barabanki was included in Pachhimrath country, one of the five divisions of the kingdom of Rama. Before 1000 AD, Jas, a raja of the Bharpasi tribe is said to have founded the locality of Jasnaul which after the Muslim conquest of the region, came to be known as Bara Banki or Barabanki; the Muslims had made their first permanent settlement in this district at Satrikh, in 421 AH. / 1030 AD. Sihali, was conquered, its sovereign, a Siharia Chhattri, was killed. Kintur was captured, its Bhar queen, Kintama slain; the battle in which bhar-pasi chief Sohil Deo of Sahet-Mahet a small northern kingdom was subversed by Sri Chandradeo, the Rathor monarch of Kannauj was fought in Satrikh village of the district.
In 1049 AD / 441 AH, the Kings of Kanauj and Manikpur were defeated and driven from Oudh by Qutub-ud-din of Medina. The Muslim invasion was more successful in Bara Banki than elsewhere. In 586 AH. / 1189 AD, Sihali was conquered by Shekh Nizam-ud-din of Herat, Ansari. Zaidpur was occupied by them in 636 AH, when Sayyad Abd-ul-Wahid turned out the Bhar-pasi, altering the name of the town from Suhalpur; the colony of Musalman Bhattis is reported to have arrived about the same time, although some place it as early as 596 AH. / 1199 AD. They settled at Mawai Maholara. After 1350 AD Muslim immigrants started to settle in great number in the district until nearly to middle of eighteenth century. At the Muslims first permanently settled in Oudh. Rudauli was occupied about 700 AH, in the reign of Alla-ud-din Khilji, whose forces had just about the same time destroyed Anhalwara, Dcogir, Jessulmere, Bundi, in fact nearly every remaining seat of Chhattri power. Rasulpur was conquered about 1350 AD / 756 AH.
Daryabad was founded by Dariab Khan Subahdar. Fatehpur was colonized by Fateh Khan, a brother of Dariab Khan, about the same time; the villages of Barauli and Barai, near Rudauli, were occupied, gave their name to large estates about the middle of the fifteenth century. However, with this latter immigration of the Muslims there was one of Chhattris; the mysterious tribe of Kalhans, which numbers some twenty thousand persons, are said to be descended from Achal Singh, who came in as a soldier of fortune with Dariab Khan about 1450 AD. Raja Achal Singh is a great name in the Middle Ages of Oudh. At this time Ibrahim Shah Sharqi, reigned at Jaunpur. Oudh was the battle ground—the border land between Sharqis of Jaunpur and the Lo
Uttar Pradesh is a state in northern India. With over 200 million inhabitants, it is the most populous state in India as well as the most populous country subdivision in the world, it was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh during British rule, was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. The state is divided into 75 districts with the capital being Lucknow; the main ethnic group is the Hindavi people. On 9 November 2000, a new state, was carved out from the state's Himalayan hill region; the two major rivers of the state, the Ganga and Yamuna, join at Allahabad and flow as the Ganga further east. Hindi is the most spoken language and is the official language of the state; the state is bordered by Rajasthan to the west, Himachal Pradesh and Delhi to the northwest and Nepal to the north, Bihar to the east, Madhya Pradesh to the south, touches the states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh to the southeast. It covers 243,290 square kilometres, equal to 7.33% of the total area of India, is the fourth-largest Indian state by area.
The economy of Uttar Pradesh is the fourth-largest state economy in India with ₹15.79 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹57,480. Agriculture and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy; the service sector comprises travel and tourism, hotel industry, real estate and financial consultancies. President's rule has been imposed in Uttar Pradesh ten times since 1968, for different reasons and for a total of 1,700 days; the natives of the state are called Uttar Bhartiya, or more either Awadhi, Bhojpuri, Bundeli, Kannauji, or Rohilkhandi depending upon their region of origin. Hinduism is practised by more than three-fourths of the population, with Islam being the next largest religious group. Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of medieval India; the state has several historical and religious tourist destinations, such as Agra, Vrindavan and Allahabad. Modern human hunter-gatherers have been in Uttar Pradesh since between around 85,000 and 72,000 years ago.
There have been prehistorical finds in Uttar Pradesh from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic dated to 21,000–31,000 years old and Mesolithic/Microlithic hunter-gatherer settlement, near Pratapgarh, from around 10550–9550 BC. Villages with domesticated cattle and goats and evidence of agriculture began as early as 6000 BC, developed between c. 4000 and 1500 BC beginning with the Indus Valley Civilisation and Harappa Culture to the Vedic period and extending into the Iron Age. The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh. According to Hindu legend, the divine king Rama of the Ramayana epic reigned in Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala. Krishna, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the Mahabharata epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation of the Hindu god Vishnu, is said to have been born in the city of Mathura, in Uttar Pradesh; the aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and Delhi, during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira.
The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in northwest India, around 1000 BC. Control over Gangetic plains region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the Maurya, Kushan and Gurjara-Pratihara empires. Following the Huns' invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of Kannauj. During the reign of Harshavardhana, the Kannauj empire reached its zenith, it spanned from Punjab in the north and Gujarat in the west to Bengal in the east and Odisha in the south. It included parts of central India, north of the Narmada River and it encompassed the entire Indo-Gangetic plain. Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj. Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.
Kannauj was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty, from the 8th century to the 10th century. After fall of Pala empire, the Chero dynasty ruled from 12th century to 18th century. Parts or all of Uttar Pradesh were ruled by the Delhi Sultanate for 320 years. Five dynasties ruled over the Delhi Sultanate sequentially: the Mamluk dynasty, the Khalji dynasty, the Tughlaq dynasty, the Sayyid dynasty, the Lodi dynasty. In the 16th century, Babur, a Timurid descendant of Timur and Genghis Khan from Fergana Valley, swept across the Khyber Pass and founded the Mughal Empire, covering India, along with modern-day Afghanistan and Bangladesh; the Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian Turks. In the Mughal era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire. Mughal emperors Humayun ruled from Delhi. In 1540 an Afghan, Sher Shah Suri, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun. Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at Gwalior.
After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, th
India Today is a fortnightly Indian English-language news magazine published by Living Media India Limited. In 2014, India Today launched a new online opinion-orientated site called the DailyO. India Today was established in 1975 by Vidya Vilas Purie, with his daughter Madhu Trehan as its editor and his son Aroon Purie as its publisher. At present, India Today is published in Hindi, Tamil and Telugu; the India Today news channel was launched on 22 May 2015. In October 2017, Aroon Purie passed control of the India Today Group to Kallie Purie. India Today website
The Bareilly district pronunciation belongs to the state Uttar Pradesh in northern India. Its capital is Bareilly city and it is divided in six administrative division or tehsils: Aonla, Bareilly city, Faridpur and Nawabganj; the Bareilly district is a part of the Bareilly Division and occupies an area of 4120 km² with a population of 4,448,359 people according to the census of 2011. The region was a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed by the emerging Mughal Empire; the modern City of Bareilly was founded by Mukrand Rai in 1657. It became the capital of the Rohilkhand region before getting handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and to the East India Company, becoming an integral part of India; the region was the capital of the ancient kingdom of Panchala. The Panchalas occupied the country to the east of the Kurus, between the upper Himalayas and the river Ganges; the country was divided into Dakshina-Panchala. The northern Panchala had its capital at Ahichatra tehsil of Bareilly district, while southern Panchala had it capital at Kampilya or Kampil in Farrukhabad district.
The famous city of Kannauj or Kanyakubja was situated in the kingdom of Panchala. The last two Panchala clans, the Somakas and the Srinjayas are mentioned in the Mahabharata and the Puranas. King Drupada, whose daughter Draupadi was married to the Pandavas belonged to the Somaka clan. However, the Mahabharata and the Puranas consider the ruling clan of the northern Panchala as an offshoot of the Bharata clan. Divodasa, Srinjaya and Drupada were the most notable rulers of this clan. During 176 -- 166 BC, Panchala coins were minted at the surrounding areas, it was the Gupta kings who established mints here. The city's continued status as a mint town since the beginning of the Christian era was helped by the fact that Bareilly was never a disturbed area. Found at Ganga Ghati in abundance were the Adi Vigraha and Shree Vigraha coins of the Pratihara Kings that were minted here between the 4th to the 9th centuries. Dating to this period are the silver coins — similar to those of Firoz Second — known as Indo-Sasanian.
After the fall of the Kingdom of Panchala, the City was under the rule of local rulers. In the twelfth century, it was ruled by different clans of Rajputs referred to by the general name of Katehriyas Rajputs. According to British historian Matthew Atmore Sherring the district of Bareilly was a dense jungle inhabited by a race of Ahirs and was called Tappa Ahiran. In the beginning of the thirteenth century, when the Delhi Sultanate was established, Katehr was divided into the provinces of Sambhal and Budaun, but the thickly forested country infested with wild animals provided just the right kind of shelter for rebels. And indeed, Katehr was famous for rebellions against imperial authority. During the Sultanate rule, there were frequent rebellions in Katehr. All were ruthlessly crushed. Sultan Balban ordered vast tracts of jungle to be cleared so as to make the area unsafe for the insurgents; the slightest weakening of the central authority provoked acts of defiance from the Katehriya Rajputs. Thus the Mughals initiated the policy of allotting lands for Afghan settlements in Katiher.
Afghan settlements continued to be encouraged throughout the reign of Aurangzeb and after his death. These Afghans, known as the Rohilla Afghans, caused the area to be known as Rohilkhand; the city of Bareilly was founded in 1537 by a Katehriya Rajput. The city is mentioned in the histories for the first time by Budayuni, who he writes that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of Bareilly and Sambhal in 1568; the divisions and revenue of the district fixed by Todar Mal were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. In 1658, Bareilly was made the headquarters of the province of Budaun; the foundation of the'modern' City of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. The tract of land forming the subah or province of Rohilkhand was called Katehr/Katiher; the Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements for keeping the Katehriyas in check worked only as long as the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans, having themselves become local potentates, began to seize and occupy neighbouring villages.
In 1623 two Afghan brothers of the Barech tribe, Shah Alam and Husain Khan, settled in the region, bringing with them many other Pashtun settlers. The Rohilla Daud Khan was awarded the Katehr region in the northern India by Mughal emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir to suppress Rajput uprisings, which had afflicted this region; some 20,000 soldiers from various Pashtun Tribes were hired by Mughals to provide soldiers to the Mughal armies and this was appreciated by Aurangzeb Alamgir, an additional force of 25,000 men was given respected positions in Mughal army. However most of them settled in the Katehar region during Nadir Shah's invasion of northern India in 1739 increasing their population up to 100,0000. Due to the large settlement of Rohilla Afghans, the Katehar region gained fame as Rohilkhand. Meanwhile, Ali Muhammad Khan, grandson of Shah Alam, captured the city of Bareilly and made it his capital uniting the Rohillas to form the state of'Rohilkhand', between 1707 and 1720, making Bareilly his capital.
He rose to power and got confirmed in possession of the lands he had seized. The Emperor made him a Nawab in 1737, he was recognised as the governor of Rohilkhand in 1740. According to 1901 cen