North China Plain
The North China Plain is a large-scale downfaulted rift basin formed in late Paleogene and Neogene and modified by the deposits of the Yellow River and is the largest alluvial plain of China. The plain is bordered to the north by the Yanshan Mountains, to the west by the Taihang Mountains, to the south by the Dabie and Tianmu Mountains, to the east by the Yellow Sea; the Yellow River flows through the middle of the plain into the Bohai Sea. Below the Sanmenxia Dam is the multipurpose Xiaolangdi Dam, located in the river's last valley before the North China Plain, a great delta created from silt dropped at the Yellow River's mouth over the millennia; the North China Plain extends over much of Henan and Shandong provinces. And merges with the Yangtze Delta in northern Jiangsu and Anhui provinces; the Yellow River meanders over the fertile, densely populated plain emptying into the Bohai Sea. The plain is one of China's most important agricultural regions, producing corn, winter wheat and cotton.
Its nickname is "Land of the yellow earth." The southern part of the plain is traditionally referred to as the Central Plain, which formed the cradle of Chinese civilization. The plain covers an area of about 409,500 square kilometers, most of, less than 50 metres above sea level; this flat yellow-soil plain is the main area of sorghum, millet and cotton production in China. Wheat, sesame seed, peanuts are grown here; the plain is one of the most densely populated regions in the world. Beijing, the national capital, is located on the northeast edge of the plain, with Tianjin, an important industrial city and commercial port, near its northeast coast. Shengli Oil Field in Shandong is an important petroleum base, it is home to the Yellow River. The geography of the North China Plain has had profound political implications. Unlike areas to the south of the Yangtze, the plain runs uninterrupted by mountains and has far fewer rivers, as a result communication by horse is rapid within the plain; as a result, the spoken language is uniform in contrast to the plethora of languages and dialects in southern China.
In addition the possibility of rapid communication has meant that the political center of China has tended to be located here. Because the fertile soil of the North China Plain merges with the steppes and deserts of Dzungaria, Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, the plain has been prone to invasion from nomadic or semi-nomadic ethnic groups originating from those regions, prompting the construction of the Great Wall of China. Although the soil of the North China Plain is fertile, the weather is unpredictable, being at the intersection of humid winds from the Pacific and dry winds from the interior of the Asian continent; this makes the plain prone to drought. Moreover, the flatness of the plain promotes massive flooding. Many historians have proposed that these factors have encouraged the development of a centralized Chinese state to manage granaries, maintain hydraulic works, administer fortifications against the steppe peoples. Encyclopædia Britannica: "North China Plain"
Politics of Shandong
The politics of Shandong Province in the People's Republic of China is structured in a dual party-government system like all other governing institutions in mainland China. The Governor of Shandong is the highest-ranking official in the People's Government of Shandong. However, in the province's dual party-government governing system, the Governor has less power than the Shandong Communist Party of China Provincial Committee Secretary, colloquially termed the "Shandong CPC Party Chief". Kang Sheng: 1949 Fu Qiutao: 1949–1950 Xiang Ming: 1950–1954 Shu Tong: 1954–1960 Zeng Xisheng: 1960–1961 Tan Qilong: 1961–1967 Wang Xiaoyu: 1969 Yang Dezhi: 1971–1974 Bai Rubing: 1974–1982 Su Yiran: 1982–1985 Liang Buting: 1985–1988 Jiang Chunyun: 1988–1994 Zhao Zhihao: 1994–1997 Wu Guanzheng: 1997–2002 Zhang Gaoli: 2002–2007 Li Jianguo: 2007–2008 Jiang Yikang: 2008–2017 Liu Jiayi: 2017– Kang Sheng: 1949–1955 Zhao Jianmin: 1955–1958 Tan Qilong: 1958–1963 Bai Rubing: 1963–1967 Wang Xiaoyu: 1967–1969 Yang Dezhi: 1971–1974 Bai Rubing: 1974–1979 Su Yiran: 1979–1982 Liang Buting: 1982–1985 Li Chang'an: 1985–1987 Jiang Chunyun: 1987–1989 Zhao Zhihao: 1989–1995 Li Chunting: 1995–2001 Zhang Gaoli: 2001–2003 Han Yuqun: 2003–2007 Jiang Daming: 2007–2013 Guo Shuqing: 2013–2017 Gong Zheng: 2017–present Zhao Lin: 1979–1983 Qin Hezhen: 1983–1985 Li Zhen: 1985–1996 Zhao Zhihao: 1996–2002 Han Xikai: 2002–2003 Zhang Gaoli: 2003–2007 Li Jianguo: 2007–2008 Jiang Yikang: 2008–incumbent Tan Qilong: 1955–1967 Bai Rubing: 1977–1979 Gao Keting: 1979–1983 Li Zichao: 1983–1993 Lu Maozeng: 1993–1998 Han Xikai: 1998–2002 Wu Aiying: 2002–2004 Sun Shuyi: 2004–2009 Liu Wei: 2009–incumbent
Simplified Chinese characters
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language; the government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are used in the People's Republic of China and Singapore. Traditional Chinese characters are used in Hong Kong and the Republic of China. While traditional characters can still be read and understood by many mainland Chinese and the Chinese community in Malaysia and Singapore, these groups retain their use of simplified characters. Overseas Chinese communities tend to use traditional characters. Simplified Chinese characters may be referred to by their official name colloquially; the latter refers to simplifications of character "structure" or "body", character forms that have existed for thousands of years alongside regular, more complicated forms.
On the other hand, the official name refers to the modern systematically simplified character set, which includes not only structural simplification but substantial reduction in the total number of standardized Chinese characters. Simplified character forms were created by reducing the number of strokes and simplifying the forms of a sizable proportion of Chinese characters; some simplifications were based on popular cursive forms embodying graphic or phonetic simplifications of the traditional forms. Some characters were simplified by applying regular rules, for example, by replacing all occurrences of a certain component with a simplified version of the component. Variant characters with the same pronunciation and identical meaning were reduced to a single standardized character the simplest amongst all variants in form. Many characters were left untouched by simplification, are thus identical between the traditional and simplified Chinese orthographies; some simplified characters are dissimilar to and unpredictably different from traditional characters in those where a component is replaced by a simple symbol.
This has led some opponents of simplification to complain that the'overall process' of character simplification is arbitrary. Proponents counter that the system of simplification is internally consistent. Proponents have emphasized a some particular simplified characters as innovative and useful improvements, although many of these have existed for centuries as longstanding and widespread variants. A second round of simplifications was promulgated in 1977, but was retracted in 1986 for a variety of reasons due to the confusion caused and the unpopularity of the second round simplifications. However, the Chinese government never dropped its goal of further simplification in the future. In August 2009, the PRC began collecting public comments for a modified list of simplified characters; the new Table of General Standard Chinese Characters consisting of 8,105 characters was implemented for use by the State Council of the People's Republic of China on June 5, 2013. Although most of the simplified Chinese characters in use today are the result of the works moderated by the government of the People's Republic of China in the 1950s and 60s, character simplification predates the PRC's formation in 1949.
Cursive written text always includes character simplification. Simplified forms used in print are attested as early as the Qin dynasty. One of the earliest proponents of character simplification was Lufei Kui, who proposed in 1909 that simplified characters should be used in education. In the years following the May Fourth Movement in 1919, many anti-imperialist Chinese intellectuals sought ways to modernise China. Traditional culture and values such as Confucianism were challenged. Soon, people in the Movement started to cite the traditional Chinese writing system as an obstacle in modernising China and therefore proposed that a reform be initiated, it was suggested that the Chinese writing system should be either simplified or abolished. Lu Xun, a renowned Chinese author in the 20th century, stated that, "If Chinese characters are not destroyed China will die". Recent commentators have claimed that Chinese characters were blamed for the economic problems in China during that time. In the 1930s and 1940s, discussions on character simplification took place within the Kuomintang government, a large number of Chinese intellectuals and writers maintained that character simplification would help boost literacy in China.
In 1935, 324 simplified characters collected by Qian Xuantong were introduced as the table of first batch of simplified characters, but they were suspended in 1936. The PRC issued its first round of official character simplifications in two documents, the first in 1956 and the second in 1964. Within the PRC, further character simplification became associated with the leftists of the Cultural Revolution, culminating with the second-round simplified characters, which were promulgated in 1977. In part due to the shock and unease felt in the wake of the Cultural Revolution and Mao's death, the second-round of simplifications was poorly received. In 1986 the authorities retracted the second round completely. In the same year, the authorities promulgated a final list of simplifications, identical to the 1964 list except for six changes (including the restoration of three characters, simplified in the First Round: 叠, 覆, 像.
Shandong University is a public comprehensive university in Shandong, China. It is one of the largest universities in China by student population and is supported directly by the national government. Present-day Shandong University is the result of multiple mergers as well as splits and restructurings that have involved more than a dozen academic institutions over time; the oldest of Shandong University's precursor institutions, Cheeloo University, was founded by American and English mission agencies in the late 19th century. Tengchow College was the first modern institution of higher learning in China. Shandong University derives its official founding date from the Imperial Shandong University established in Jinan in November 1901 as the second modern national university in the country. Shandong University has eight campuses, all but two of which are not located in the provincial capital city of Jinan; the newest of these campuses is located to the northeast of the port city of Qingdao. It was inaugurated in September 2016 and its development is still ongoing.
The university has been classified as a National Key University by the Chinese Ministry of Education since 1960. It has been included in major national initiatives seeking to enhance the international competitiveness of the top-tier universities in China such as Project 985 and Project 211, it is a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. Shandong University offers master and doctoral degree programs in all major academic disciplines covering the humanities and engineering, as well as medicine. Shandong University ranked 270th worldwide and 11th nationwide in CWUR World University Ranking 2018/2019. In the general university ranking performed by the Chinese University Alumni Association, Shandong University ranked number 14 among Top 100 Chinese universities in 2010, it reached the 11th highest score in the "teaching" category of this ranking. Shandong University's engineering programs have been ranked number 15 nationwide by the Research Center of Management and Science in China.
For the last 10 years, Shandong University has been continuously ranked among the top 10 universities nationwide in terms of the number of publications included in the Science Citation Index. Research at Shandong University is deemed particular strong in the areas of physics and medicine. A ranking by Mines ParisTech based on the number of alumni holding CEO position in Fortune Global 500 companies placed Shandong University first within China; the Luoyuan Academy was established in Jinan in 1733 by an imperial edict from the Yongzheng Emperor of the Qing Dynasty. The governor of Shandong, Yue Jun, received 1,000 taels of silver to fund the establishment of the academy; the name "Luoyuan" refers to the original location of the academy near the Baotu Spring. The academy was dedicated to teaching the Chinese classics to the sons of the gentry. Scholars affiliated with the academy include: Bi Yuan, Sang Tiaoyuan, Shen Qiyuan, He Shaoji, Kuang Yuan, Wang Zhihan, Liu Yaochun, Zhu Xuedu, Miao Quansun.
In 1881, the American Presbyterian missionaries John Murray and Stephen A. Hunter attempted to purchase a property adjacent to the Luoyuan Academy for use as a chapel; this led to a violent reaction when on July 13, 1881, literati from the Academy incited an attack on the property. The incident, known as the "Jinan Jiaoan", had considerable diplomatic repercussions for the relationship between the Qing Dynasty and the United States; the Luoyuan Academy was rebuilt in 1896 to become the largest institution of its kind in Shandong. Five years it was replaced by the newly founded Imperial Shandong College which took over its campus; the earliest precursor institutions that would be fused into Shandong University were founded by American and English mission agencies: In early January 1864, Calvin W. Mateer, an American Presbyterian missionary, his wife Julia Brown Mateer, arrived in the opened treaty port of Dengzhou in the area of the present-day city of Penglai on the north-eastern coast of Shandong Peninsula.
Their journey had begun in New York on July 3, 1863, had taken them around the Cape of Good Hope to Shanghai, had ended with a shipwreck off the coast of Yantai. In the autumn of 1864, the Mateers opened an elementary school for boys in a Guanyin temple, sold to them since there were insufficient funds for its upkeep as a temple; the school's first class consisted of two day pupils. The school was enlarged to accommodate 30 boarders and divided into primary and high school sections in 1869; the high school became known as the Wenhui Guan. The Tengchow College of Liberal Arts was formally established in 1882, i.e. at a time when the school had been operated as a primary and high school for 18 years already. By 1889, enrollment in the college had grown to 100
Shandong is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, is part of the East China region. Shandong has played a major role in Chinese history since the beginning of Chinese civilization along the lower reaches of the Yellow River, it has served as a pivotal cultural and religious center for Taoism, Chinese Buddhism, Confucianism. Shandong's Mount Tai is the most revered mountain of Taoism and one of the world's sites with the longest history of continuous religious worship; the Buddhist temples in the mountains to the south of the provincial capital of Jinan were once among the foremost Buddhist sites in China. The city of Qufu is the birthplace of Confucius, was established as the center of Confucianism. Shandong's location at the intersection of ancient as well as modern north–south and east–west trading routes have helped to establish it as an economic center. After a period of political instability and economic hardship that began in the late 19th century, Shandong has emerged as one of the most populous and most affluent provinces in the People's Republic of China with a GDP of CNY¥5.942 trillion in 2014, or USD$967 billion, making it China's third wealthiest province.
Individually, the two Chinese characters in the name "Shandong" mean "mountain" and "east". Shandong could hence be translated as "east of the mountains" and refers to the province's location to the east of the Taihang Mountains. A common nickname for Shandong is Qílǔ, after the States of Qi and Lu that existed in the area during the Spring and Autumn period. Whereas the State of Qi was a major power of its era, the State of Lu played only a minor role in the politics of its time. Lu, became renowned for being the home of Confucius and hence its cultural influence came to eclipse that of the State of Qi; the cultural dominance of the State of Lu heritage is reflected in the official abbreviation for Shandong, "鲁". English speakers in the 19th century called the province Shan-tung; the province is on the eastern edge of the North China Plain and in the lower reaches of the Yellow River, extends out to sea as the Shandong Peninsula. Shandong borders the Bohai Sea to the north, Hebei to the northwest, Henan to the west, Jiangsu to the south, the Yellow Sea to the southeast.
With its location on the eastern edge of the North China Plain, Shandong was home to a succession of Neolithic cultures for millennia, including the Houli culture, the Beixin culture, the Dawenkou culture, the Longshan culture, the Yueshi culture. The earliest dynasties exerted varying degrees of control over western Shandong, while eastern Shandong was inhabited by the Dongyi peoples who were considered "barbarians". Over subsequent centuries, the Dongyi were sinicized. During the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period, regional states became powerful. At this time, Shandong was home to two major states: the state of Qi at Linzi and the state of Lu at Qufu. Lu is noted for being the home of Confucius; the state was, comparatively small, succumbed to the larger state of Chu from the south. The state of Qi, on the other hand, was a major power throughout the period. Cities it ruled included Jimo and Ju; the Qin dynasty conquered Qi and founded the first centralized Chinese state in 221 BCE.
The Han dynasty that followed created a number of commanderies supervised by two regions in what is now modern Shandong: Qingzhou in the north and Yanzhou in the south. During the division of the Three Kingdoms, Shandong belonged to the Cao Wei, which ruled over northern China. After the Three Kingdoms period, a brief period of unity under the Western Jin dynasty gave way to invasions by nomadic peoples from the north. Northern China, including Shandong, was overrun. Over the next century or so Shandong changed hands several times, falling to the Later Zhao Former Yan Former Qin Later Yan Southern Yan the Liu Song dynasty, the Northern Wei dynasty, the first of the Northern dynasties during the Northern and Southern dynasties Period. Shandong stayed with the Northern dynasties for the rest of this period. In 412 CE, the Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian landed at Laoshan, on the southern edge of the Shandong peninsula, proceeded to Qingzhou to edit and translate the scriptures he had brought back from India.
The Sui dynasty reestablished unity in 589, the Tang dynasty presided over the next golden age of China. For the earlier part of this period Shandong was ruled as part of Henan Circuit, one of the circuits. On China splintered into warlord factions, resulting in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. Shandong was part of all based in the north; the Song dynasty reunified China in the late tenth century. The classic novel Water Margin was based on folk tales of outlaw bands active in Shandong during the Song dynasty. In 1996, the discovery of over two hundred buried Buddhist statues at Qingzhou was hailed as a major archaeological find; the statues included early examples of painted figures, are thought to have been buried due to Emperor Huizong's repression of Buddhism. The Song dynasty was forced to cede northern China to the Jurchen Jin dynasty in 1142. Shandong was administered by the Jin as Shandong East Circuit and Shandong West Circuit – the first use of its current name; the modern provinc
Geography of China
China has great physical diversity. The eastern plains and southern coasts of the country consist of fertile foothills, they are the location of most of China's agricultural output and human population. The southern areas of the country consist of mountainous terrain; the west and north of the country are dominated by sunken basins, rolling plateaus, towering massifs. It contains part of the highest tableland on earth, the Tibetan Plateau, has much lower agricultural potential and population. Traditionally, the Chinese population centered on the Chinese central plain and oriented itself toward its own enormous inland market, developing as an imperial power whose center lay in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River on the northern plains. More the 18,000 km coastline has been used extensively for export-oriented trade, causing the coastal provinces to become the leading economic center; the People's Republic of China has an area of about 9,600,000 km2. The exact land area is sometimes challenged by border disputes, most notably about Taiwan, Aksai Chin, the Trans-Karakoram Tract, South Tibet.
The area of the People's Republic of China is 9,596,960 km2 according to the CIA's The World Factbook. The People's Republic of China is either the third or fourth largest country in the world, being either larger or smaller than the United States depending on how the area of the United States is measured. Both countries are larger than Brazil; the topography of China has been divided by the Chinese government into five homogeneous physical macro-regions, namely Eastern China, Xinjiang-Mongolia, the Tibetan highlands. It is diverse with snow-capped mountains, deep river valleys, broad basins, high plateaus, rolling plains, terraced hills, sandy dunes with many other geographic features and other landforms present in myriad variations. In general, the land descends to the east coast. Mountains and hills account for nearly 70 percent of the country's land surface. Most of the country's arable land and population are based in lowland plains and basins, though some of the greatest basins are filled with deserts.
The country's rugged terrain presents problems for the construction of overland transportation infrastructure and requires extensive terracing to sustain agriculture, but is conducive to the development of forestry and hydropower resources, tourism. Northeast PlainNortheast of Shanhaiguan a narrow sliver of flat coastal land opens up into the vast Northeast China Plain; the plains extend north to the crown of the "Chinese rooster," near where the Greater and Lesser Hinggan ranges converge. The Changbai Mountains to the east divide China from the Korean peninsula. Compared with the rest of the area of China, here live the most Chinese people due to its adequate climate and topography. North plainThe Taihang Mountains form the western side of the triangular North China Plain; the other two sides are the Yangtze River to the southwest. The vertices of this triangle are Beijing to the north, Shanghai to the southeast, Yichang to the southwest; this alluvial plain, fed by the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers, is one of the most populated regions of China.
The only mountains in the plain are the Taishan in Dabie Mountains of Anhui. Beijing, at the north tip of the North China Plain, is shielded by the intersection of the Taihang and Yan Mountains. Further north are the drier grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Plateau, traditionally home to pastoralists. To the south are agricultural regions, traditionally home to sedentary populations; the Great Wall of China was built in the mountains across the mountains that mark the southern edge of the Inner Mongolian Plateau. The Ming-era walls run over 2,000 km east to west from Shanhaiguan on the Bohai coast to the Hexi Corridor in Gansu. South East of the Tibetan Plateau folded mountains fan out toward the Sichuan Basin, ringed by mountains with 1,000–3,000 m elevation; the floor of the basin has an average elevation of 500 metres and is home to one of the most densely farmed and populated regions of China. The Sichuan Basin is capped in the north by the eastward continuation of the Kunlun range, the Qinling, the Dabashan.
The Qinling and Dabashan ranges form a major north-south divide across China Proper, the traditional core area of China. Southeast of the Tibetan Plateau and south of the Sichuan Basin is the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, which occupies much of southwest China; this plateau, with an average elevation of 2,000 metres, is known for its limestone karst landscape. South of the Yangtze, the landscape is more rugged. Like Shanxi Province to the north and Jiangxi each have a provincial core in a river basin, surrounded by mountains; the Wuling range separates Guizhou from Hunan. The Luoxiao and Jinggang divide Hunan from Jiangxi, separated from Fujian by the Wuyi Mountains; the southeast coastal provinces, Zhejiang and Guangdong, have rugged coasts, with pockets of lowland and mountainous interior. The Nanling, an east-west mountain range across northern Guangdong, seals off Hunan and Jiangxi from Guangdong. Northwest of the Tibetan Plateau, between the northern slope of Kunlun and southern slope of Tian Shan, is the vast Tarim Basin of Xinjiang, which contains the Taklamakan Desert.
The Tarim Basin, the largest in China, measures 1,500 km from east to west and 600 km from north to south at i
The Jiaozhou Bay is a gulf located in Qingdao, China. It was a German colonial concession from 1898 until 1914. Jiaozhou is the main town of the bay area, romanized as Kiaochow, Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and Kiautschou in German. Jiaozhou Bay is a natural inlet of the Yellow Sea, with 10 to 15 meters depth to the seabed and deeper, dredged channels to three major ports around the bay: Qingdao and Hongdao, all of which are ice-free during winter, it is located on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula in East China, separates Huangdao District from Qingdao City and borders on Jiaozhou City. The bay is 32 km long and 27 km wide with a surface area of 362 km² two-thirds the area of 100 years ago. According to official data, the surface area has decreased from 560 km² in 1928 to 362 km² by 2003 due to sustained land reclamation activities in recent decades; the marine species have decreased by two-thirds during the last 50 years due to urban and industrial development and growth of adjacent areas around the bay.
Out of 170 species of organisms found in the northwestern part of the basin during the 1970s, only 17 were found in 1989. False killer whales still appear in the waters which were a regular range for the species until the 1980s. On the other hand, Jiaozhou Bay may serve as a suitable location for studying recoveries of coastal marine ecosystems. Jiaozhou Bay was known as Jiao'Ao; the area became known to Europeans after a lease was concluded by the German Empire in March 1898 with the Qing government of China. In 1898 the area was transferred to Germany on a 99-year lease, became known as the Kiautschou Bay concession; the village of Qingdao became the German colony of Tsingtau, the area became a focus for German commercial development in China, while for the Imperial German Navy it was the naval base for their Far East Squadron. Because of land speculation in Germany's African colonies, land value tax was introduced as the only tax in the colony, it was a great success, bringing wealth quite to the colony and financial stability.
The colony was the only government authority to rely on the single tax on land value, is used as an academic case study to this day about the viability of such a tax system. The German colony issued currency. With the outbreak of World War I, the Republic of China canceled the Kiautschou lease with the German Empire; this came into force on 23 August 1914, the day of Japan’s declaration of war on Germany, after a Japanese ultimatum for unconditional German evacuation of the colony had expired. The area was occupied subsequently by Japanese forces after the Siege of Tsingtao. China declared war on Germany on 14 August 1917; as an ally of the victors, China expected the formal return of the region at the end of hostilities. However, the Treaty of Versailles acceded to Japanese claims at the Paris Peace Conference and assigned all confiscated German Pacific territories and islands north of the equator to Japan, including Jiaozhou Bay; this arrangement caused China-wide protests known as the "May Fourth Movement", regarded as a significant event of modern Chinese history.
As a result, the Beiyang government refused to sign the Treaty. This was known as the "Shandong Problem", it was resolved following mediation by the United States which led to a return to Chinese sovereignty in February 1922. Jiaozhou Bay is situated wholly within Qingdao prefecture. Counterclockwise, the bordering divisions are Shinan District, Shibei District, Sifang District, Licang District, Chengyang District, Jiaozhou City, Jiaonan City and Huangdao District; the entrance to the bay is 6.17 km wide. In 1993, Qingdao City decided to build a traffic corridor for the Jiaozhou Bay region, which includes a tunnel under the inlet and a bridge across Jiaozhou Bay. In December 2006 the construction process started with an estimated completion target of 2011; the Jiaozhou Bay Bridge, at 42.5 kilometres, is the world's longest bridge over water, surpassing the cross-sea Donghai Bridge in length. The total budget is estimated at 9.938 billion yuan. It is estimated that it will shorten travel time from Qingdao to the outlying region by more than half and relieve pressure on the existing Jiaozhou Bay Expressway.
The Qing-Huang Tunnel will connect Qingdao with Huangdao with a length of over 7 km. After completion, travel time is estimated at 10 minutes by automobile from Qingdao to Huangdao District. German colonies Jiaozhou Bay Connection Project