In Major League Baseball, spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training allows new players to try out for roster and position spots, gives established players practice time prior to competitive play. Spring training has always attracted fan attention, drawing crowds who travel to the warm climates of Arizona and Florida to enjoy the weather and watch their favorite teams play, spring training coincides with spring break for many US college students. Spring training starts in mid-February and continues until just before Opening Day of the regular season, which falls in the last week of March. In some years, teams not scheduled to play on Opening Day will play spring training games that day. Pitchers and catchers report to spring training first because pitchers benefit from a longer training period. A few days position players arrive and team practice begins. Exhibition games begin around the first of March. Spring training by major league teams in sites other than their regular season game sites first became popular in the 1890s and by 1910 was in wide use.
Hot Springs, has been called the original "birthplace" of spring training baseball. The location of Hot Springs and the concept of getting the players ready for the upcoming season was the brainchild of Chicago White Stockings team President Albert Spalding and Cap Anson. In 1886, the White Stockings traveled to Hot Springs to prepare for the upcoming season. After holding spring training at the Hot Springs Baseball Grounds, the White Stockings went on to have a successful season and other teams took notice. In subsequent years other teams joined Chicago and began holding spring training in Hot Springs, leading to the first spring training games; the Cleveland Spiders, Detroit Tigers, Pittsburgh Pirates, Cincinnati Reds, Brooklyn Dodgers, Boston Red Sox followed the White Stockings to Hot Springs. Whittington Field/Ban Johnson Park, Majestic Park, Fogel Field were all built in Hot Springs to host Major League teams. Famously, on St. Patrick's Day, 1918, a young successful pitcher named Babe Ruth of the Boston Red Sox was forced to play an emergency game at first base in a spring training game against Pittsburgh.
This game changed the course of baseball history, as it was the first time Ruth had played any position other than pitcher. Ruth responded by hitting two home runs that day in Hot Springs, the second was a 573-foot shot that landed across the street from Whittington Park in a pond of the Arkansas Alligator Farm and Petting Zoo; the Red Sox took notice and soon Ruth was playing the field more often. Over 130 Major League Baseball Hall of Famers, including such names as Ruth, Cy Young, Cap Anson, Honus Wagner, Ty Cobb, Tris Speaker, Walter Johnson, Rogers Hornsby, Mel Ott, Dizzy Dean, Jimmie Foxx, Stan Musial all trained in Hot Springs Spring Training; the First Boys of Spring is a 2015 documentary about Hot Springs Spring Training. The film was narrated by area native, actor Billy Bob Thornton, produced by filmmaker Larry Foley; the documentary began airing nationally on the MLB Network in February 2016. Early training sites include the St. Louis Cardinals in Tulsa, Oklahoma; the Detroit Tigers are credited with being the first team to conduct spring training camp in Arizona.
They trained in Phoenix at Riverside Park at Central Avenue and the Salt River in 1929. The Philadelphia Phillies were the first of the current major-league teams to train in Florida, when they spent two weeks in Jacksonville, Florida in 1889. Spring training in Florida began in earnest in 1913, when the Chicago Cubs trained in Tampa and the Cleveland Indians in Pensacola. One year two other teams moved to Florida for spring training, the real start of the Grapefruit League. Except for a couple of years during World War II, when travel restrictions prevented teams training south of the Potomac and Ohio rivers, Florida hosted more than half of the spring training teams through 2009. Since 2010, major league teams have been divided between Arizona and Florida during spring training, with 15 teams in Florida and 15 teams in Arizona. All but six of the major league teams have gone to spring training in Florida at one time or another. Many of the most famous players in baseball history have called Florida home for 4–6 weeks every spring.
According to the autobiography of former Cleveland Indians owner Bill Veeck, the avoidance of racism was one reason the Cactus League was established. In 1947, Veeck was the owner of the minor league Milwaukee Brewers and the team trained in Ocala, Florida. Veeck inadvertently sat in the Black section of the segregated stands and engaged in conversation with a couple of fans. According to Veeck's book, the local law enforcement told Veeck he could not sit in that section, called the Ocala mayor when Veeck argued back; the mayor backed down when Veeck threatened to take his team elsewhere for spring training and promised to let the country know why. Veeck sold the Brewers in 1945 and temporarily retired to a ranch in Tucson, but purchased the Cleveland Indians in 1946. Intending to introduce African-American players, Veeck decided to buck tradition and train the Indians in Tucson and convinced the New York Giants to give Phoenix a try, thus the
University of Miami
The University of Miami is a private, nonsectarian research university in Coral Gables, United States. As of 2018, the university enrolls 17,331 students in 12 separate colleges/schools, including the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine in Miami's Health District, a law school on the main campus, the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science focused on the study of oceanography and atmospheric sciences on Virginia Key, with research facilities at the Richmond Facility in southern Miami-Dade County; the university offers 138 undergraduate, 144 master's, 68 doctoral degree programs, of which 64 are research/scholarship and four professional areas of study. Over the years, the university's students have represented all 50 states and close to 150 foreign countries. With more than 15,000 full and part-time faculty and staff, UM is a top 10 employer in Miami-Dade County. UM's main campus in Coral Gables has over 5.7 million square feet of buildings. Research is a component of each academic division, with UM attracting $345.8 million in sponsored research grants in FY 2018.
UM offers a large library system with over 3.9 million volumes and exceptional holdings in Cuban heritage and music. UM offers a wide range of student activities, including fraternities and sororities, a student newspaper and a radio station. UM's intercollegiate athletic teams, collectively known as the Miami Hurricanes, compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. UM's football team has won five national championships since 1983 and its baseball team has won four national championships since 1982. A group of citizens chartered the University of Miami in 1925 with the intent to offer "unique opportunities to develop inter-American studies, to further creative work in the arts and letters, to conduct teaching and research programs in tropical studies", they believed. They were overly optimistic about future financial support for UM because the South Florida land boom was at its peak. During the Jim Crow era, there were three large state-funded universities in Florida for white males, white females, black coeds.
The university began in earnest in 1925 when George E. Merrick, the founder of Coral Gables, gave 160 acres and nearly $5 million, to the effort; these contributions were land contracts and mortgages on real estate, sold in the city. The university was chartered on April 1925 by the Circuit Court for Dade County. By the fall of 1926, when the first class of 372 students enrolled at UM, the land boom had collapsed, hopes for a speedy recovery were dashed by a major hurricane. For the next 15 years the university remained solvent; the first building on campus, now known as the Merrick Building, was left half built for over two decades due to economic difficulties. In the meantime, classes were held at the nearby Anastasia Hotel, with partitions separating classrooms, giving the university the early nickname of "Cardboard College."In 1929, founding member William E. Walsh and other members of the Board of Regents resigned in the wake of the collapse of the Florida economy. UM's plight was so severe that students went door to door in Coral Gables collecting funds to keep it open.
A reconstituted ten-member Board was chaired by UM's first president Bowman Foster Ashe. The new board included Merrick, Theodore Dickinson, E. B. Douglas, David Fairchild, James H. Gilman, Richardson Saunders, Frank B. Shutts, Joseph H. Adams, J. C. Penney. In 1930, several faculty members and more than 60 students came to UM when the University of Havana closed due to political unrest. UM filed for bankruptcy in 1932. In July 1934, the University of Miami was reincorporated and a Board of Trustees replaced the Board of Regents. By 1940, community leaders were replacing administration as trustees; the university survived this early turmoil. During Ashe's presidency, the university added the School of Law, the Business School, the School of Education, the Graduate School, the Marine Laboratory, the School of Engineering, the School of Medicine. During World War II, UM was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
One of Ashe's longtime assistants, Jay F. W. Pearson, assumed the presidency in 1952. A charter faculty member and a marine biologist by trade, Pearson retained the position until 1962. During his presidency, UM awarded its first doctorate degrees and saw an increase in enrollment of more than 4,000; the social changes of the 1960s and 1970s were reflected at UM. In 1961, UM began to admit black students. African Americans were allowed full participation in student activities and sports teams. After President Stanford pressed for minority athletes, in December 1966, UM signed Ray Bellamy, an African American football player. With Bellamy, UM became the first major college in the Deep South with a Black football player on scholarship. UM established an Office of Minority Affairs to promote diversity in both undergraduate and professional school admissions. With the start of the 1968 football season, President Henry Stanford barred the playing of "Dixie" by the university's band. UM regulated female student conduct more than men's conduct with a staff under the Dean of Women watching over the women.
UM combined the separate Dean of Men and Dean of Women positions in 1971. In 19
The Dallas Mavericks are an American professional basketball team based in Dallas, Texas. The Mavericks compete in the National Basketball Association as a member club of the league's Western Conference Southwest Division; the team plays its home games at the American Airlines Center, which it shares with the National Hockey League's Dallas Stars. As of the 2017 season, the Mavericks have sold out 704 consecutive games since December 15, 2001, the longest running sellout streak in North American major league sports. Since their inaugural 1980–81 season, the Mavericks have won three division titles, two conference championships, one NBA championship. In 1978, Californian businessman Garn Eckardt met Dallas lawyer Doug Adkins, mentioned he was trying to raise capital to move an NBA team to the city. Asking for a possible partner, Adkins recommended him one of his clients, Home Interiors and Gifts owner Don Carter. Negotiations with Eckardt fell through, but Carter remained interested in the enterprise as a gift to his wife Linda, who played basketball while at Duncanville High School.
At the same time, Buffalo Braves president and general manager Norm Sonju developed an interest in bringing the NBA to Dallas as he studied possible new locations for the ailing franchise. While the Braves went to California as the San Diego Clippers, Sonju returned to Texas, was introduced to Carter by mayor Robert Folsom, one of the owners and team president of the last professional basketball team in the city, the Dallas Chaparrals of the American Basketball Association, which moved to San Antonio in 1973 to become the San Antonio Spurs. Sonju and Carter tried purchasing both the Milwaukee Bucks and the Kansas City Kings, but disagreement on relocation stalled the negotiations, leading them to instead aim for an expansion team; the league was reluctant to expand to Dallas, given Texas had both the Spurs and Houston Rockets, the 1978–79 NBA season was proving unprofitable and unpopular. Still, during the 1979 NBA All-Star Game weekend, NBA commissioner Larry O'Brien announced the league would add two new teams in the 1980–81 season, with teams in Dallas and Minneapolis.
Once the Minnesota team backed out, only Dallas remained, through negotiations with general counselor and future commissioner David Stern, the expansion fee was settled on the $12.5 million. Carter would provide half the amount. At the 1980 NBA All-Star Game, league owners voted to admit the new team, with the team's name coming from the 1957–1962 TV western Maverick. James Garner, who played the namesake character, was a member of the ownership group; the University of Texas at Arlington, who uses the Mavericks nickname, had objections about a shared name, but did not attempt any legal action. They joined the Midwest Division of the Western Conference, where they would stay until the league went to six divisions for the 2004–05 season. Dick Motta, who had guided the Washington Bullets to the NBA Championship in 1977–78, was hired as the team's first head coach, he had a well-earned reputation of being a stern disciplinarian, but was a great teacher of the game. Kiki Vandeweghe of UCLA was drafted by the Mavs with the 11th pick of the 1980 NBA draft, but Vandeweghe refused to play for the expansion Mavericks and staged a holdout that lasted a month into the team's inaugural season.
Vandeweghe was traded to the Denver Nuggets, along with a first-round pick, in 1981, in exchange for two future first-round picks that materialized into Rolando Blackman in 1981 and Sam Perkins in 1984. In the Mavericks' debut game, taking place in the brand-new Reunion Arena, the Mavericks defeated the Spurs, 103–92, but the Mavs started the season with a 6–40 record on their way to finishing 15–67. However, the Mavericks did make a player acquisition that, while it seemed minor at the time, turned out to play a important role in the early years of their franchise. Journeyman 6 ft 3 in guard Brad Davis, who played for the Anchorage Northern Knights of the Continental Basketball Association, was tracked down and signed by the Mavs in December. At the time, there was no reason to expect that Davis would be any better than the expansion-level talent the Mavs had, but he started the Mavs' final 26 games, led the team in assists, his career soared. He spent the next twelve years with the Mavericks, his number 15 jersey was retired.
The Mavericks marked the first NBA team to have a profitable debut season, with an average of 7,789 spectators. The 1981 NBA Draft brought three players; the Mavs selected 6'6" forward Mark Aguirre with the first pick, 6'6" guard Rolando Blackman 9th, 6'7" forward Jay Vincent 24th. By the end of his seven-year Mavs career, Aguirre would average 24.6 points per game. Blackman contributed 19.2 points over his 11-year career in Dallas. But it was Jay Vincent who made the biggest difference for the Mavs in their second season, leading the team in scoring with 21.4 points per game and earning NBA All-Rookie Team honors. The Mavericks improved to 28–54, getting out of the Midwest Division cellar as they finished above the Utah Jazz. In 1982–83, the Mavericks were serious contenders for the first time. At the All-Star break, they had won 12 of their last 15 games, they could not sustain that momentum and finished seven games behind the Denver Nuggets for the sixth and final playoff spot in the Western Conference.
But the Mavs' 38–44 re
National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum
The National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum is an American history museum and hall of fame, located in Cooperstown, New York, operated by private interests. It serves as the central point for the study of the history of baseball in the United States and beyond, displays baseball-related artifacts and exhibits, honors those who have excelled in playing and serving the sport; the Hall's motto is "Preserving History, Honoring Excellence, Connecting Generations." The word Cooperstown is used as shorthand for the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum to Canton for the Pro Football Hall of Fame in Canton, Ohio. The Hall of Fame was established in 1939 by the owner of a local hotel. Clark had sought to bring tourists to a city hurt by the Great Depression, which reduced the local tourist trade, Prohibition, which devastated the local hops industry. A new building was constructed, the Hall of Fame was dedicated on June 12, 1939; the erroneous claim that Civil War hero Abner Doubleday invented baseball in Cooperstown was instrumental in the early marketing of the Hall.
An expanded library and research facility opened in 1994. Dale Petroskey became the organization's president in 1999. In 2002, the Hall launched Baseball As America, a traveling exhibit that toured ten American museums over six years; the Hall of Fame has since sponsored educational programming on the Internet to bring the Hall of Fame to schoolchildren who might not visit. The Hall and Museum completed a series of renovations in spring 2005; the Hall of Fame presents an annual exhibit at FanFest at the Major League Baseball All-Star Game. Jeff Idelson replaced Petroskey as president on April 16, 2008, he had been acting as president since March 25, 2008, when Petroskey was forced to resign for having "failed to exercise proper fiduciary responsibility" and making "judgments that were not in the best interest of the National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum." Among baseball fans, "Hall of Fame" means not only the museum and facility in Cooperstown, New York, but the pantheon of players, umpires and pioneers who have been enshrined in the Hall.
The first five men elected were Ty Cobb, Babe Ruth, Honus Wagner, Christy Mathewson and Walter Johnson, chosen in 1936. As of January 2018, 323 people had been elected to the Hall of Fame, including 226 former Major League Baseball players, 35 Negro league baseball players and executives, 22 managers, 10 umpires, 30 pioneers and organizers. 114 members of the Hall of Fame have been inducted posthumously, including four who died after their selection was announced. Of the 35 Negro league members, 29 were inducted posthumously, including all 24 selected since the 1990s; the Hall of Fame includes Effa Manley. The newest members elected on January 22, 2019, are players Edgar Martínez, Roy Halladay, Mike Mussina and Mariano Rivera, with Rivera becoming the first player to be elected unanimously. Players are inducted into the Hall of Fame through election by either the Baseball Writers' Association of America, or the Veterans Committee, which now consists of four subcommittees, each of which considers and votes for candidates from a separate era of baseball.
Five years after retirement, any player with 10 years of major league experience who passes a screening committee is eligible to be elected by BBWAA members with 10 years' membership or more who have been covering MLB at any time in the 10 years preceding the election. From a final ballot including 25–40 candidates, each writer may vote for up to 10 players. Any player named on 75% or more of all ballots cast is elected. A player, named on fewer than 5% of ballots is dropped from future elections. In some instances, the screening committee had restored their names to ballots, but in the mid-1990s, dropped players were made permanently ineligible for Hall of Fame consideration by the Veterans Committee. A 2001 change in the election procedures restored. Players receiving 5% or more of the votes but fewer than 75% are reconsidered annually until a maximum of ten years of eligibility. Under special circumstances, certain players may be deemed eligible for induction though they have not met all requirements.
Addie Joss was elected despite only playing nine seasons before he died of meningitis. Additionally, if an otherwise eligible player dies before his fifth year of retirement that player may be placed on the ballot at the first election at least six months after his death. Roberto Clemente's induction in 1973 set the precedent when the writers chose to put him up for consideration after his death on New Year's Eve, 1972; the five-year waiting period was established in 1954 after an evolutionary process. In 1936 all players were eligible, including active ones. From the 1937 election until the 1945 election, there was no waiting period, so any retired player was eligible, but writers were discouraged from voting for current major leaguers. Since there was no formal rule preventing a writer from casting a ballot for an active player, the scribes did not always comply with the informal guideline.
The EuroLeague, known as the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague for sponsorship reasons, is the top-tier European professional basketball club competition, organized by Euroleague Basketball since 2000. Introduced in 2000, the competition replaced the FIBA EuroLeague, run by FIBA since 1958; the FIBA European Champions Cup and the EuroLeague are considered to be the same competition, with the change of name being a re-branding. The EuroLeague is one of the most popular indoor sports leagues in the world, with an average attendance of 8,780 for league matches in the 2017–18 season; that was the fifth-highest of any professional indoor sports league in the world, the second-highest of any professional basketball league in the world, only behind the National Basketball Association. The EuroLeague title has been won by 21 different clubs, 13 of which have won the title more than once; the most successful club in the competition is Real Madrid, with ten titles. Real Madrid are the current champions, having defeated Fenerbahçe in the 2018 final.
The FIBA European Champions Cup was established by FIBA and it operated under its umbrella from 1958 until the summer of 2000, concluding with the 1999–00 season. That was. FIBA had never trademarked the "EuroLeague" name though it had used that name for the competition since 1996. Euroleague Basketball appropriated the name, since FIBA had no legal recourse to do anything about it, it was forced to find a new name for its championship series. Thus, the following 2000–2001 season started with two separate top European professional club basketball competitions: the FIBA SuproLeague and the brand new Euroleague 2000–01 season; the rift in European professional club basketball showed no signs of letting up. Top clubs were split between the two leagues: Panathinaikos, Maccabi Elite Tel Aviv, CSKA Moscow and Efes Pilsen stayed with FIBA, while Olympiacos, Kinder Bologna, Real Madrid Teka, FC Barcelona, Paf Wennington Bologna, Benetton Treviso, AEK and Tau Cerámica joined Euroleague Basketball. In May 2001, Europe had two continental champions, Maccabi of the FIBA SuproLeague and Kinder Bologna of the Euroleague.
The leaders of both organizations realized the need to come up with a unified competition. Although only a year old, Euroleague Basketball negotiated from a position of strength and dictated proceedings. FIBA had no choice but to agree to Euroleague Basketball's terms; as a result, European club competition was integrated under Euroleague Basketball's umbrella and teams that competed in the FIBA SuproLeague during the 2000–01 season joined it as well. In essence, the authority in European professional basketball was divided over club-country lines. FIBA stayed in charge of national team competitions, while Euroleague Basketball took over the European professional club competitions. From that point on, FIBA's Korać Cup and Saporta Cup competitions lasted only one more season before folding, when Euroleague Basketball launched the ULEB Cup, now known as the EuroCup. In November 2015, Euroleague Basketball and IMG agreed on 10-year joint venture. Both Euroleague Basketball and IMG will manage the commercial operation, the management of all global rights covering both media and marketing.
The deal was worth €630 million guaranteed over 10 years, with projected revenues reaching €900 million. On 26 July 2010, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball announced a €15 million strategic agreement to sponsor the top European basketball competition across the globe. According to the agreement, starting with the 2010–11 season, the top European competition would be named Turkish Airlines Euroleague Basketball; the EuroLeague Final Four would be named the Turkish Airlines EuroLeague Final Four, whereby the new league title would appear in all media accordingly. This title partnership was set to run for five seasons, with the option of extending it to an additional five. On 23 October 2013, Turkish Airlines and Euroleague Basketball agreed to extend their partnership, up until 2020. FIBA era: FIBA European Champions Cup: FIBA European League: FIBA EuroLeague: FIBA SuproLeague: Euroleague Basketball era: Euroleague:. EuroLeague:.*There were two separate competitions during the 2000–01 season.
The SuproLeague, organized by FIBA, the Euroleague, organized by Euroleague Basketball. The EuroLeague operated under a tournament system, from its inaugural 1958 season, through the 2015–16 season. FIBA European Champions Cup: The champions of European national domestic leagues, the current European Champions Cup title holders, competing against each other, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with either a single game final, or a 2-game aggregate score finals. FIBA European Champions Cup: The champions of European national domestic leagues, competing against each other, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with a Final Four. FIBA European League: The champions of the European national domestic leagues, the current European League title holders, along with some of the other biggest teams from the most important national domestic leagues, played in a tournament system; the league culminated with a Final Four. FIBA EuroLeague: The champions of th
Miami Hurricanes men's basketball
The Miami Hurricanes men's basketball team represents the University of Miami in the Atlantic Coast Conference. The team began play in 1926, but was dropped by the University of Miami in 1971. In 1985, fourteen years the Hurricanes resumed play and joined the Big East Conference in 1991, winning the Big East regular season title in 2000. In 2004, in conjunction with the rest of the Miami athletic program, the team moved to the ACC. In 2012–2013, the team won its first regular season ACC championship as well as its first ACC tournament championship; the team has reached the NCAA Championship's "Sweet 16" three times. In the 2014–2015 season, they reached the final of the National Invitation Tournament; the Hurricanes play their home games at the Watsco Center. The Hurricanes have appeared in the NCAA Tournament 10 times, their combined record is 8–10. The Hurricanes have appeared in the National Invitation Tournament 11 times, their combined record is 9–11. Note: Honored Players are those former players who have had their jerseys retired to the Watsco Center rafters.
2013 – Shane Larkin, Lute Olson National Player of the Year 1960 – Dick Hickox, AP Second Team 1965 – Rick Barry, Consensus First Team 1970 – Don Curnutt, Helms Second Team 1999 – Tim James, AP Third Team 2013 – Shane Larkin, AP, NABC Second Team, Sporting News Third Team, John Wooden All-American, Bob Cousy Award Finalist, John R. Wooden Award Finalist 2013 – Shane Larkin First Team All-ACC: Jack McClinton, 2008, 2009 Shane Larkin, 2013Second Team All-ACC: Guillermo Diaz, 2005, 2006 Kenny Kadji, 2013 Sheldon McClellan, 2016Third Team All-ACC: Robert Hite, 2006 Jack McClinton, 2007 Malcolm Grant, 2011 Kenny Kadji, 2012 Rion Brown, 2014 Tonye Jekiri, 2016ACC All-Rookie Team: Durand Scott, 2010 Shane Larkin, 2012ACC All-Defensive Team: Anthony King, 2005 Shane Larkin, 2013 Durand Scott, 2013 Tonye Jekiri, 2015 Tonye Jekiri, 2016ACC All-Tournament Team: Shane Larkin, 2013 Durand Scott, 2013 Julian Gamble, 2013 Trey McKinney-Jones, 2013 1999 – Tim James First Team All-Big East: Tim James, 1998, 1999 Johnny Hemsley, 1999Second Team All-Big East: Tim James, 1997 Johnny Hemsley, 2000 Darius Rice, 2002 John Salmons, 2002 Darius Rice, 2004Third Team All-Big East: Constantin Popa, 1993, 1995 Mario Bland, 2000 John Salmons, 2001 James Jones, 2002 Darius Rice, 2003Big East All-Rookie Team: Steven Edwards, 1993 Kevin Norris, 1995 Tim James, 1996 Darius Rice, 2001 Guillermo Diaz, 2004Big East All-Tournament Team: Jerome Scott, 1992 Tim James, 1999 Marcus Barnes, 2002 Storm Surge is the official student section of Miami Hurricanes men's and women's basketball.
It was founded in 2011. Prior to Storm Surge's creation, Miami had been victim to years of inconsistent student attendance and a lack of student interest in the basketball program, prior attempts to create a lasting student section such as "UBeach" and "Haith's Faithful" were unsuccessful. Storm Surge works directly with Miami's athletic department to enhance the game day experience and encourage greater involvement from the student body. Storm Surge began with 500 members, but saw average student attendance jump to over 1,100 for ACC games in 2012–2013, its second season; as student capacity at the BUC is limited, students are admitted on a first-come, first-served basis, with students arriving hours beforehand or camping out to get the best seats. Storm Surge has become famous for its creative and unique free throw chants and distractions, digging up embarrassing facts and pictures of opposing players, its slogan, "Pack The BUC," which can be seen on T-shirts and promotional materials at UM home games.
Like many student sections, Storm Surge distributes cheer sheets prior to each game, detailing specific cheers for that game. The group has the ability to create cheers on the fly through the use of a large whiteboard at the front of the student section, used to coordinate all cheers. Storm Surge's official color is orange, all members wear orange to every game; the student section is situated behind both baskets and consists of bleacher seating and traditional seating. As bleacher seating is closest to the floor, the students in the bleachers are the team's biggest supporters. Before each game, Storm Surge sings the national anthem together if the anthem is being sung by an individual performer. During opposing teams' introductions, students turn around to face away from the court and throw up "The U." During Miami's home introductions, the student section links arms and rocks left to right, going faster and faster before erupting into cheers for the Hurricanes. For Miami's free throws, students hold up one finger, all jumping once on a made free throw and twice on the second free throw if both free throws are made.
Storm Surge organizes watch parties and live online blogs for every away game. These events are open to all students and take place on campus. Following major road wins, the group gathers at the BankUnited Center to greet and congratulate the returning Hurricanes team, a tradition that has since carried over to football. Membership in the organization entitles students to exclusive meet and greets with players, priority seating to games, promotions and giveaways. In 2012, due to unprecedented demand for student tickets to the January 23 game against the #1 ranked Duke Blue Devils, students camped out on an adjacent field to the BankUnited Center, promptly dubbed "Larrañaga Lawn," after Coach Jim Larrañaga. Students camped out for several other games during the 2012–2013 season, including sold out contests against FSU and UNC. Coach Jim Larrañaga and members of the team always greet students lined up on Larrañaga Lawn both the night before the g
Atlantic Coast Conference
The Atlantic Coast Conference is a collegiate athletic conference in the United States of America in which its fifteen member universities compete in the National Collegiate Athletic Association's Division I, with its football teams competing in the Football Bowl Subdivision, the highest levels for athletic competition in US-based collegiate sports. The ACC sponsors competition in twenty-five sports with many of its member institutions' athletic programs held in high regard nationally. Current members of the conference are Boston College, Clemson University, Duke University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Florida State University, North Carolina State University, Syracuse University, the University of Louisville, the University of Miami, the University of North Carolina, the University of Notre Dame, the University of Pittsburgh, the University of Virginia, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Wake Forest University. ACC teams and athletes have claimed dozens of national championships in multiple sports throughout the conference's history.
The ACC's top athletes and teams in any particular sport in a given year are considered to be among the top collegiate competitors in the nation. The conference enjoys extensive media coverage; the ACC was one of the five collegiate power conferences, which had automatic qualifying for their football champion into the Bowl Championship Series. With the advent of the College Football Playoff in 2014, the ACC is one of five conferences with a contractual tie-in to a New Year's Six bowl game, the successors to the BCS; the ACC was founded on May 8, 1953 by seven universities located in the South Atlantic States, with the University of Virginia joining in early December 1953 to bring the membership to eight. The loss of South Carolina in 1971 dropped membership to seven, while the addition of Georgia Tech in 1979 for non-football sports and 1983 for football brought it back to eight, Florida State's arrival in 1991 for non-football sports and 1992 for football increased the membership to nine. Since 2000, with the widespread reorganization of the NCAA, seven additional schools have joined, one original member has left to bring it to the current membership of 15 schools.
The additions in recent years extended the conference's footprint into the Midwest. ACC member universities represent a range of well-regarded private and public universities of various enrollment sizes, all of which participate in the Atlantic Coast Conference Academic Consortium whose purpose is to "enrich the educational missions the undergraduate student experiences, of member universities"; the ACC has 15 member institutions located within the borders of 10 states. Listed in alphabetical order, these 10 states within the ACC's geographical footprint are Florida, Indiana, Massachusetts, New York, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia; the geographic domain of the conference is predominantly within the Southern and Northeastern United States along the US Atlantic coast and stretches from Florida in the south to New York in the North and from Indiana in the west to Massachusetts farthest east. In two sports and baseball, the ACC is divided into two non-geographic divisions of seven teams each, labeled the "Atlantic" and "Coastal" divisions.
Notre Dame does not participate in ACC football and Syracuse does not participate in ACC baseball, leaving 14 total ACC schools for each of those sports. For all other sports, the ACC operates as a single unified league with no divisions; when Notre Dame joined the ACC, it chose to remain a football independent. However, its football team established a special scheduling arrangement with the ACC to play a rotating selection of five ACC football teams per season. Since July 1, 2014, the 15 members of the ACC are: On July 1, 2014, The University of Maryland departed for The Big Ten Conference as The University of Louisville joined from The American Athletic Conference. In 1971, The University of South Carolina left The ACC to become an independent joining The Metro Conference in 1983 and moving to its current home, The Southeastern Conference, in 1991. Full members Non-football members The ACC was established on June 14, 1953, when seven members of the Southern Conference left to form their own conference.
These seven universities became charter members of the ACC: Clemson, Maryland, North Carolina, North Carolina State, South Carolina, Wake Forest. They left due to that league's ban on post-season football play. After drafting a set of bylaws for the creation of a new league, the seven withdrew from the Southern Conference at the spring meeting on the morning of May 8, 1953 at the Sedgefield Country Club in Greensboro, North Carolina; the bylaws were ratified on June 14, 1953, the ACC was created, becoming the second conference formed by schools collectively withdrawing from the SoCon, after the Southeastern Conference. On December 4, 1953, officials convened in Greensboro, North Carolina, admitted Virginia, a SoCon charter member, independent since 1937, into the conference. In 1960, the ACC implemented a minimum SAT score for incoming student-athletes of 750, the first conference to do so; this minimum was raised to 800 in 1964, but was struck down by a federal court in 1972. On July 1, 1971, South Carolina left the ACC to become an independent.
The ACC operated with seven members until the addition of Georgia Tech from the Metro Conference, announced on April 3, 1978 and taking effect on July 1, 1979 except in football, in which Tech would remain an independent until joining ACC football in 1983. The total number of member schools reached nine with the addition of Florida State formerl