Indian Air Force
The Indian Air Force is the air arm of the Indian Armed Forces. Its complement of personnel and aircraft assets ranks fourth amongst the air forces of the world, its primary mission is to secure Indian airspace and to conduct aerial warfare during armed conflict. It was established on 8 October 1932 as an auxiliary air force of the British Empire which honoured India's aviation service during World War II with the prefix Royal. After India gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1947, the name Royal Indian Air Force was kept and served in the name of Dominion of India. With the government's transition to a Republic in 1950, the prefix Royal was removed after only three years. Since 1950 the IAF has been involved in four wars with neighboring Pakistan and one with the People's Republic of China. Other major operations undertaken by the IAF include Operation Vijay, Operation Meghdoot, Operation Cactus and Operation Poomalai; the IAF's mission expands beyond engagement with hostile forces, with the IAF participating in United Nations peacekeeping missions.
The President of India holds the rank of Supreme Commander of the IAF. As of 1 July 2017, 139,576 personnel are in service with the Indian Air Force; the Chief of Air Staff, an air chief marshal, is a four-star officer and is responsible for the bulk of operational command of the Air Force. There is never more than one serving ACM at any given time in the IAF; the rank of Marshal of the Air Force has been conferred by the President of India on one occasion in history, to Arjan Singh. On 26 January 2002 Singh became the first and so far, only five-star rank officer of the IAF; the IAF's mission is defined by the Armed Forces Act of 1947, the Constitution of India, the Air Force Act of 1950. It decrees that in the aerial battlespace: Defence of India and every part there of including preparation for defence and all such acts as may be conducive in times of war to its prosecution and after its termination to effective demobilisation. In practice, this is taken as a directive meaning the IAF bears the responsibility of safeguarding Indian airspace and thus furthering national interests in conjunction with the other branches of the armed forces.
The IAF provides close air support to the Indian Army troops on the battlefield as well as strategic and tactical airlift capabilities. The Integrated Space Cell is operated by the Indian Armed Forces, the civilian Department of Space, the Indian Space Research Organisation. By uniting the civilian run space exploration organizations and the military faculty under a single Integrated Space Cell the military is able to efficiently benefit from innovation in the civilian sector of space exploration, the civilian departments benefit as well; the Indian Air Force, with trained crews and access to modern military assets provides India with the capacity to provide rapid response evacuation, search-and-rescue operations, delivery of relief supplies to affected areas via cargo aircraft. The IAF provided extensive assistance to relief operations during natural calamities such as the Gujarat cyclone in 1998, the tsunami in 2004, North India floods in 2013; the IAF has undertaken relief missions such as Operation Rainbow in Sri Lanka.
The Indian Air Force was established on 8 October 1932 in British India as an auxiliary air force of the Royal Air Force. The enactment of the Indian Air Force Act 1932 stipulated out their auxiliary status and enforced the adoption of the Royal Air Force uniforms, badges and insignia. On 1 April 1933, the IAF commissioned its first squadron, No.1 Squadron, with four Westland Wapiti biplanes and five Indian pilots. The Indian pilots were led by British RAF Commanding officer Flight Lieutenant Cecil Bouchier. During World War II, the IAF played an instrumental role in halting the advance of the Japanese army in Burma, where the first IAF air strike was executed; the target for this first mission was the Japanese military base in Arakan, after which IAF strike missions continued against the Japanese airbases at Mae Hong Son, Chiang Mai and Chiang Rai in northern Thailand. The IAF was involved in strike, close air support, aerial reconnaissance, bomber escort and pathfinding missions for RAF and USAAF heavy bombers.
RAF and IAF pilots would train by flying with their non-native air wings to gain combat experience and communication proficiency. IAF pilots participated in air operations in Europe as part of the RAF. During the war, the IAF experienced a phase of steady expansion. New aircraft added to the fleet included the US-built Vultee Vengeance, Douglas Dakota, the British Hawker Hurricane, Supermarine Spitfire, Westland Lysander. In recognition of the valiant service by the IAF, King George VI conferred the prefix "Royal" in 1945. Thereafter the IAF was referred to as the Royal Indian Air Force. In 1950, when India became a republic, the prefix was dropped and it reverted to being the Indian Air Force. After it became independent from the British Empire in 1947, British India was partitioned into the new states of the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan. Along the lines of the geographical partition, the assets of the air force were divided between the new countries. India's air force retained the name of the Royal Indian Air Force, but three of the ten operational squadrons and facilities, located within the borders of Pakistan, were transferred to the Royal Pakistan Air Force.
The RIAF Roundel was changed to an interim'Chakra' roundel derived from the Ashoka Chakra. Around the same time, conflict broke out between them over the control of the princely state of Jammu & Kashmir. With Pakistani forces moving into the state, its Maharaja decided to accede to India in order to receive military help; the day after, the Instrument of Accession was signed, the RIAF
Cheruthoni is a town on the Cheruthoni River, a major tributary of the Periyar River, the second longest river in Kerala state, South India. The area is known by Cheruthoni Dam, a part of Idukki reservoir, which provide hydroelectric power to the region; the town is adjacent to the Cheruthoni dam. These dams, along with the Kulamavu Dam, form the Idukki Reservoir. Cheruthoni is part of Vazhathope Panchayat, in the Idukki District. Other villages adjacent to Cheruthoni include Vazhathope, Karimban, Maniyarankudi, Peppara and Painavu. Following a famine in the 1940s, the government allowed farmers to migrate to unoccupied arable lands in the mountains, where they cleared the land for agriculture; the region was identified as an ideal spot for a hydroelectric project. The Hindustan Construction Company was contracted to build the dams on behalf of the Kerala State Electricity Board. At this point, Cheruthoni began to grow. During the 1960s, a majority of the people living in Cheruthoni were not Keralites, but Sikhs from Punjab and manual laborers from neighbouring Tamil Nadu
In folklore, a mermaid is an aquatic creature with the head and upper body of a female human and the tail of a fish. Mermaids appear in the folklore of many cultures worldwide, including the Near East, Europe and Africa; the first stories appeared in ancient Assyria, in which the goddess Atargatis transformed herself into a mermaid out of shame for accidentally killing her human lover. Mermaids are sometimes associated with perilous events such as floods, storms and drownings. In other folk traditions, they can be benevolent or beneficent, bestowing boons or falling in love with humans; the male equivalent of the mermaid is the merman a familiar figure in folklore and heraldry. Although traditions about and sightings of mermen are less common than those of mermaids, they are assumed to co-exist with their female counterparts; some of the attributes of mermaids may have been influenced by the Sirens of Greek mythology. Historical accounts of mermaids, such as those reported by Christopher Columbus during his exploration of the Caribbean, may have been inspired by manatees and similar aquatic mammals.
While there is no evidence that mermaids exist outside folklore, reports of mermaid sightings continue to the present day, including 21st-century examples from Israel and Zimbabwe. Mermaids have been a popular subject of art and literature in recent centuries, such as in Hans Christian Andersen's well-known fairy tale "The Little Mermaid", they have subsequently been depicted in operas, books and comics. The word mermaid is a compound of the Old English mere, maid; the equivalent term in Old English was merewif. They are conventionally depicted as beautiful with long flowing hair; as cited above, they are sometimes equated with the sirens of Greek mythology, half-bird femmes fatales whose enchanting voices would lure soon-to-be-shipwrecked sailors to nearby rocks, sandbars or shoals. Sirenia is an order of aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit rivers, coastal marine waters and marine wetlands. Sirenians, including manatees and dugongs, possess major aquatic adaptations: arms used for steering, a paddle used for propulsion, remnants of hind limbs in the form of two small bones floating deep in the muscle.
They look ponderous and clumsy but are fusiform and muscular, mariners before the mid-nineteenth century referred to them as mermaids. Sirenomelia called "mermaid syndrome", is a rare congenital disorder in which a child is born with his or her legs fused together and small genitalia; this condition is about as rare as conjoined twins, affecting one out of every 100,000 live births and is fatal within a day or two of birth because of kidney and bladder complications. Four survivors were known as of July 2003; as the anthropologist A. Asbjørn Jøn noted: "these'marine beasts' have featured in folk tradition for many centuries now, until recently they have maintained a reasonably standard set of characteristics. Many folklorists and mythographers deem that the origin of the mythic mermaid is the dugong, posing a theory that mythicised tales have been constructed around early sightings of dugongs by sailors." Depictions of entities with the tails of fish, but upper bodies of human beings appear in Mesopotamian artwork from the Old Babylonian Period onwards.
These figures are mermen, but mermaids do appear. The name for the mermaid figure may have been kuliltu, meaning "fish-woman"; such figures were used in Neo-Assyrian art as protective figures and were shown in both monumental sculpture and in small, protective figurines. The first known mermaid stories appeared in Assyria c. 1000 BC. The goddess Atargatis, mother of Assyrian queen Semiramis, loved a mortal and unintentionally killed him. Ashamed, she jumped into a lake and took the form of a fish, but the waters would not conceal her divine beauty. Thereafter, she took the form of a mermaid — human above the waist, fish below — although the earliest representations of Atargatis showed her as a fish with a human head and arm, similar to the Babylonian god Ea; the Greeks recognized Atargatis under the name Derketo. Sometime before 546 BC, Milesian philosopher Anaximander postulated that mankind had sprung from an aquatic animal species, he thought. A popular Greek legend turned Alexander the Great's sister, into a mermaid after her death, living in the Aegean.
She would ask the sailors on any ship she would encounter only one question: "Is King Alexander alive?", to which the correct answer was: "He lives and reigns and conquers the world". This answer would please her, she would accordingly calm the waters and bid the ship farewell. Any other answer would enrage her, she would stir up a terrible storm, dooming the ship and every sailor on board. In the second century AD, the Hellenized Syrian writer Lucian of Samosata wrote about the Syrian temples he had visited in his treatise On the Syrian Goddess, written in Ionic Greek: "Among them – Now, the traditional story among them concerning the temple, but other men swear that Semiramis of Babylonia, whose deeds are many in Asia founded this site, not for Hera but for her own mother, whose name was Derketo." "I saw Derketo's likeness in a strange marvel. It is woman for half its length, but the image in the Holy City is a woman, the grounds for their acco
Chalakudy River or Chalakudy Puzha is the fifth longest river in Kerala, India. The river flows through Thrissur District and Ernakulam District of Kerala; the total drainage area of the river is 1704 km². out of this 1404 km² lies in Kerala and the rest 300 km² in Tamil Nadu. The length of the river is 145.5 km. Though Chalakudy river in strict geological sense is a tributary of the Periyar river, for all practical purposes it is treated as a separate river by Government and other agencies; the River has gained its name, since it flows along the banks of the Chalakudy Town, the major settlement along the course of the river. The river though has its origin in the Anamalai region of Tamil Nadu, is a collection of some major tributaries originated from Parambikulam, Sholayar and Anakayam in Kerala. Chalakudy River is the one of few rivers of Kerala with relics of riparian vegetation in substantial level; the annual report of the National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources Lucknow, mentioned that the Chalakudy River is the richest river in fish diversity in India.
The riparian forests of the Chalakudy River have revealed the existence of a thick riparian vegetation of more than 10 metres width for a distance of 10.5 km downstream from Peringalkuth, covering an area of 58.5 hectares. Out of this, 26.4 hectares lie within the Vazachal area, including three large islands densely covered by riparian forests. The riparian forests of the area have been found to be characterised by the presence of typical riparian species of plants, in addition to evergreen and semi-evergreen species. Out of the 319 species of flowering plants identified from the study area, 24 are endemic species of the Western Ghats and 10 are rare and endangered; the Chalakudy River is known for its diversity, as it contains 98 species of fresh water fishes out of the 152 species known from Kerala. Among these, 35 are endemic species of the Western Ghats and 31 are either vulnerable, endangered or critically endangered from indiscriminate collection for the aquarium fish trade, pollution and introduced species.
According to a report of the National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources in Lucknow, Chalakudy could well be the richest river in fish diversity in India, with thick vegetation on both sides. Among the fish species in the river, the most species rich family are the Cyprinids, followed by Bagrid catfishes and hillstream loaches. Among others, Horabagrus nigricollaris and Sahyadria chalakkudiensis are endemic to the Chalakudy River; the famous waterfalls, Athirappilly Falls and Vazhachal Falls, are situated on this river. The hydro electric projects on Chalakkudy River are Sholayar Hydro Electric Project and Peringalkuttu Hydro Electric Project. For irrigation purposes Thumboormoozhy Dam is constructed across this river, it merges with the Periyar River near Elenthikara, adjacent to Manjali, North Paravur in Ernakulam District and Joins Kodungallur Backwaters and Join Arabian sea at Azhekode. The Parambikulam Dam has been built on one of its four tributaries. "Infobox facts". All Kerala River Protection Council.
Retrieved 30 January 2006. Study of rivers in Kerala Chalakudy River Protection Forum Chalakudy Puzha Samrakshana Samithi Dam Has Kerala Greens Up In Arms, Sep 22, 2007, Tehelka Magazine
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, coastal areas and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development and defence, scientific research, environmental protection. The origins of hydrography lay in the making of charts to aid navigation, by individual mariners as they navigated into new waters; these were the private property closely held secrets, of individuals who used them for commercial or military advantage. As transoceanic trade and exploration increased, hydrographic surveys started to be carried out as an exercise in their own right, the commissioning of surveys was done by governments and special hydrographic offices. National organizations navies, realized that the collection and distribution of this knowledge gave it great organizational and military advantages.
Thus were born dedicated national hydrographic organizations for the collection, organization and distribution of hydrography incorporated into charts and sailing directions. Prior to the establishment of the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office, Royal Navy captains were responsible for the provision of their own charts. In practice this meant that ships sailed with inadequate information for safe navigation, that when new areas were surveyed, the data reached all those who needed it; the Admiralty appointed Alexander Dalrymple as Hydrographer in 1795, with a remit to gather and distribute charts to HM Ships. Within a year existing charts from the previous two centuries had been collated, the first catalogue published; the first chart produced under the direction of the Admiralty, was a chart of Quiberon Bay in Brittany, it appeared in 1800. Under Captain Thomas Hurd the department received its first professional guidelines, the first catalogues were published and made available to the public and to other nations as well.
In 1829, Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, as Hydrographer, developed the eponymous Scale, introduced the first official tide tables in 1833 and the first "Notices to Mariners" in 1834. The Hydrographic Office underwent steady expansion throughout the 19th century; the word hydrography comes from the Ancient Greek ὕδωρ, "water" and γράφω, "to write". Large-scale hydrography is undertaken by national or international organizations which sponsor data collection through precise surveys and publish charts and descriptive material for navigational purposes; the science of oceanography is, in part, an outgrowth of classical hydrography. In many respects the data are interchangeable, but marine hydrographic data will be directed toward marine navigation and safety of that navigation. Marine resource exploration and exploitation is a significant application of hydrography, principally focused on the search for hydrocarbons. Hydrographical measurements include the tidal and wave information of physical oceanography.
They include bottom measurements, with particular emphasis on those marine geographical features that pose a hazard to navigation such as rocks, shoals and other features that obstruct ship passage. Bottom measurements include collection of the nature of the bottom as it pertains to effective anchoring. Unlike oceanography, hydrography will include shore features and manmade, that aid in navigation. Therefore, a hydrographic survey may include the accurate positions and representations of hills and lights and towers that will aid in fixing a ship's position, as well as the physical aspects of the sea and seabed. Hydrography for reasons of safety, adopted a number of conventions that have affected its portrayal of the data on nautical charts. For example, hydrographic charts are designed to portray what is safe for navigation, therefore will tend to maintain least depths and de-emphasize the actual submarine topography that would be portrayed on bathymetric charts; the former are the mariner's tools to avoid accident.
The latter are best representations of the actual seabed, as in a topographic map, for scientific and other purposes. Trends in hydrographic practice since c. 2003–2005 have led to a narrowing of this difference, with many more hydrographic offices maintaining "best observed" databases, making navigationally "safe" products as required. This has been coupled with a preference for multi-use surveys, so that the same data collected for nautical charting purposes can be used for bathymetric portrayal. Though, in places, hydrographic survey data may be collected in sufficient detail to portray bottom topography in some areas, hydrographic charts only show depth information relevant for safe navigation and should not be considered as a product that portrays the actual shape of the bottom; the soundings selected from the raw source depth data for placement on the nautical chart are selected for safe navigation and are biased to show predominately the shallowest depths that relate to safe navigation.
For instance, if there is a deep area that can not be reached because it is surrounded by shallow water, the deep area may not be shown. The color filled areas that show different ranges of shallow water are not the equivalent of contours on a topographic map since they are drawn seaward of the actual shallowest depth portrayed. A bathymetric chart does show marine topology accurately. Details covering the ab
Korapuzha known as Elathur River, is a short river of 40 km, with a drainage area of 624 km2, flowing through the Kozhikode district of Kerala state in India. It is formed by the confluence of two streams and Punoor puzha which originate in the mountains of Wayanad district; the Korapuzha empties into the Arabian Sea at Elathur. The river and its main tributaries become tidal as they near the Arabian Sea. There is heavy boat traffic over the last 25 km of its course, it forms part of the West Coast Inland Navigation System. This 480-metre bridge is the longest bridge in Kozhikode district. Completed in 1940, it has 13 spans; the surroundings are lush green and photogenic. The Korapuzha is considered as the cordon sanitaire between the North Malabar and South Malabar in the erstwhile Malabar District; until the 20th century the Nair women of North Malabar crossing the Korapuzha and going south or marrying a person from South Malabar was considered a taboo and those who violated faced Bhrasht and forfeiture of caste.
Some difference can be seen in Thiyya community as well. Land south of Korapuzha is considered North of Korapuzha is Kolathunadu. "Infobox facts". All Kerala River Protection Council. Retrieved 26 January 2006. Malabar Manual in two volumes by William Logan, first published in 1887, reprinted by Asian Educational Services in 1951. Nayars of Malabar Vol III by F. Fawcett, first published in 1901
The Kurumali River or Kurumali Puzha is a tributary of the Karuvannur River in India. It originates from Pumalai Hills in Chimmony Wildlife sanctuary of Thrissur District in the Western Ghats and flows through the Thrissur District; the Mupli River joins the Chimmony River. Farther downstream the Kurumali River joins with Manali River at Palakkadavu and forms Karuvannur River. Cheruval – a village on the banks of the river Chimmony Dam – one of the main irrigation dams in Kerala is upstream this river