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In information theory, the Shannon–Hartley theorem tells the maximum rate at which information can be transmitted over a communications channel of a specified bandwidth in the presence of noise. It is an application of the noisy-channel coding theorem to the archetypal case of a continuous-time analog communications channel subject to Gaussian noise; the theorem establishes Shannon's channel capacity for such a communication link, a bound on the maximum amount of error-free information per time unit that can be transmitted with a specified bandwidth in the presence of the noise interference, assuming that the signal power is bounded, that the Gaussian noise process is characterized by a known power or power spectral density. The law is named after Ralph Hartley; the Shannon–Hartley theorem states the channel capacity C, meaning the theoretical tightest upper bound on the information rate of data that can be communicated at an arbitrarily low error rate using an average received signal power S through an analog communication channel subject to additive white Gaussian noise of power N: where C is the channel capacity in bits per second, a theoretical upper bound on the net bit rate excluding error-correction codes.

During the late 1920s, Harry Nyquist and Ralph Hartley developed a handful of fundamental ideas related to the transmission of information in the context of the telegraph as a communications system. At the time, these concepts were powerful breakthroughs individually, but they were not part of a comprehensive theory. In the 1940s, Claude Shannon developed the concept of channel capacity, based in part on the ideas of Nyquist and Hartley, formulated a complete theory of information and its transmission. In 1927, Nyquist determined that the number of independent pulses that could be put through a telegraph channel per unit time is limited to twice the bandwidth of the channel. In symbolic notation, f p ≤ 2 B where B is the bandwidth; the quantity 2 B came to be called the Nyquist rate, transmitting at the limiting pulse rate of 2 B pulses per second as signalling at the Nyquist rate. Nyquist published his results in 1928 as part of his paper "Certain topics in Telegraph Transmission Theory". During 1928, Hartley formulated a way to quantify its line rate.

This method known as Hartley's law, became an important precursor for Shannon's more sophisticated notion of channel capacity. Hartley argued that the maximum number of distinguishable pulse levels that can be transmitted and received reliably over a communications channel is limited by the dynamic range of the signal amplitude and the precision with which the receiver can distinguish amplitude levels. If the amplitude of the transmitted signal is restricted to the range of volts, the precision of the receiver is ±ΔV volts the maximum number of distinct pulses M is given by M = 1 + A Δ V. By taking information per pulse in bit/pulse to be the base-2-logarithm of the number of distinct messages M that could be sent, Hartley constructed a measure of the line rate R as: R = f p log 2 ⁡, where f p is the pulse rate known as the symbol rate, in symbols/second or baud. Hartley combined the above quantification with Nyquist's observation that the number of independent pulses that could be put through a channel of bandwidth B hertz was 2 B pulses per second, to arrive at his quantitative measure for achievable line rate.

Hartley's law is sometimes quoted as just a proportionality between the analog bandwidth, B, in Hertz and what today is called the digital bandwidth, R, in bit/s. Other times it is quoted in this more quantitative form, as an achievable line rate of R bits per second: R ≤ 2 B log 2 ⁡. Hartley did not work out how the number M should depend on the noise statistics of the channel, or how the communication could be made reliable when indiv

The MAB PA-15 was designed by the Manufacture d'armes de Bayonne. The model number, 15, refers to the magazine capacity; when introduced, this was the first pistol holding a greater number of rounds than the 13-round Browning Hi-Power. The PA-15 was introduced in 1966 along with a short-lived 8-round version with a single stack magazine, the P-8; the PA-15 was designed for commercial sale for export as French laws restricted the possession of "military-caliber" arms. The pistols were proofed at the St Etienne proof house and many were exported to the US. Early pistols are blued ones Parkerized. There was a competition version called the P-15 F1; this version had a longer slide and barrel, an adjustable rear sight. While the French armed forces did not adopt the PA-15, the Army, Air Force and the Gendarmerie bought limited quantities of the competition model under the designation Pistolet Automatique de Précision Modèle F1; when the French Gendarmerie was looking for a double-action pistol with a high magazine capacity to replace their aging PA 1950s, MAB produced an experimental model of the PA-15 with double-action lockwork.

However, the Gendarmerie instead procured a license to manufacture the Beretta 92F as the MAS G-1, the double-action PA-15 was not commercially produced. Outside France, in the 1970s the Finnish military and some police forces adopted the PA-15; when the Manufacture d'armes de Bayonne closed in 1982, all remaining PA-15 parts were sold to a French company, Lechkine Armory, which as of 2009 still assembled and sold new PA-15s, is the sole source for new PA-15 parts. MAB PA-15 is a delayed blowback operated, semi-automatic pistol, it featured Savage-type, but not reciprocating, which has two lugs: one under the chambers is engaged in the frame and allows to the barrel to rotate but not to move back or forward. The other lug, on the upper surface of the barrel, is engaged in the curved-shaped notch inside the slide; when the pistol is fired, the barrel inertia and the bullet torque acted against the blowback force of the slide via the slope-shaped part of the notch. When bullet leaves the barrel, the slide rotates barrel and retracts to cycle the action.

MAB PA-15 has a frame mounted safety, on the left side of the frame, internal magazine safety, which does not allow the gun to be fired with magazine removed. A long-barreled version, known as the PA-15 Target, was used by the French military as the PAP F-1. 7,65 Parabellum for Italian market. Central African Republic: Central African Republic Police Chad Djibouti Finland France: French Army Gabon Ivory Coast Mali: People's Movement for the Liberation of Azawad Morocco Niger GIAT BM92-G1 Jean Huon. Les Pistolets Automatiques Français, 1890–1990. Paris: Histoire & Collections, 1995. ISBN 2-908182-33-5. Bernard Meyer. "Les Prototypes MAB". Gazette des Armes, #200. Https://web.archive.org/web/20070228220950/http://world.guns.ru/handguns/hg89-e.htm http://www.gunsworld.com/french/mabp15_us.html http://www.securityarms.com/20010315/galleryfiles/2800/2895.htm

SM UB-11 was a German Type UB I submarine or U-boat in the German Imperial Navy during World War I. UB-11 was ordered in October 1914 and was laid down at the AG Weser shipyard in Bremen in November. UB-11 was a little under 28 metres in length and displaced between 127 and 141 tonnes, depending on whether surfaced or submerged, she carried two torpedoes for her two bow torpedo tubes and was armed with a deck-mounted machine gun. She was launched and commissioned as SM UB-11 in March 1915. UB-11's commanding officer at commissioning only remained in charge of the ship for a week. Sources do not report any more commanding officers assigned through the end of the war, so it's not clear if the submarine remained in commission. UB-11 was reported in use as a training vessel at Kiel in September 1915; the U-boat made no war patrols and sank no ships during the war, which may indicate that the vessel remained in a training role. At the end of the war, UB-11 was deemed unseaworthy and unable to surrender at Harwich with the rest of Germany's U-boat fleet.

She remained in Germany where she was broken up by Stinnes in February 1920. After the German Army's rapid advance along the North Sea coast in the earliest stages of World War I, the German Imperial Navy found itself without suitable submarines that could be operated in the narrow and shallow seas off Flanders. Project 34, a design effort begun in mid-August 1914, produced the Type UB I design: a small submarine that could be shipped by rail to a port of operations and assembled. Constrained by railroad size limitations, the UB I design called for a boat about 28 metres long and displacing about 125 tonnes with two torpedo tubes. UB-11 was part of the initial allotment of seven submarines—numbered UB-9 to UB-15—ordered on 15 October from AG Weser of Bremen, just shy of two months after planning for the class began. UB-11 was laid down by Weser in Bremen on 7 November; as built, UB-11 was 27.88 metres long, 3.15 metres abeam, had a draft of 3.03 metres. She had a single 59-brake-horsepower Körting 4-cylinder diesel engine for surface travel, a single 119-shaft-horsepower Siemens-Schuckert electric motor for underwater travel, both attached to a single propeller shaft.

Her top speeds were 7.45 knots, 6.24 knots, submerged. At more moderate speeds, she could sail up to 1,500 nautical miles on the surface before refueling, up to 45 nautical miles submerged before recharging her batteries. Like all boats of the class, UB-11 was rated to a diving depth of 50 metres, could submerge in 33 seconds. UB-11 was armed with two 45-centimeter torpedoes in two bow torpedo tubes, she was outfitted for a single 8-millimeter machine gun on deck. UB-11's standard complement consisted of one thirteen enlisted men. After work on UB-11 was complete at the Weser yard, she was launched on 2 March; the submarine was commissioned into the German Imperial Navy as SM UB-11 on 4 March 1915 under the command of Kapitänleutnant, a 25-year-old first-time U-boat commander. Wenninger was only in command of UB-11 for a week. Sources do not indicate who, if anyone, succeeded him as commander of UB-11, or if UB-11 remained in commission. According to authors R. H. Gibson and Maurice Prendergast, UB-11 had been assigned to the Kiel Periscope School by September 1915.

Uboat.net reports that UB-11' undertook no war patrols and had no successes against enemy ships, which may indicate that the vessel remained in use only as a training vessel. At the end of the war, the Allies required all German U-boats to be sailed to Harwich for surrender. UB-11 was one of eight U-boats allowed to remain in Germany. UB-11 was broken up by Stinnes on 3 February 1920

Leonard Hokanson was an American pianist who achieved prominence in Europe as a soloist and chamber musician. Born in Vinalhaven, Maine, he attended Clark University in Worcester and Bennington College in Vermont, where he received a master of arts degree with a major in music, he made his concert debut with the Philadelphia Orchestra at the age of eighteen. Drafted into the U. S. Army after graduate school, he was posted to Germany, he achieved early recognition as a performer in Europe, serving as a soloist with such orchestras as the Berlin Philharmonic, the Rotterdam Philharmonic, the Vienna Symphony. He was awarded the Steinway Prize of Boston and was a prizewinner at the Busoni International Piano Competition in Bolzano, Italy, his numerous international music festival appearances included Aldeburgh, Echternach, Prague, Salzburg, Schleswig-Holstein and Vienna. One of the last pupils of Artur Schnabel, Hokanson studied with Karl-Ulrich Schnabel, Claude Frank, Julian DeGray, he was professor of piano at the Frankfurt University of Music and Performing Arts for ten years before taking a position as professor of piano at the Indiana University Jacobs School of Music in Bloomington in 1986.

He was a permanent guest professor at the Tokyo College of Music. He was a founding member of the Odeon Trio and as a chamber musician performed with such ensembles as the Vermeer Quartet, the St. Lawrence Quartet, the Ensemble Villa Musica, the Wind Soloists of the Berlin Philharmonic and performed duo recitals with the violinist Miriam Fried, the clarinetist James Campbell, the horn player Hermann Baumann; as a pianist for song recitals, he played with numerous singers, including Martina Arroyo, Grace Bumbry, Melanie Diener, Edith Mathis, Edda Moser, Hermann Prey. His collaboration with Prey extended over 25 years, he was resident pianist with Bay Chamber Concerts in Rockport, Maine. Hokanson's many recordings include the complete piano works of Walter Piston, Haydn sonatas, Mozart concertos, Brahms intermezzi, as well as Schubert's complete works for violin and piano with Edith Peinemann, Brahms' sonatas for clarinet and piano with James Campbell, Beethoven's complete songs with Hermann Prey and Pamela Coburn, the complete piano trios of Brahms, Dvořák, Schubert unrecorded early piano works of Schubert, Norbert Burgmüller's Concerto for Piano and Orchestra.

In 2001 Hokanson became professor emeritus at Indiana University but continued teaching solo piano, chamber music, a German art song class at the school until his death in Bloomington, from pancreatic cancer on March 21, 2003. HarpsichordBach Brandenburg Concerto Nr. 5 Musical Offering Orchestra Suites Concertos for Oboe/Oboe and Violin Telemann Fantasies for Harpsichord St. Mark Passion St. Matthew Passion Baroque Airs and Adagios Il Canone di Pachelbel, Vivaldi, etc. Solo PianoBeethoven/Liszt Symphony Nr. 8 Brahms Intermezzi Op. 117, 118, 119. Posth. "Grazer" Fantasy The Young Schubert Chamber Music Bach Sonatas for Cello and Piano David Baker Sonata for Clarinet and Piano Beethoven Sonata for Piano and Cello, Op.102/1. 1–3, Op. 94 Spohr, Volkmann Piano Trios Strauss Piano Trios Tanejev, Tcherepnin Piano Trios Weber Grand Duo Concertant, Op. 48, 7 Variations op. 33 Music in the Salzburg Mozart House Lieder Beethoven Complete Songs Cornelius Christmas So

Caíque de Jesus Gonçalves known as Caíque, is a Brazilian footballer who plays as a defensive midfielder for Ferroviária. Born in Guarulhos, São Paulo, Caíque began his career on Portuguesa. On 12 February 2015 he was included in the 28-man list for the year's Campeonato Paulista. On 4 March Caíque made his senior debut, coming on as a second half substitute for Léo Costa in a 3–1 Copa do Brasil away win against Santos-AP, he made his Paulistão debut again from the bench in a 1 -- 1 away draw against Mogi Mirim. Caíque at Soccerway

Ashley Blaine Featherson is an American actress. She is best known as the star of Black & SexyTV's Hello Cupid, she stars as Joelle in the Netflix series Dear White People. Featherson is from Maryland, she first enjoyed it from that age. When she was 14 she began to perform at the Studio Theatre in Washington, DC and studied under costume designer Reggie Ray. Featherson attended Howard University and graduated from the Fine Arts department where she majored in musical theater, she is a member of the Alpha Kappa Alpha sorority. Featherson co-created the digital series Hello Cupid with Lena Waithe in 2012; the show was distributed by Black & Sexy TV and rebooted. Featherson starred in the series opposite Hayley Marie Norman, her first feature film was Dear White People in 2014. She reprised the supporting role of Joelle in the 2017 Netflix television series adaptation of the same name. Dear White People's third season has not yet announced a premiere date, she co-starred in the 2018 web series Leimert Park.

Featherson appeared in the re-creation of the photograph "A Great Day in Harlem", organized by Netflix's Strong Black Lead initiative. Featherson has stated that she most admires the work of Vanessa Williams. Ashley Blaine Featherson on IMDb