Shanghai Securities Exchange Building
|This article about a building or structure in China is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
|This article about a building or structure in China is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|
WZMH Architects is a multinational architectural firm established in 1961 and based in Toronto, Canada. Known as Webb Zerafa Menkès Housden the company's name was changed to WZMH Architects in 2002; the firm has become known for its work with tall, landmark structures, major mixed-use development, institutional and hospitality projects, as well as renovation and retrofit projects involving heritage restoration, justice buildings and data centres. WZMH has enduring developer relationships with Oxford Properties, Brookfield Properties, Infrastructure Ontario, ELAD Group, Four Seasons Hotels and Resorts. In 2015, WZMH merged with pellow + associates, a firm known for its retail design, further expanding the firm's diverse portfolio. In 2016, WZMH Architects celebrated its 55th anniversary; the firm has earned many awards, including: Canada's Best Managed Companies 2015: 2015 Best Managed Winner Illuminating Engineering Society: 2015: IES Illumination Award of Merit - Quinte CourthouseInternational Council of Shopping Centre Awards: 2015: Gold ICSC within the New Development Category - Outlet Collection at Niagara and RBC WaterPark Place in Toronto Canadian Urban Institute: 2013: CUI Brownie Award in the Excellence in Project Development at the Building Scale category – Nova Scotia Power Corporate Headquarters Canada Green Building Council: 2013: Canadian Green Building Award- Nova Scotia Power Corporate Headquarters 2014: OAA Design Excellence Award- Nova Scotia Power Corporate Headquarters 2012: OAA Award for Design Excellence- Bay Adelaide Centre West Tower 222 Jarvis Street Sustainable Building Renewal, Toronto San Stefano Grand Plaza CSEC Long-Term Accommodation, Ottawa Durham Region Courthouse, Oshawa Quinte Courthouse, Ontario Canadian Space Agency, St. Hubert, Quebec Canadian Embassy, Poland Public Institution for Social Security Headquarters, Kuwait Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Abu Dhabi Nova Scotia Power Corporate Headquarters, Halifax Shanghai Securities Exchange Building, Shanghai BCC Data Centre, Ontario WaterPark Place, Toronto Bay Adelaide Centre, Toronto Royal Bank Plaza, Toronto Centennial Place, Calgary Scotia Plaza, Toronto CN Tower, Toronto Nile Plaza - Four Seasons Hotel, Cairo Caesars Windsor, Windsor Casino Rama, Ontario Nile Ritz-Carlton, Cairo Parkway Forest Re-Urbanization and Emerald City, Toronto The Crossways, Toronto Exchange Place, Boston Marketplace Center, Boston Company website
Pudong is a district of Shanghai located east of the Huangpu River across from the historic city center of Shanghai in Puxi. The name refers to its historic position as "The East Bank" of the Huangpu River, which flows through central Shanghai, although it is now administered as the Pudong New Area, a state-level new area which extends all the way to the East China Sea; the traditional area of Pudong is now home to the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and the Shanghai Stock Exchange and many of Shanghai's best-known buildings, such as the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Tower, the Shanghai World Financial Center, the Shanghai Tower. These modern skyscrapers directly face Puxi's historic Bund, a remnant of former foreign concessions in China; the rest of the new area includes the Port of Shanghai, the Shanghai Expo and Century Park, Zhangjiang Hi-Tech Park, Shanghai Pudong International Airport, the Jiuduansha Wetland Nature Reserve, the Shanghai Disney Resort. Pudong—literally "The East Bank of the Huangpu River"—originally referred only to the less-developed land across from Shanghai's Old City and foreign concessions.
The area was farmland and only developed, with warehouses and wharfs near the shore administered by the districts of Puxi on the west bank: Huangpu and Nanshi. Pudong was established as a county in 1958 until 1961 which the county was split among Huangpu, Nanshi and Chuansha County. In October 1, 1992 the original area of Pudong County and Chuansha County merged and established Pudong New Area. In 1993, the Chinese government set up a Special Economic Zone in Chuansha, creating the Pudong New Area; the western tip of the Pudong district was designated as the Lujiazui Finance and Trade Zone and has become a financial hub of modern China. Several landmark buildings were constructed, including the Oriental Pearl Tower, the Jin Mao Building, the supertall Shanghai World Financial Center 494 m and Shanghai Tower; these buildings—all along Century Avenue and visible from the historic Bund—now form the most common skyline of Shanghai. On May 6, 2009, it was disclosed that the State Council had approved the proposal to merge Nanhui District with Pudong and comprise the majority of eastern Shanghai.
In 2010, Pudong was host to the main venues of the Shanghai Expo, whose grounds now form a public park. Pudong New Area consist of the original Pudong County, Chuansha County, Nanhui County. Districts of the direct-controlled municipality of Shanghai are administratively on the same level as prefecture-level cities. However, the government of Pudong has a status equivalent to that of a sub-provincial city, a half-level above a prefecture-level city; this is due to Pudong's importance as the financial hub of China. The Pudong Communist Party Secretary is the top office of the district, followed by the district governor of Pudong; the Pudong party chief is customarily a member of the Shanghai Party Standing Committee. On April 27, 2015, People's Government of Pudong New Area is working with China Pilot Free-Trade Zone Administrative Committee. Pudong means "East Bank". Pudong is bounded by the East China Sea in the east. Pudong is distinguished from Puxi, the older part of Shanghai, it has an area of 1,210.4 square kilometres and according to the 2010 Census, a population of 5,044,430 inhabitants, 1.9 million more than in 2000.
At least 2.1 million of residents of Pudong are newcomers from other provinces or cities in China. Pudong is the most populous district in Shanghai. According to the 2010 Census, it has 5,044,430 people in 1,814,802 families, around 1/4 of Shanghai's total population, an explosive growth since the last census thanks to immigrants. Pudong's resident population growth is well above national average because it is a popular immigration destination; the 2010 census shows a 58.26% increase in the last decade, or an annual pace of 4.7%. In particular, the district saw am immigration growth of 189.5%, or an annual pace of 11.22%. Excluding immigrants, the birth rate is 0.806% while the death rate is 0.729, resulting a net growth of 0.077%. The total fertility rate is 1.03, well below the replacement level. The district has a negative registered household population growth if immigrants are excluded, thus the growth is purely driven by immigration; the 2010 Census shows a population density of 3,909/km2.
About 3/4 of the population live in the northern part and part of city center called "Northern Territory". 1/4 live in the "Southern Territory", the Nanhui District. The Northern Territory has a 6,667 population density, while the Southern Territory has 1,732/km2. Suburbs saw a greater increase in population during 2000-2010 with the help of the city's suburb expansion policy; some counties in the traditional city center saw a population decrease. * – Liuzao town merged into Chuanshaxin town. ** – Luchaogang town and Shengang Subdistrict merged and form Nanhui Xincheng town. Shanghai Maritime University Shanghai Dianji University Shanghai Fisheries University China Executive Leadership Academy in Pudong Fudan University in Zhangjiang New York University Shanghai ShanghaiTech University Public schools: No. 2 High School Attached to East China Normal University Jianping High School Dongchang High School of ECNU Pudong Foreign Languages School of Shanghai International Studies UniversityInternational schools: Dulwich College Shanghai French School of Shanghai Pudong Campus Nord Anglia International School Shanghai Pudong German School Shanghai Pudong Campus Shanghai American School Pudong Campus Shanghai Japanese School Pudong Campus, SJS Senior
A building, or edifice, is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. Buildings come in a variety of sizes and functions, have been adapted throughout history for a wide number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, land prices, ground conditions, specific uses, aesthetic reasons. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures. Buildings serve several societal needs – as shelter from weather, living space, privacy, to store belongings, to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a physical division of the outside. Since the first cave paintings, buildings have become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in sustainable planning and building practices has become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings; the word building is the act of making it. As a noun, a building is'a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place'.
In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a building. However, the word structure is used more broadly than building including natural and man-made formations and does not have walls. Structure is more to be used for a fence. Sturgis' Dictionary included that " differs from architecture in excluding all idea of artistic treatment; as a verb, building is the act of construction. Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level. Depending on how they are classified and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not included; the definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but three storeys or less is considered low-rise. A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500 000 years ago is doubtful since Fujimura was found to have faked many of his findings. Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200 000 to 400 000 years ago have been called into question.
There is clear evidence of homebuilding from around 18 000 BC. Buildings became common during the Neolithic. Single-family residential buildings are most called houses or homes. Multi-family residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex or an apartment building. A condominium is an apartment rather than rents. Houses may be built in pairs, in terraces where all but two of the houses have others either side. Houses which were built as a single dwelling may be divided into apartments or bedsitters. Building types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people. Increasing settlement density in buildings is a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common building materials are concrete or combinations of either of these with stone. Residential buildings have different names for their use depending if they are seasonal include holiday cottage or timeshare.
If the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or prison. Many people lived in communal buildings called longhouses, smaller dwellings called pit-houses and houses combined with barns sometimes called housebarns. Buildings are defined to be substantial, permanent structures so other dwelling forms such as houseboats and motorhomes are dwellings but not buildings. Sometimes a group of inter-related builds are referred to as a complex – for example a housing complex, educational complex, hospital complex, etc; the practice of designing and operating buildings is most a collective effort of different groups of professionals and trades. Depending on the size and purpose of a particular building project, the project team may include: A real estate developer who secures funding for the project. Other possible design Engineer specialists may be involved such as Fire, facade engineers, building physics, Telecomms, AV (Audio V
The Shanghai Stock Exchange is a stock exchange, based in the city of Shanghai, China. It is one of the two stock exchanges operating independently in the People's Republic of China, the other being the Shenzhen Stock Exchange. Shanghai Stock Exchange is the world's 4th largest stock market by market capitalization at US$5.5 trillion as of April 2018. Unlike the Hong Kong Stock Exchange, the Shanghai Stock Exchange is still not open to foreign investors and manipulated by the decisions of the central government; this is due to tight capital account controls exercised by the Chinese mainland authorities. The current exchange was re-established on November 26, 1990 and was in operation on December 19 of the same year, it is a non-profit organization directly administered by the China Securities Regulatory Commission. The Shanghai Clearing House provides security for financial market participants, efficient clearing services development purposes, but conductive to international peers inter-agency communication and cooperation.
It provides central counterparty clearing of foreign currency in the interbank market, including clearing, margin management, collateral management, information services, consulting services, related management department under other business. The formation of the International Settlement in Shanghai was the result of the Treaty of Nanking of 1842 and subsequent agreements between the Chinese and foreign governments were crucial to the development of foreign trade in China and of the foreign community in Shanghai; the market for securities trading in Shanghai begins in the late 1860s. The first shares list appeared in June 1866 and by Shanghai's International Settlement had developed the conditions conducive to the emergence of a share market: several banks, a legal framework for joint-stock companies, an interest in diversification among the established trading houses. In 1891 during the boom in mining shares, foreign businessmen founded the "Shanghai Sharebrokers' Association" headquartered in Shanghai as China's first stock exchange.
In 1904 the Association applied for registration in Hong Kong under the provision of the Companies ordinance and was renamed as the "Shanghai Stock Exchange". The supply of securities came from local companies. In the early days, banks dominated private shares but, by 1880, only the Hong Kong and Shanghai local banks remained. In 1920 and 1921, "Shanghai Securities & Commodities Exchange" and "Shanghai Chinese Merchant Exchange" started operation respectively. An amalgamation took place in 1929, the combined markets operated thereafter as the "Shanghai Stock Exchange". Shipping and docks persisted to 1940 but were overshadowed by industrial shares after the Treaty of Shimonoseki of 1895, which permitted Japan, by extension other nations which had treaties with China, to establish factories in Shanghai and other treaty ports. Rubber plantations became the staple of stock trading beginning in the second decade of the 20th century. By the 1930s, Shanghai had emerged as the financial center of the Far East, where both Chinese and foreign investors could trade stocks, government bonds, futures.
The operation of Shanghai Stock Exchange came to an abrupt halt after Japanese troops occupied the Shanghai International Settlement on December 8, 1941. In 1946, Shanghai Stock Exchange resumed its operations before closing again 3 years in 1949, after the Communist revolution took place. After the Cultural Revolution ended and Deng Xiaoping rose to power, China was re-opened to the outside world in 1978. During the 1980s, China's securities market evolved in tandem with the country's economic reform and opening up and the development of socialist market economy. On 26 November 1990, Shanghai Stock Exchange was re-established and operations began a few weeks on 19 December. 1866 - The first share list appeared in June. 1871 - Speculative bubble burst triggered by monetary panic. 1883 - Credit crisis resulted speculation in Chinese companies. 1890 - Bank crisis started from Hong Kong. 1891 - "Shanghai Sharebrokers Association" established. 1895 - Treaty of Shimonoseki opened Chinese market to foreign investors.
1904 - Renamed to "Shanghai Stock Exchange". 1909-1910 - Rubber boom. 1911 - Revolution and the abdication of the Qing Dynasty. Founding of the Republic of China. 1914 - Market closed for a few months due to the Great War. 1919 - Speculation in cotton shares. 1925 - Second rubber boom. 1929 - "Shanghai Securities & Commodities Exchange" and "Shanghai Chinese Merchant Exchange" were merged into the existing Shanghai Stock Exchange. 1931 - Incursion of Japanese forces into northern China. 1930s - The market was dominated by the rubber share price movements. 1941 - The market closed on Friday 5 December. Japanese troops occupied Shanghai. 1946-1949 - Temporary resumption of the Shanghai Stock Exchange until the communist revolution. Founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949. 1978 - Deng Xiaoping emerged as the dominant figure in China's leadership, thus beginning a period of'opening up' to the rest of the world. 1981 - Trading in treasury bonds were resumed. 1984 - Company stocks and corporate bonds emerged in Shanghai and a few other cities.
1990 - The present Shanghai Stock Exchange re-opened on November 26 and began operation on December 19. 2001-2005 - A four-year market slump which saw Shanghai's market value halved, after reaching a peak in 2001. A ban on new IPOs was put in April 2005 to curb the slump and allow more than US$200 billion of state-owned equity to be converted to tradable shares. 2006 - The SSE resumed full operation as the yearl
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
The Astor House Hotel, known as the Pujiang Hotel in Chinese since 1959, has been described as once "one of the famous hotels of the world". Established in 1846 as Richards' Hotel and Restaurant on The Bund in Shanghai, it has been at 15 Huangpu Lu, near the confluence of the Huangpu River and the Suzhou Creek in the Hongkou District, near the northern end of the Waibaidu Bridge, since 1858; the hotel closed on January 1, 2018, after being purchased by an undisclosed local business which will convert the building into office space for its own use. The Astor House Hotel has been on the North Bund of Shanghai, by the northern end of the Waibaidu Bridge, since 1858; the hotel is on a 4,580 square metre site and has a total building area of 16,563 square metres with 134 rooms and suites. It was a landmark in the Hongkou District and the centre of foreign social life before the opening of the Cathay Hotel, it occupies an entire block, is across the road from the Russian Consulate. The consulates of Germany, the United States and Japan were located in row up the row from the Hotel.
On 29 August 1842, the Treaty of Nanjing declared Shanghai to be one of five open treaty ports in China, the others being Canton, Amoy and Ningpo. On 17 November 1843, Shanghai was declared open to foreign traders, soon after the British concession in Shanghai was established and the boundaries defined. Afterward, the resident foreign population of the British concession increased: "In 1844 it was 50, in the following year 90, after five years it had grown to 175. In addition there was a'floating population,' consisting of the men on shore from the ships in harbour." Among the first foreign residents of Shanghai was Peter Felix Richards, a Scottish merchant. Richards had been doing business in China from about 1840. F. Richards & Co.. P. F. Richards operated a general store, a ship chandler, a commissioned agent business on 4th Avenue. In 1846, Richards opened one of the first Western restaurants in Shanghai and the first Western hotel in China; these were located south of the Yangkingpang creek. The hotel was "a single and ordinary building" built in the Baroque style, which targeted the seafaring clientele that made up the bulk of travelers to 19th century Shanghai.
One contemporaneous account describes corridors and floors whose color and design echoed those on ships. A century John B. Powell erroneously recounted the origins of the Hotel: "The Astor House Hotel... had grown from a boarding house established by the skipper of some early American clipper, who left his ship at Shanghai. A string of sea captains followed the original as managers of the hotel; the first public meeting of the British settlement was held in the newly opened Richards' Hotel on 22 December 1846. In August 1850 Richards advertised that a reading room for shipmasters had been established in his hotel. On 1 March 1856 his company was renamed "Richards & Co." and on 15 May 1856, while in New York on business, Richards' company was declared insolvent by decree of the British Consular Court in Shanghai, all of his assets were assigned provisionally to his creditors, Britons William Herbert Vacher and Charles Wills. According to Shanghai historian Peter Hibbard, the completion of the Wills Bridge allowed the expansion of the over-crowded settlement.
Wills, who owned the land on the northern side of Suzhou Creek, benefited from increased property values. During 1857 Wills leased a lot, larger than 22 mu in a section of reclaimed mud flats in Hongkew east of Broadway on the northern banks of the Soochow Creek, adjacent to the new bridge, faced the Suzhou Creek near its confluence with the Huangpu River, "at a huge profit for the building of the Astor House Hotel." In February 1858 Richards' store and the Richards Hotel and Restaurant were relocated to the site leased from Charles Wills on the northern banks of the Suzhou Creek. The new Hotel was a two-story East India style building. In February 1858 Richards' store and the Richards Hotel and Restaurant were relocated to the site leased from Charles Wills on the northern banks of the Suzhou Creek, near its confluence with the Huangpu River in the Hongkou District of Shanghai. By 1859 the hotel was renamed the Astor House Hotel, while retaining the original Chinese name until 1959; the Astor House Hotel was sold to Englishman Henry W. Smith on 1 January 1861.
According to an 1862 guidebook, at that time the building housed a "soda-water maker" by the name of F. Farr. By October 1868 George Baker was the proprietor of the Astor House. By August 1873 it had been purchased by DeWitt Clinton Jansen. In 1876 the Astor House Hotel was enlarged, with fifty new rooms added that were used to accommodate newly arrived families who were awaiting the completion of their own residences. After the 1876 expansion the hotel was "four large neo-Renaissance brick buildings linked together by stone passageways." American travel writer Thomas Wallace Knox stayed there in 1879, providing a positive review in his Boy Travellers in the Far East. In January 1877 plans were announced to construct a Turkish bath on the Seward Road frontage as part of the expansion of the Astor House. In 1881 Jansen renewed his lease of the Astor House Hotel with the trustees of the Wills' Estate for a period of thirty years. In July 1882, the Astor Hou