Consecration is the solemn dedication to a special purpose or service religious. The word consecration means "association with the sacred". Persons, places, or things can be consecrated, the term is used in various ways by different groups; the origin of the word comes from the Latin word consecrat, which means dedicated and sacred. A synonym for to consecrate is to sanctify. Images of the Buddha and bodhisattvas are ceremonially consecrated in a broad range of Buddhist rituals that vary depending on the Buddhist traditions. Buddhābhiseka is a Sanskrit term referring to these consecration rituals. "Consecration" is used in the Catholic Church as the setting apart for the service of God of both persons and objects. The ordination of a new bishop is called a consecration. While the term "episcopal ordination" is now more common, "consecration" was the preferred term from the Middle Ages through the period including the Second Vatican Council; the Vatican II document Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy n. 76 states, Both the ceremonies and texts of the ordination rites are to be revised.
The address given by the bishop at the beginning of each ordination or consecration may be in the mother tongue. When a bishop is consecrated, the laying of hands may be done by all the bishops present; the English text of Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition, 1997, under the heading "Episcopal ordination—fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders", uses "episcopal consecration" as a synonymous term, using "episcopal ordination" and "episcopal consecration" interchangeably. The Code of Canon Law Latin-English Edition, under "Title VI—Orders" uses the term sacrae ordinationis minister "minister of sacred ordination" and the term consecratione episcopali "episcopal consecration"; the life of those who enter religious institutes, secular institutes or societies of apostolic Life are described as Consecrated life. The rite of consecration of virgins can be traced back at least to the fourth century. By the time of the Second Vatican Council, the bestowal of the consecration was limited to cloistered nuns only.
The Council directed. Two similar versions were prepared, one for women living in monastic orders, another for consecrated virgins living in the world. An English translation of the rite for those living in the world is available on the web site of the United States Association of Consecrated Virgins. Chrism, an anointing oil, is olive oil consecrated by a bishop. Objects such as patens and chalices, used for the Sacrament of the Eucharist, are consecrated by a bishop, using chrism; the day before a new priest is ordained, there is a vigil and a service or Mass at which the ordaining Bishop consecrates the paten and chalice of the ordinands. A more solemn rite exists for what used to be called the "consecration of an altar", either of the altar alone or as the central part of the rite for a church; the rite is now called the dedication. Since it would be contradictory to dedicate to the service of God a mortgage-burdened building, the rite of dedication of a church is carried out only if the building is debt-free.
Otherwise, it is only blessed. A special act of consecration is that of the bread and wine used in the Eucharist, which according to Catholic belief involves their change into the Body and Blood of Christ, a change referred to as transubstantiation. To consecrate the bread and wine, the priest speaks the Words of Institution. In the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the term "consecration" can refer to either the Sacred Mystery of Cheirotonea of a bishop, or the sanctification and solemn dedication of a church building, it can be used to describe the change of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ at the Divine Liturgy. The Chrism used at Chrismation and the Antimension placed on the Holy Table are said to be consecrated. Church buildings and altars are consecrated to the purpose of religious worship, baptismal fonts and vessels are consecrated for the purpose of containing the Eucharistic elements, the bread and wine/the body and blood of Christ. A person may be consecrated for a specific role within a religious hierarchy, or a person may consecrate his or her life in an act of devotion.
In particular, the ordination of a bishop is called a consecration. In churches that follow the doctrine of apostolic succession, the bishops who consecrate a new bishop are known as the consecrators and form an unbroken line of succession back to the Apostles; those who take the vows of religious life are said to be living a consecrated life. The Methodist Book of Worship for Church and Home contains a liturgies for "The Order for the Consecration of Bishops", "An Office for the Consecration of Deaconesses", "An Office for the Consecration of Directors of Christian Education and Directors of Music", as well as "An Office for the Opening or Consecrating of a Church Building" among others. Among some religious groups there is a service of "deconsecration", to return a consecrated place to secular purpose. In the Church of England, an order closing a church may remove the legal effects of consecration. In most South Indian Hindu temples around the world, Kumbhabhishekam, or the temple's consecration ceremony, is done once every 12 years.
It is done to purify the temple after a renovation or done to renew the purity of th
The kīla or phurba is a three-sided peg, knife, or nail-like ritual implement traditionally associated with Indo-Tibetan Buddhism, Bön, Indian Vedic traditions. The kīla is associated with Vajrakīlaya. Most of what is known of the Indian kīla lore has come by way of Tibetan culture. Scholars such as F. A. Bischoff, Charles Hartman and Martin Boord have shown that the Tibetan literature asserts that the Sanskrit for their term phurba is kīlaya. However, as Boord describes it, "all dictionaries and Sanskrit works agree the word to be kīla. I suppose this to result from an indiscriminate use by Tibetans of the dative singular kīlaya; this form would have been familiar to them in the simple salutation namo vajrakīlaya from which it could be assumed by those unfamiliar with the technicalities of Sanskrit that the name of the deity is Vajrakīlaya instead of Vajrakīla. It should be noted that the term kīlaya is found in Sanskrit texts legitimately used as the denominative verb'to spike,"transfix,"nail down,' etc."
Mayer contests Boord's assertion, pointing out that eminent Sanskritists such as Sakya Pandita employed Vajrakīlaya. Further, he argues: it is possible, on the other hand, that the name Vajrakīlaya as favoured by the Tibetans could in fact have been the form, used in the original Indic sources, that there is no need to hypothesize a correct form "Vajrakīla". "Vajrakīlaya" could have come from the second person singular active, causative imperative, of the verb Kīl. Indigenous grammar gives to Kīl the meaning of bandha, i.e. "to bind", while Monier-Williams gives the meanings "to bind, stake, pin". Hence the form kīlaya could mean "you cause to bind/transfix!", or "bind/transfix!". This, taken from mantras urging "bind/transfix", or "may you cause to bind/transfix", might have come to be treated as a noun; this suggestion is supported by Alexis Sanderson, a specialist in Sanskrit tantric manuscripts whom I consulted on this problem. Both the above suggestions are ungrammatical and incorrect from the point of view of Sanskrit grammar.
Regarding the suggestion of Boord et al. the Sanskrit dative of kīla is kīlāya, not kīlaya. Mayer's suggestion would require compounding a noun and a nominal verb, not a licit formation in Sanskrit. "Vajraṃ kīlaya" is a possible expression, but, not the form under discussion. It seems possible to me that the Tibetan kīlaya is borrowed not from Sanskrit but from a Prakrit word kīlaya; the fabrication of kīla is quite diverse. Having pommel and blade, kīla are segmented into suites of triunes on both the horizontal and vertical axes, though there are notable exceptions; this compositional arrangement highlights the numerological importance and spiritual energy of the integers three and nine. Kīla may be constituted and constructed of different materials and material components, such as wood, clay, gems, horn or crystal. Like the majority of traditional Tibetan metal instruments, the kīla is made from brass and iron (terrestrial and/or meteoric iron.'Thokcha' means "sky-iron" in Tibetan and denote tektites and meteorites which are high in iron content.
Meteoric iron was prized throughout the Himalaya where it was included in sophisticated polymetallic alloys such as Panchaloha for ritual implements. The pommel of the kīla bears three faces of Vajrakīla, one joyful, one peaceful, one wrathful, but may bear the umbrella of the ashtamangala or mushroom cap, snow lion, or stupa, among other possibilities; the handle is of a vajra, weaving or knotwork design. The handle has a triune form as is common to the pommel and blade; the blade is composed of three triangular facets or faces, meeting at the tip. These represent the blade's power to transform the negative energies known as the "three poisons" or "root poisons" of attachment/craving/desire, delusion/ignorance/misconception, aversion/fear/hate. Cantwell and Mayer have studied a number of texts recovered from the cache of the Dunhuang manuscripts that discuss the phurba and its ritual usage; the kīla is one of many iconographic representations of divine "symbolic attributes" of Vajrayana and Hindu deities.
When consecrated and bound for usage, the kīla are a nirmanakaya manifestation of Vajrakīlaya. Chandra, et al. in their Dictionary entry'korkor' "coiled" relates that the text titled the'Vaidūry Ngonpo' has the passage: ཐག་བ་ཕུར་བ་ལ་ཀོར་ཀོར་བྱམ "a string was wound round the dagger."One of the principal methods of working with the kīla and to actualize its essence-quality is to pierce the earth with it. The terms employed for the deity and the tool are
The Wylie transliteration system is a method for transliterating Tibetan script using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter. It bears the name of Turrell V. Wylie, who described the scheme in an article, A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription, published in 1959, it has subsequently become a standard transliteration scheme in Tibetan studies in the United States. Any Tibetan language romanization scheme is faced with a dilemma: should it seek to reproduce the sounds of spoken Tibetan, or the spelling of written Tibetan? These differ as Tibetan orthography became fixed in the 11th century, while pronunciation continued to evolve, comparable to the English orthography and French orthography, which reflect Late Medieval pronunciation. Previous transcription schemes sought to split the difference with the result that they achieved neither goal perfectly. Wylie transliteration was designed to transcribe Tibetan script as written, which led to its acceptance in academic and historical studies.
It is not intended to represent the pronunciation of Tibetan words. The Wylie scheme transliterates the Tibetan characters as follows: In Tibetan script, consonant clusters within a syllable may be represented through the use of prefixed or suffixed letters or by letters superscripted or subscripted to the root letter; the Wylie system does not distinguish these as in practice no ambiguity is possible under the rules of Tibetan spelling. The exception is the sequence gy -, which may be written either with a subfix y. In the Wylie system, these are distinguished by inserting a period between a prefix g and initial y. E.g. གྱང "wall" is gyang, while གཡང་ "chasm" is g.yang. The four vowel marks are transliterated: When a syllable has no explicit vowel marking, the letter a is used to represent the default vowel "a". Many previous systems of Tibetan transliteration included internal capitalisation schemes—essentially, capitalising the root letter rather than the first letter of a word, when the first letter is a prefix consonant.
Tibetan dictionaries are organized by root letter, prefixes are silent, so knowing the root letter gives a better idea of pronunciation. However, these schemes were applied inconsistently, only when the word would be capitalised according to the norms of Latin text. On the grounds that internal capitalisation was overly cumbersome, of limited usefulness in determining pronunciation, superfluous to a reader able to use a Tibetan dictionary, Wylie specified that if a word was to be capitalised, the first letter should be capital, in conformity with Western capitalisation practices, thus a particular Tibetan Buddhist sect is capitalised not bKa' brgyud. Wylie's original scheme is not capable of transliterating all Tibetan-script texts. In particular, it has no correspondences for most Tibetan punctuation symbols, lacks the ability to represent non-Tibetan words written in Tibetan script. Accordingly, various scholars have adopted incomplete conventions as needed; the Tibetan and Himalayan Library at the University of Virginia developed a standard, Extended Wylie Tibetan System or EWTS, that addresses these deficiencies systematically.
It uses Latin punctuation to represent the missing characters. Several software systems, including TISE, now use this standard to allow one to type unrestricted Tibetan script on a Latin keyboard. Since the Wylie system is not intuitive for use by linguists unfamiliar with Tibetan, a new transliteration system based on the International Phonetic Alphabet has been proposed to replace Wylie in articles on Tibetan historical phonology. Tibetan pinyin THL Simplified Phonetic Transcription Tise - extended Wylie input method for Tibetan script Tibetan script Standard Tibetan Uchen script Wylie, Turrell. A Standard System of Tibetan Transcription. Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies, p. 261-267 The Wylie Translation Table, at Nitartha International Staatsbibliothek Berlin – A standard system of Tibetan transcription THDL Extended Wylie Transliteration Scheme Tibetan transliteration: convert between Wylie or EWTS and Unicode Test Tibetan display Utility for converting Extended Wylie plain text to Unicode Tibetan
Shamanism is a practice that involves a practitioner reaching altered states of consciousness in order to perceive and interact with what they believe to be a spirit world and channel these transcendental energies into this world. A shaman is someone, regarded as having access to, influence in, the world of benevolent and malevolent spirits, who enters into a trance state during a ritual, practices divination and healing; the word "shaman" originates from the Tungusic Evenki language of North Asia. According to ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen, "the word is attested in all of the Tungusic idioms" such as Negidal, Udehe/Orochi, Ilcha, Orok and Ulcha, "nothing seems to contradict the assumption that the meaning'shaman' derives from Proto-Tungusic" and may have roots that extend back in time at least two millennia; the term was introduced to the west after Russian forces conquered the shamanistic Khanate of Kazan in 1552. The term "shamanism" was first applied by Western anthropologists as outside observers of the ancient religion of the Turks and Mongols, as well as those of the neighbouring Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking peoples.
Upon observing more religious traditions across the world, some Western anthropologists began to use the term in a broad sense. The term was used to describe unrelated magico-religious practices found within the ethnic religions of other parts of Asia, Africa and completely unrelated parts of the Americas, as they believed these practices to be similar to one another. Mircea Eliade writes, "A first definition of this complex phenomenon, the least hazardous, will be: shamanism ='technique of religious ecstasy'." Shamanism encompasses the premise that shamans are intermediaries or messengers between the human world and the spirit worlds. Shamans are said to treat ailments/illness by mending the soul. Alleviating traumas affecting the soul/spirit restores the physical body of the individual to balance and wholeness; the shaman enters supernatural realms or dimensions to obtain solutions to problems afflicting the community. Shamans may visit other worlds/dimensions to bring guidance to misguided souls and to ameliorate illnesses of the human soul caused by foreign elements.
The shaman operates within the spiritual world, which in turn affects the human world. The restoration of balance results in the elimination of the ailment. Beliefs and practices that have been categorized this way as "shamanic" have attracted the interest of scholars from a wide variety of disciplines, including anthropologists, historians, religious studies scholars and psychologists. Hundreds of books and academic papers on the subject have been produced, with a peer-reviewed academic journal being devoted to the study of shamanism. In the 20th century, many Westerners involved in the counter-cultural movement have created modern magico-religious practices influenced by their ideas of indigenous religions from across the world, creating what has been termed neoshamanism or the neoshamanic movement, it has affected the development of many neopagan practices, as well as faced a backlash and accusations of cultural appropriation and misrepresentation when outside observers have tried to represent cultures to which they do not belong.
The word shamanism derives from the Manchu-Tungus word šaman, meaning'one who knows'. The word "shaman" may have originated from the Evenki word šamán, most from the southwestern dialect spoken by the Sym Evenki peoples; the Tungusic term was subsequently adopted by Russians interacting with the indigenous peoples in Siberia. It is found in the memoirs of the exiled Russian churchman Avvakum; the word was brought to Western Europe in the late 17th century by the Dutch traveler Nicolaes Witsen, who reported his stay and journeys among the Tungusic- and Samoyedic-speaking indigenous peoples of Siberia in his book Noord en Oost Tataryen. Adam Brand, a merchant from Lübeck, published in 1698 his account of a Russian embassy to China; the etymology of the Evenki word is sometimes connected to a Tungus root ša- "to know". This has been questioned on linguistic grounds: "The possibility cannot be rejected, but neither should it be accepted without reservation since the assumed derivational relationship is phonologically irregular."
Other scholars assert that the word comes directly from the Manchu language, as such would be the only used English word, a loan from this language. However, Mircea Eliade noted that the Sanskrit word śramaṇa, designating a wandering monastic or holy figure, has spread to many Central Asian languages along with Buddhism and could be the ultimate origin of the Tungusic word; this proposal has been critiqued since 1917. Ethnolinguist Juha Janhunen regards it as an "anachronism" and an "impossibility", nothing more than a "far-fetched etymology."21st-century anthropologist and archeologist Silvia Tomaskova argues that by the mid-1600s, many Europeans applied the Arabic term shaitan to the non-Christian practices and beliefs of indigenous peoples beyond the Ural Mountains. She suggests that shaman may have entered the various Tungus dialects as a corruption of this term, been told to Christian missionaries, explorers and colonial administrators with whom the people had increasing contact for centuries.
Ethnolinguists did not develop as a discipline nor achieve contact with these communities until the late 19th century, may have mistakenly "read backward" in time for the origin of this word. A shamaness is somet
Zhangzhung or Shangshung was an ancient culture and kingdom of western and northwestern Tibet, which pre-dates the culture of Tibetan Buddhism in Tibet. Zhangzhung culture is associated with the Bon religion, which in turn, has influenced the philosophies and practices of Tibetan Buddhism. Zhangzhung people are mentioned in ancient Tibetan texts as the original rulers of central and western Tibet. Only in the last two decades have archaeologists been given access to do archaeological work in the areas once ruled by the Zhangzhung. A tentative match has been proposed between the Zhangzhung and an Iron Age culture now being uncovered on the Changtang plateau in northwestern Tibet. Tradition has it that Zhang Zhung consisted "of three different regions: the outer; the outer is what we might call Western Tibet, from Gilgit in the west to Dangs-ra khyung-rdzong in the east, next to lake gNam-mtsho, from Khotan in the north to Chu-mig brgyad-cu rtsa-gnyis in the south. The inner region is said to be sTag-gzig, the middle rGya-mkhar bar-chod, a place not yet identified."
While it is not certain whether Zhang Zhung was so large, it is known that it was an independent kingdom and covered the whole of Western Tibet. The capital city of Zhang Zhung was called Khyunglung, the "Silver Palace of Garuda", southwest of Mount Kailash, identified with palaces found in the upper Sutlej Valley. According to Rolf Alfred Stein, author of Tibetan Civilization, the area of Shang Shung was not a part of Tibet and was a distinctly foreign territory to the Tibetans. According to Rolf Alfred Stein, “…Then further west, The Tibetans encountered a distinctly foreign nation. - Shangshung, with its capital at Khyunglung. Mt. Kailāśa and Lake Manasarovar formed part of this country. Whose language has come down to us through early documents. Though still unidentified, it seems to be Indo European. …Geographically the country was open to India, both through Nepal and by way of Kashmir and Ladakh. Kailāśa is a holy place for the Indians. No one knows how long they have done so, but the cult may well go back to the times when Shangshung was still independent of Tibet.
How far Shangshung stretched to the north and west is a mystery…. We have had an occasion to remark that Shangshung, embracing Kailāśa sacred Mount of the Hindus, may once have had a religion borrowed from Hinduism; the situation may have lasted for quite a long time. In fact, about 950, the Hindu King of Kabul had a statue of Vişņu, of the Kashmiri type, which he claimed had been given him by the king of the Bhota who, in turn had obtained it from Kailāśa.” A chronicle of Ladakh compiled in the 17th century called the La dvags rgyal rabs, meaning the Royal Chronicle of the Kings of Ladakh recorded that this boundary was traditional and well-known. The first part of the Chronicle was written in the years 1610–1640, the second half towards the end of the 17th century; the work has been translated into English by A. H. Francke and published in 1926 in Calcutta titled the Antiquities of Indian Tibet. In volume 2, the Ladakhi Chronicle describes the partition by King Sykid-Ida-ngeema-gon of his kingdom between his three sons, the chronicle described the extent of territory secured by that son.
The following quotation is from page 94 of this book: "He gave to each of his sons a separate kingdom, viz. to the eldest Dpal-gyi-ngon, Maryul of Mnah-ris, the inhabitants using black bows. From a perusal of the aforesaid work, It is obvious and evident that Rudokh was an integral part of Ladakh and after the family partition, Rudokh continued to be part of Ladakh. Maryul meaning lowlands was a name given to a part of Ladakh. At that time, i.e. in the 10th century, Rudokh was an integral part of Ladakh and Lde-mchog-dkar-po, i.e. Demchok was an integral part of Ladakh. Recent archeological work on the Chang Tang plateau finds evidence of an Iron Age culture which some have tentatively identified as the Zhangzhung. There is some confusion as to whether Central Tibet conquered Zhangzhung during the reign of Songtsen Gampo or in the reign of Trisong Detsen; the records of the Tang Annals do, seem to place these events in the reign of Songtsen Gampo for they say that in 634, Yangtong and various Qiang tribes, "altogether submitted to him."
Following this he united with the country of Yangtong to defeat the'Azha or Tuyuhun, conquered two more tribes of Qiang before threatening Songzhou with an army of more than 200,000 men. He sent an envoy with gifts of gold and silk to the Chinese emperor to ask for a Chinese princess in marriage and, when refused, attacked Songzhou, he finally retreated and apologised and the emperor granted his request. Early Tibetan accounts say that the Tibetan king and the king of Zhangzhung had married each other's sisters in a political alliance. However, the Tibetan wife of the king of the Zhangzhung complained of poor treatment by the king's principal wife. War ensued, through the treachery of the Tibetan princess, "King Ligmikya of Zhangzhung, while on his way to Sum-ba was ambushed and killed by King Srongtsen Gampo's soldiers; as a consequence, the Zhangzhung kingdom was annexed to Bod. Thereafter the new kingdom born of the unification of Zhan
Ghanta is the Sanskrit term for a ritual bell used in Hinduistic religious practices. The ringing of the bell produces. Hindu temples have one metal bell hanging at the entrance and devotees ring the bell while entering the temple, an essential part in preparation of having a darshan. A bell is rung by priests during Pūjā or Yajna - during the waving of light, burning of incense in front of the deity, while bathing the deity and while offering food or flowers. There are bells specially made to produce the long strains of the sound Aum; the bell is made out of brass. A clapper is attached to the inside and the bell makes a high pitched sound when rung; the top of the bell handle is adorned with a brass figure - bells intended for use in the worship of Lord Shiva will have a figure of Lord Nandi, while those used in the worship of Lord Vishnu or his avatars as Rama, Narasimha or Krishna will have a figure of Garuda or Panchajanya shanka or Sudarshana Chakra. In Hinduism, bells are hung at the temple dome in front of the Garbhagriha.
Devotees ring the bell while entering into the sanctum. It is said; the sound of the bell is considered auspicious which welcomes dispels evil. The sound of the bell is said to disengage mind from ongoing thoughts thus making the mind more receptive. Bell ringing during prayer is said to help in controlling the wandering mind and focusing on the deity. In Hinduism, the mantra chanted while ringing the bell is From Kundalini Yoga perspective, the sound of bell energizes Chakras and balances the distribution of energy in body; the number of times the bell should be sounded depends on the number of letters in the mantra. In Shilpa Shastras it is mentioned that bell should be made of panchadhatu - five metals, copper, gold and iron; these 5 metals represent the pancha bhoota. Bells have symbolic meaning in Hinduism; the curved body of the bell represents Ananta. The clapper or tongue of the bell represents Saraswati, the goddess of wisdom and knowledge; the handle of the bell represents Prana Shakti - vital power and is symbolically linked to Hanuman, Nandi or Sudarshana Chakra.