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Shaolin Kung Fu

Shaolin Kung Fu called Shaolin Wushu or Shaolin quan, is one of the oldest and most famous styles of wushu or kungfu. It combines Ch'an philosophy and martial arts and originated and was developed in the Shaolin temple in Henan province, China during its 1500-year history. Popular sayings in Chinese folklore related to this practice include "All martial arts under heaven originated from Shaolin" and "Shaolin kung fu is the best under heaven," indicating the influence of Shaolin kung fu among martial arts; the name Shaolin is used as a brand for the so-called external styles of kung fu. Many styles in southern and northern China use the name Shaolin. Chinese historical records, like Spring and Autumn Annals of Wu and Yue, the Bibliographies in the Book of the Han Dynasty, the Records of the Grand Historian, other sources document the existence of martial arts in China for thousands of years. For example, the Chinese martial art of wrestling, Shuai Jiao, predates the establishment of Shaolin temple by several centuries.

Since Chinese monasteries were large landed estates, sources of considerable regular income, monks required protection. Historical discoveries indicate that before the establishment of Shaolin temple, monks had arms and practiced martial arts. In 1784 the Boxing Classic: Essential Boxing Methods made the earliest extant reference to the Shaolin Monastery as Chinese boxing's place of origin; this is, however, a misconception, but shows the historical importance of Shaolin kung fu. Bodhidharma is a youngest son of the Pallava prince Vishnagopa, he excelled in Sword Archery. In order to fulfill his destiny he traveled across North East Asia. During his journey across North India he became a Buddhist monk, he is traditionally credited as the transmitter of Chan Buddhism to China, regarded as its first Chinese patriarch. According to Chinese legend, he began the physical training of the monks of Shaolin Monastery that led to the creation of Shaolin kungfu. In Japan, he is known as Daruma. In 495 AD, Shaolin temple was built among the Song mountains in Henan province.

The first monk who preached Buddhism there was the Indian monk named Buddhabhadra called Batuo by the Chinese. There are historical records that Batuo's first Chinese disciples and Sengchou, both had exceptional martial skills. For example, Sengchou's skill with the tin staff is documented in the Chinese Buddhist canon. After Buddhabadra, the monk Bodhidharma, described as either Central Asian or Indian and called Damo by the Chinese, came to Shaolin in 527 AD, his Chinese disciple, was a trained martial arts expert. There are hints that these first three Chinese Shaolin monks, Huiguang and Huike, may have been military men before entering the monastic life; some popular historians consider Bodhidharma, the first patriarch of Chinese Buddhism, as the founder of Shaolin kung fu. The idea of Bodhidharma influencing Shaolin boxing is based on a qigong manual written during the 17th century; this is when a Taoist with the pen name'Purple Coagulation Man of the Way' wrote the Sinews Changing Classic in 1624, but claimed to have discovered it.

The first of two prefaces of the manual traces this succession from Bodhidharma to the Chinese general Li Jing via "a chain of Buddhist saints and martial heroes." The work itself is full of anachronistic mistakes and includes a popular character from Chinese fiction, the'Qiuran Ke', as a lineage master. Literati as far back as the Qing Dynasty have taken note of these mistakes; the scholar Ling Tinkang described the author as an "ignorant village master." During the short period of the Sui dynasty, the building blocks of Shaolin kung fu took an official form, Shaolin monks began to create fighting systems of their own. The 18 methods of Luohan with a strong Buddhist flavour were practiced by Shaolin monks since this time, used to create more advanced Shaolin martial arts. Shaolin monks had developed powerful martial skills, this showed itself towards the end of the Sui dynasty. Like most dynastic changes, the end of the Sui Dynasty was a time of upheaval and contention for the throne; the oldest evidence of Shaolin participation in combat is a stele from 728 that attests to two occasions: a defense of the monastery from bandits around 610 and their role in the defeat of Wang Shichong at the Battle of Hulao in 621.

Wang Shichong declared himself Emperor. He controlled the ancient capital of Luoyang. Overlooking Luoyang on Mount Huanyuan was the Cypress Valley Estate, which had served as the site of a fort during the Jin and a commandery during the Southern Qi. Sui Emperor Wen had bestowed the estate on a nearby monastery called Shaolin for its monks to farm but Wang Shichong, realizing its strategic value, seized the estate and there placed troops and a signal tower, as well as establishing a prefecture called Yuanzhou. Furthermore, he had assembled an army at Luoyang to march on the Shaolin Temple itself; the monks of Shaolin allied with Wang's enemy, Li Shimin, took back the Cypress Valley Estate, defeating Wang's troops and capturing his nephew Renze. Without the fort at Cypress Valley, there was nothing to keep Li Shimin from marching on Luoyang after his defeat of Wang's ally Dou Jiande at the Battle of Hulao, forcing Wang Shichong to surrender. Li Shimin's father was the first Tang Shimin himself became its second.

Thereafter Shaolin enjoyed the royal patronage of the Tang. Though the Shaolin Monastery Stele of 728 attests to these incidents

Ruffneck (song)

"Ruffneck" is a hip hop song recorded by American rapper MC Lyte. It serves as the lead single from her fourth studio album, Ain't No Other; the song was produced by Wreckx-n-Effect members Aqil Markel Riley. The song became Lyte's first top 40 single, peaking at No. 35 on the US Billboard Hot 100, while becoming her fourth of five singles to reach the No. 1 spot on the Hot Rap Singles chart. It was certified gold by the Recording Industry Association of America on November 30, 1993 for sales of 500,000 copies, her first of three singles to accomplish that feat. In addition to the song's success, Lyte received a Grammy Award nomination for Best Rap Solo Performance at the 36th Grammy Awards in February 1994. "Ruffneck" - 5:22 "Ruffneck" - 5:25 "Ruffneck" - 3:52 "Brooklyn" - 4:05 "Brooklyn" - 4:05 "Brooklyn" - 3:51

Malherbe (surname)

Malherbe is a surname of French origin. It is common in South Africa due to the immigration of Huguenots in the late 17th century. Notable people with the surname include: François de Malherbe, French poet, reformer of French language Marc-Antoine de Malherbe, son of the poet François de Malherbe Jean-Baptiste-Antoine de Malherbe, archbishop of Tours Jean de Malherbe, author in political and economic sciences Raymond de Malherbe, French politician, senator Maria-Dolorès de Malherbe, recognised "Righteous Among the Nations" Guy de Malherbe, French painter Apolline de Malherbe, television journalist Daniël Francois Malherbe, South-African Afrikaans-language novelist, poet and scholar Arnaud Malherbe, South-African athlete, 400 meters runner Frans Malherbe, South-African international rugby union player Stephanie Malherbe, South-African international football player Jean-François Malherbe, Belgian philosopher and writer André Malherbe, Belgian Grand Prix motocross racer Anne Malherbe Gosselin, Belgian spouse of Rafael Correa, president of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017 Alfred Malherbe, French magistrate and naturalist Annet Malherbe, Dutch actress Arnaud Malherbe, French script writer and director Charles Théodore Malherbe, French violinist, music editor and composer Delphine de Malherbe, French writer and play director Didier Malherbe, French rock and jazz saxophonist Edmond Malherbe, French composer Flora Malherbe, fictional character on the American sitcom The Andy Griffith Show Guy Malherbe, French politician and member of the National Assembly Henri de Malherbe, French international rugby union player and chairman of SC Mazamet Henry Malherbe and French writer, winner of the Prix Goncourt in 1917 Hermeline Malherbe, French politician, senator Jean Fontaine-Malherbe, French writer Jean-François Boursault-Malherbe, French revolutionary and theater director Joseph Anne Robert Malherbe, French politician and magistrate Michel Malherbe, French civil engineer and encyclopedist Michel Malherbe, French philosopher Óscar Malherbe de León, Mexican drug lord Pierre-Olivier Malherbe, French explorer Suzanne Malherbe, French illustrator and photographer Malherbe

Van Buren Township, Michigan

Van Buren Charter Township the Charter Township of Van Buren, is a charter township in Wayne County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 28,821 at the 2010 census. Van Buren Charter Township surrounds the city of Belleville, Belleville Lake on all sides, leading the township to be referred to as Belleville, it is home to Metro Detroit's second busiest airport. Van Buren Township was designated survey township 3 S in range 8 E of Wayne County. In 1800, settler Henry Snow came and settled on what is now the border with Ypsilanti Township, Washtenaw County, original called Snow's Landing. A settlement of the Huron River received a post office on May 7, 1834 with the name of West Huron and postmaster Scott Vining; the township was formed by the State in 1835 and was soon renamed for Martin Van Buren vice president of the US. The post office name was changed. On November 14, 1838, The Van Buren post office assumed that name. On October 25, 1895, the Rawsonville post office was closed only to reopen on November 20, 1895 only to close again on February 28, 1902.

In 1925, the French Landing Dam and Powerhouse was put in place on the Huron River, placing most of the Rawsonville village under water of the new Belleville Lake. The only visual sign that a village was here at one time is the historical marker in front of the McDonald's on Rawsonville Road and across from Grove Road. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 35.8 square miles, of which 33.9 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles, or 5.28%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 23,559 people, 9,867 households, 6,117 families residing in the township; the population density was 694.9 per square mile. There were 10,417 housing units at an average density of 307.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 82.64% White, 12.03% African American, 0.54% Native American, 1.87% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 2.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.25% of the population. There were 9,867 households out of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.5% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.0% were non-families.

29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96. In the township the population was spread out with 23.9% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 36.2% from 25 to 44, 22.2% from 45 to 64, 6.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.8 males. The median income for a household in the township was $50,984, the median income for a family was $60,561. Males had a median income of $44,867 versus $30,299 for females; the per capita income for the township was $24,820. About 4.4% of families and 6.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.5% of those under age 18 and 6.1% of those age 65 or over. Auto parts maker Visteon is based in Van Buren Township. USA Jet Airlines has its headquarters in the township. Van Buren Charter Township

Secretary of State for Global Spain

The Secretary of State for Global Spain is a senior minister of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, European Union and Cooperation of the Kingdom of Spain. As a senior minister, it is a political appointment made by the Foreign Minister; the Secretary of State for Global Spain is responsible for improving the foreign image of Spain as well as the coordination of the different bodies of the public administrations entrusted with the same task. In this sense, the SEEG is in charge of planning and promoting of the foreign action with the objective of promoting Spain worldwide and developing tools to monitor and improve its foreign image; the most known policy that this Secretariat of State develops is Marca España, a policy started in 2012 and that today, with some modifications, still is active. The origin of the Secretariat of State for Global Spain dates back to 2012, when the government of Mariano Rajoy, created the position of High Commissioner of the Government for Brand Spain, a position entrusted with the objective of coordinating the multiple private and public bodies that had an foreign action in order to give coherence to the image of Spain outside.

This position had its own office known as Office of the High Commissioner. The High Commissioner was created during the economic crisis and it had no any budget. With the change of government in 2018, the new government decided to give this department its own budget to make it more efficient and change its name to the current one; as the High Commissioner, this new body was granted with the level of Secretariat of State. In 2020, the Secretariat of State was restructured to extend its competencies, it was transferred to this department the Diplomatic Information Office and the Directorate-General for International Economic Relations. The Secretariat of State for Global Spain is composed by an only department called Global Spain Office; the Global Spain Office is a body with a directorate-general level of management that depends on the Secretary of State for Global Spain and that has the competences to prepare the proposal of the annual plans of foreign action for the promotion of Global Spain, elaborate with the contributions made by the ministerial departments and their public bodies with competencies in this field and prepare the agreements that are required in the scope of the powers of the Secretary of State.

Its responsible for developing a periodic information tool to know and measure the perception about Spain, build a system of objective indicators, by external measurement data, that allow for their follow-up. Marca España website

North China Electric Power University

North China Electric Power University is a national Project 211 key university based in Beijing, China under the national Ministry of Education that specialises in polytechnic disciplines. The main campus is located in Beijing, it has a branch campus in Baoding, Hebei Province. There are about 3,000 full-time faculty and staff, 20,000 undergraduates and 7,000 graduate students in this university, it is a Chinese Ministry of Education Double First Class Discipline University, with Double First Class status in certain disciplines. North China Electric Power University is affiliated with the Ministry of Education of China, it is listed as one of the Project 211 universities as well as a "Predominant Discipline Innovation Platform". At present, NCEPU is a key university jointly constructed by the Ministry of Education and the University Council, composed of State Grid Corporation of China, China Southern Power Grid Co. Ltd. China Huaneng Group, China Datang Corporation, China Huadian Corporation, China Guodian Corporation and China Power Investment Corporation.

The university was established as the Beijing Institute of Electric Power in 1958. It was renamed the North China Institute of Electric Power when its location was moved to Baoding, Hebei province in 1970; when the school merged with the Beijing Power Engineering and Electronics Institute in 1995, it was given its present name. In 2006, the university relocated its main campus back to Beijing, it still operates a branch campus in Baoding. A close neighbour of Badaling highway, adjoining Olympic Green on the east and Zhongguancun high technology zone and Shangdi Information Industry base on the west, North China Electric Power University is now located in Zhuxinzhuang, Beijing, it is found in beautiful surroundings. As one of the key universities in China with a history of more than 40 years, this university has been fostering talents in the areas of engineering technology, management and the social sciences. There are more than 8500 students with over 600 graduate students and doctor students.

It has the following departments: Department of Mathematical and Physics Science Department of Electric Power Engineering Department of Thermal Power Engineering Department of Information Engineering Department of Automation Department of Computer Science and Technology Department of Economics and Trade Department of Finance and Accounting Department of Law and Politics Department of Foreign Languages It has the following Schools: Electrical and Electronic Engineering School Energy and Power Engineering School Renewable Energy School Nuclear Science and Engineering School Economics and Management School School of Control and Computer Engineering Environment Engineering and Science School Human and Social Science School Mathematical and Physical Science School Foreign Language School Science and Technology SchoolThere is one centre for post-doctoral studies. The university offers one post-doctoral project program, 7 doctoral programs, 17 master's degree programs and 24 bachelor's degree programs.

It has been authorised to admit overseas students. Covering a floor space of 11,000 square metres, the library has a collection of over a one million volumes. There are five key ministerial subjects, namely power system and its automation, power plant thermal power engineering, theoretical electric engineering, industrial automation and technological economics. Meanwhile, there are three key ministerial laboratories called Power System Intelligence Protection and Control, Industrial Process Simulation and Control, State Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis in Electric Device; the university has set up cooperative relations with universities and institutes in more than 20 countries and regions such as Britain, United States, Russia and Taiwan. It offers exchange opportunities to students to study at universities in other countries, such as Illinois Tech, Purdue, UC Berkeley, the University of Bath and University of Strathclyde, etc; this university is the starting member of Cooperation Consortium of Beijing High Technology Universities, a major academic interschool association in northern China.

North China Electric Power University Official website