Assemblage is an artistic form or medium created on a defined substrate that consists of three-dimensional elements projecting out of or from the substrate. It is similar to a two-dimensional medium, it is part of the visual arts, it uses found objects, but is not limited to these materials. The origin of the art form dates to the cubist constructions of Pablo Picasso c. 1912–1914. The origin of the word can be traced back to the early 1950s, when Jean Dubuffet created a series of collages of butterfly wings, which he titled assemblages d'empreintes. However, Marcel Duchamp, Pablo Picasso and others had been working with found objects for many years prior to Dubuffet. Russian artist Vladimir Tatlin created his "counter-reliefs" in the mid 1910s. Alongside Tatlin, the earliest woman artist to try her hand at assemblage was Elsa von Freytag-Loringhoven, the Dada Baroness. In Paris in the 1920s Alexander Calder, Jose De Creeft and others began making 3-dimensional works from metal scraps, found metal objects and wire.
In the U. S. one of the earliest and most prolific assemblage artists was Louise Nevelson, who began creating her sculptures from found pieces of wood in the late 1930s. In the 1950s and 60s assemblage started to become more known and used. Artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns started using scrappy materials and objects to make anti-aesthetic art sculptures, a big part of the ideas that make assemblage what it is; the painter Armando Reverón is one of the first to use this technique when using disposable materials such as bamboo, wires, or kraft paper. In the thirties he made a skeleton with wings of mucilage, adopting this style years before other artists. Reverón made instruments and set pieces such as a telephone, a sofa, a sewing machine, a piano and music books with their scores. In 1961, the exhibition "The Art of Assemblage" was featured at the New York Museum of Modern Art; the exhibition showcased the work of early 20th-century European artists such as Braque, Marcel Duchamp and Kurt Schwitters alongside Americans Man Ray, Joseph Cornell, Robert Mallary and Robert Rauschenberg, included less well known American West Coast assemblage artists such as George Herms, Bruce Conner and Edward Kienholz.
William C Seitz, the curator of the exhibition, described assemblages as being made up of preformed natural or manufactured materials, objects, or fragments not intended as art materials. Arman, French artist and painter. Hans Bellmer, a German artist known for his life-sized female dolls, produced in the 1930s. Wallace Berman, an American artist known for his verifax collages. André Breton, a French artist, regarded as a principal founder of Surrealism. John Chamberlain, a Chicago artist known for his sculptures of welded pieces of wrecked automobiles. Greg Colson, an American artist known for his wall sculptures of stick maps, constructed paintings, solar systems and intersections. Joseph Cornell, who lived in New York City, is known for his delicate boxes glass-fronted, in which he arranged surprising collections of objects, images of renaissance paintings and old photographs. Many of his boxes, such as the famous Medici Slot Machine boxes, are interactive and are meant to be handled. Rosalie Gascoigne, a New Zealand-born Australian sculptor.
Raoul Hausmann, an Austrian artist and writer and a key figure in Berlin Dada, his most famous work is the assemblage Der Geist Unserer Zeit – Mechanischer Kopf, c. 1920. Romuald Hazoumé, a contemporary artist from the Republic of Bénin, who exhibits in Europe and the U. K. George Herms, an American artist known for his assemblages, works on papers, theater pieces. Louis Hirshman, a Philadelphia artist known for his use of 3D materials on flat substrates for caricatures of the famous, as well as for collages and assemblages of everyday life and surreal scenes. Robert H. Hudson, an American artist. Jasper Johns, an American Pop artist, painter and sculptor. Edward Kienholz, an American artist who collaborated with his wife, Nancy Reddin Kienholz, creating free-standing, large-scale "tableaux" or scenes of modern life such as the Beanery, complete with models of persons, made of discarded objects. Lubo Kristek, a Czech artist known for his critical assemblages of bones, material cast out by the sea and mobile phones.
Jean-Jacques Lebel, in 1994 installed a large assemblage entitled Monument à Félix Guattari in the Forum of the Centre Pompidou. Janice Lowry, American artist known for biographical art in the form of assemblage, artist books, journals, which combined found objects and materials with writings and sketches. Ondrej Mares, a Czech-Australian artist and sculptor best known for his'Kachina' figures – a series of works. Markus Meurer, a German artist, known for his sculptures from found objects Louise Nevelson, an American artist, known for her abstract expressionist "boxes" grouped together to form a new creation, she used found objects or everyday discarded things in her "assemblages" or assemblies, one of, three stories high. Minoru Ohira, a Japanese-born artist. Meret Oppenheim, a German-born Swiss artist, identified with the Surrealist movement. Wolfgang Paalen, an Austrian-German-Mexican surrealist artist and theorist, founder of the magazine DYN and known for several assembled objects, f.e. Nuage articulé Robert Rauschenberg
A canvas is an durable plain-woven fabric used for making sails, marquees and other items for which sturdiness is required, as well as in such fashion objects as handbags, electronic device cases, shoes. It is popularly used by artists as a painting surface stretched across a wooden frame. Modern canvas is made of cotton or linen, along with polyvinyl chloride, although it was made from hemp, it differs from other heavy cotton fabrics, such as denim, in being plain weave rather than twill weave. Canvas comes in two basic types: plain and duck; the threads in duck canvas are more woven. The term duck comes from the Dutch word for doek. In the United States, canvas is classified in two ways: by a graded number system; the numbers run in reverse of the weight so a number 10 canvas is lighter than number 4. The word "canvas" is derived from the Old French canevas. Both may be derivatives of the Vulgar Latin cannapaceus for "made of hemp," originating from the Greek κάνναβις. Canvas has become the most common support medium for oil painting.
It was used from the 14th century in Italy, but only rarely. One of the earliest surviving oils on canvas is a French Madonna with angels from around 1410 in the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin, its use in Saint George and the Dragon by Paolo Uccello in about 1470, Sandro Botticelli's Birth of Venus in the 1480s was still unusual for the period. Large paintings for country houses were more to be on canvas, are less to have survived, it was a good deal cheaper than a panel painting, may sometime indicate a painting regarded as less important. In the Uccello, the armour does not use silver leaf. Another common category of paintings on lighter cloth such as linen was in distemper or glue used for banners to be carried in procession; this is a less durable medium, surviving examples such as Dirk Bouts' Entombment, in distemper on linen are rare, rather faded in appearance. Panel painting remained more common until the 16th century in Italy and the 17th century in Northern Europe. Mantegna and Venetian artists were among those leading the change.
Canvas is stretched across a wooden frame called a stretcher and may be coated with gesso before it is to be used. A traditional and flexible chalk gesso is composed of lead carbonate and linseed oil, applied over a rabbit skin glue ground; as lead-based paint is poisonous, care has to be taken in using it. Various alternative and more flexible canvas primers are commercially available, the most popular being a synthetic latex paint composed of titanium dioxide and calcium carbonate, bound with a thermo-plastic emulsion. Many artists have painted onto unprimed canvas, such as Jackson Pollock, Kenneth Noland, Francis Bacon, Helen Frankenthaler, Dan Christensen, Larry Zox, Ronnie Landfield, Color Field painters, Lyrical Abstractionists and others. Staining acrylic paint into the fabric of cotton duck canvas was more benign and less damaging to the fabric of the canvas than the use of oil paint. In 1970 artist Helen Frankenthaler commented about her use of staining: When I first started doing the stain paintings, I left large areas of canvas unpainted, I think, because the canvas itself acted as forcefully and as positively as paint or line or color.
In other words, the ground was part of the medium, so that instead of thinking of it as background or negative space or an empty spot, that area did not need paint because it had paint next to it. The thing was to decide where to leave it and where to fill it and where to say this doesn't need another line or another pail of colors, its saying it in space. Early canvas was made of a sturdy brownish fabric of considerable strength. Linen is suitable for the use of oil paint. In the early 20th century, cotton canvas referred to as "cotton duck," came into use. Linen is composed of higher quality material, remains popular with many professional artists those who work with oil paint. Cotton duck, which stretches more and has an mechanical weave, offers a more economical alternative; the advent of acrylic paint has increased the popularity and use of cotton duck canvas. Linen and cotton derive from two different plants, the flax plant and the cotton plant, respectively. Gessoed canvases on stretchers are available.
They are available in a variety of weights: light-weight is about 4 oz or 5 oz. They are ready for use straight away. Artists desiring greater control of their painting surface may add a coat or two of their preferred gesso. Professional artists who wish to work on canvas may prepare their own canvas in the traditional manner. One of the most outstanding differences between modern painting techniques and those of the Flemish and Dutch Masters is in the preparation of the canvas. "Modern" techniques take advantage of both the canvas texture as well as those of the paint itself. Renaissance masters took extreme measures to ensure that none of the texture of the canvas came through; this required a painstaking, months-long process of laye
A Madonna is a representation of Mary, either alone or with her child Jesus. These images are central icons for both the Orthodox churches; the word is from Italian ma donna, meaning'my lady'. The Madonna and Child type is prevalent in Christian iconography, divided into many traditional subtypes in Eastern Orthodox iconography known after the location of a notable icon of the type, such as the Theotokos of Vladimir, Blachernitissa, etc. or descriptive of the depicted posture, as in Hodegetria, etc. The term Madonna in the sense of "picture or statue of the Virgin Mary" enters English usage in the 17th century in reference to works of the Italian Renaissance. In an Eastern Orthodox context, such images are known as Theotokos. "Madonna" may be used of representations of Mary, with or without the infant Jesus, is the focus and central figure of the image flanked or surrounded by angels or saints. Other types of Marian imagery have a narrative context, depicting scenes from the Life of the Virgin, e.g. the Annunciation to Mary, are not called "Madonna".
The earliest depictions of Mary date still to Early Christianity, found in the Catacombs of Rome. These are in a narrative context; the classical "Madonna" or "Theotokos" imagery develops from the 5th century, as Marian devotion rose to great importance after the Council of Ephesus formally affirmed her status as "Mother of God or Theotokos in 431. The Theotokos iconography as it developed in the 6th to 8th century rose to great importance in the high medieval period both in the Eastern Orthodox and in the Latin spheres. According to a tradition recorded in the 8th century, Marian iconography goes back to a portrait drawn from life by Luke the Evangelist, with a number of icons claimed to either represent this original icon or to be a direct copy of it. In the Western tradition, depictions of the Madonna were diversified by Renaissance masters such as Duccio, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael, Giovanni Bellini and Rubens, while Eastern Orthodox iconography adheres more to the inherited traditional types.
Liturgy depicting Mary as powerful intercessor was brought from Greek into Latin tradition in the 8th century. The Greek title of Δεσποινα was adopted as Latin Domina "Lady"; the medieval Italian Ma Donna pronounced reflects Mea Domina, while Nostra Domina was adopted in French, as Nostre Dame "Our Lady". These names signal both the increased importance of the cult of the virgin and the prominence of art in service to Marian devotion during the late medieval period. During the 13th century with the increasing influence of chivalry and aristocratic culture on poetry and the visual arts, the Madonna is represented as the queen of Heaven enthroned. Madonna was meant more to remind people of the theological concept, placing such a high value on purity or virginity; this is represented by the color of her clothing. The color blue symbolized purity and royalty. While the Italian term Madonna paralleled English Our Lady in late medieval Marian devotion, it was imported as an art historical term into English usage in the 1640s, designating the Marian art of the Italian Renaissance.
In this sense, "a Madonna", or "a Madonna with Child" is used of specific works of art mostly of Italian works. A "Madonna" may alternatively be called "Virgin" or "Our Lady", but "Madonna" is not applied to eastern works. There are several distinct types of representation of the Madonna. One type of Madonna shows Mary alone, standing glorified and with a gesture of prayer, benediction or prophesy; this type of image occurs in a number of ancient apsidal mosaics. Full-length standing images of the Madonna more include the infant Jesus, who turns towards the viewer or raises his hand in benediction; the most famous Byzantine image, the Hodegetria was of this type, though most copies are at half-length. This type of image occurs in sculpture and may be found in fragile ivory carvings, in limestone on the central door posts of many cathedrals, in polychrome wooden or plaster casts in every Catholic Church. There are a number of famous paintings that depict the Madonna in this manner, notably the Sistine Madonna by Raphael.
The "Madonna enthroned" is a type of image that dates from the Byzantine period and was used in Medieval and Renaissance times. These representations of the Madonna and Child take the form of large altarpieces, they occur as frescoes and apsidal mosaics. In Medieval examples the Madonna is accompanied by angels who support the throne, or by rows of saints. In Renaissance painting High Renaissance painting, the saints may be grouped informally in a type of composition known as a Sacra conversazione; the Madonna of humility refers to portrayals in which the Madonna is sitting on the ground, or sitting upon a low cushion. She may be holding the Child Jesus in her lap; this style was a product of Franciscan piety, due to Simone Martini. It spread through Italy and by 1375 examples began to appear in Spain and Germany, it was the most popular among the styles of the early Trecento artistic period. Half-length Madonnas are the form most taken
Washington, D. C. formally the District of Columbia and referred to as Washington or D. C. is the capital of the United States. Founded after the American Revolution as the seat of government of the newly independent country, Washington was named after George Washington, first President of the United States and Founding Father; as the seat of the United States federal government and several international organizations, Washington is an important world political capital. The city is one of the most visited cities in the world, with more than 20 million tourists annually; the signing of the Residence Act on July 16, 1790, approved the creation of a capital district located along the Potomac River on the country's East Coast. The U. S. Constitution provided for a federal district under the exclusive jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress, the District is therefore not a part of any state; the states of Maryland and Virginia each donated land to form the federal district, which included the pre-existing settlements of Georgetown and Alexandria.
The City of Washington was founded in 1791 to serve as the new national capital. In 1846, Congress returned the land ceded by Virginia. Washington had an estimated population of 702,455 as of July 2018, making it the 20th most populous city in the United States. Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city's daytime population to more than one million during the workweek. Washington's metropolitan area, the country's sixth largest, had a 2017 estimated population of 6.2 million residents. All three branches of the U. S. federal government are centered in the District: Congress and the U. S. Supreme Court. Washington is home to many national monuments, museums situated on or around the National Mall; the city hosts 177 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of many international organizations, trade unions, non-profit, lobbying groups, professional associations, including the World Bank Group, the International Monetary Fund, the Organization of American States, AARP, the National Geographic Society, the Human Rights Campaign, the International Finance Corporation, the American Red Cross.
A locally elected mayor and a 13‑member council have governed the District since 1973. However, Congress may overturn local laws. D. C. residents elect a non-voting, at-large congressional delegate to the House of Representatives, but the District has no representation in the Senate. The District receives three electoral votes in presidential elections as permitted by the Twenty-third Amendment to the United States Constitution, ratified in 1961. Various tribes of the Algonquian-speaking Piscataway people inhabited the lands around the Potomac River when Europeans first visited the area in the early 17th century. One group known as the Nacotchtank maintained settlements around the Anacostia River within the present-day District of Columbia. Conflicts with European colonists and neighboring tribes forced the relocation of the Piscataway people, some of whom established a new settlement in 1699 near Point of Rocks, Maryland. In his Federalist No. 43, published January 23, 1788, James Madison argued that the new federal government would need authority over a national capital to provide for its own maintenance and safety.
Five years earlier, a band of unpaid soldiers besieged Congress while its members were meeting in Philadelphia. Known as the Pennsylvania Mutiny of 1783, the event emphasized the need for the national government not to rely on any state for its own security. Article One, Section Eight, of the Constitution permits the establishment of a "District as may, by cession of particular states, the acceptance of Congress, become the seat of the government of the United States". However, the Constitution does not specify a location for the capital. In what is now known as the Compromise of 1790, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson came to an agreement that the federal government would pay each state's remaining Revolutionary War debts in exchange for establishing the new national capital in the southern United States. On July 9, 1790, Congress passed the Residence Act, which approved the creation of a national capital on the Potomac River; the exact location was to be selected by President George Washington, who signed the bill into law on July 16.
Formed from land donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia, the initial shape of the federal district was a square measuring 10 miles on each side, totaling 100 square miles. Two pre-existing settlements were included in the territory: the port of Georgetown, founded in 1751, the city of Alexandria, founded in 1749. During 1791–92, Andrew Ellicott and several assistants, including a free African American astronomer named Benjamin Banneker, surveyed the borders of the federal district and placed boundary stones at every mile point. Many of the stones are still standing. A new federal city was constructed on the north bank of the Potomac, to the east of Georgetown. On September 9, 1791, the three commissioners overseeing the capital's construction named the city in honor of President Washington; the federal district was named Columbia, a poetic name for the United States in use at that time. Congress held its first session in Washington on November 17, 1800. Congress passed the District of Columbia Organic Act of 1801 that organized the District and placed the entire territory under the exclusive control of the federal
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum
The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum referred to as The Guggenheim, is an art museum located at 1071 Fifth Avenue on the corner of East 89th Street in the Upper East Side neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City, it is the permanent home of a continuously expanding collection of Impressionist, Post-Impressionist, early Modern and contemporary art and features special exhibitions throughout the year. The museum was established by the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation in 1939 as the Museum of Non-Objective Painting, under the guidance of its first director, the artist Hilla von Rebay, it adopted its current name after the death of its founder, Solomon R. Guggenheim, in 1952. In 1959, the museum moved from rented space to its current building, a landmark work of 20th-century architecture. Designed by Frank Lloyd Wright, the cylindrical building, wider at the top than the bottom, was conceived as a "temple of the spirit", its unique ramp gallery extends up from ground level in a long, continuous spiral along the outer edges of the building to end just under the ceiling skylight.
The building underwent extensive expansion and renovations in 1992 and from 2005 to 2008. The museum's collection has grown organically, over eight decades, is founded upon several important private collections, beginning with Solomon R. Guggenheim's original collection; the collection is shared with the museum's sister museums in Bilbao and elsewhere. In 2013, nearly 1.2 million people visited the museum, it hosted the most popular exhibition in New York City. Solomon R. Guggenheim, a member of a wealthy mining family, had been collecting works of the old masters since the 1890s. In 1926, he met artist Hilla von Rebay, who introduced him to European avant-garde art, in particular abstract art that she felt had a spiritual and utopian aspect. Guggenheim changed his collecting strategy, turning to the work of Wassily Kandinsky, among others, he began to display his collection to the public at his apartment in the Plaza Hotel in New York City. As the collection grew, he established the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, in 1937, to foster the appreciation of modern art.
The foundation's first venue for the display of art, the "Museum of Non-Objective Painting", opened in 1939 under the direction of Rebay, in midtown Manhattan. Under Rebay's guidance, Guggenheim sought to include in the collection the most important examples of non-objective art available at the time by early modernists such as Rudolf Bauer, Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, Marc Chagall, Robert Delaunay, Fernand Léger, Amedeo Modigliani and Pablo Picasso. By the early 1940s, the foundation had accumulated such a large collection of avant-garde paintings that the need for a permanent museum building had become apparent. In 1943, Rebay and Guggenheim wrote a letter to Frank Lloyd Wright asking him to design a structure to house and display the collection. Wright accepted the opportunity to experiment with his organic style in an urban setting, it took him 15 years, 700 sketches, six sets of working drawings to create the museum. In 1948, the collection was expanded through the purchase of art dealer Karl Nierendorf's estate of some 730 objects, notably German expressionist paintings.
By that time, the foundation's collection included a broad spectrum of expressionist and surrealist works, including paintings by Paul Klee, Oskar Kokoschka and Joan Miró. After Guggenheim's death in 1949, members of the Guggenheim family who sat on the foundation's board of directors had personal and philosophical differences with Rebay, in 1952 she resigned as director of the museum, she left a portion of her personal collection to the foundation in her will, including works by Kandinsky, Alexander Calder, Albert Gleizes and Kurt Schwitters. The museum was renamed the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in 1952. Rebay conceived of the space as a "temple of the spirit" that would facilitate a new way of looking at the modern pieces in the collection, she wrote to Wright that "each of these great masterpieces should be organized into space, only you... would test the possibilities to do so.... I want a temple of spirit, a monument!" The critic Paul Goldberger wrote that, before Wright's modernist building, "there were only two common models for museum design: Beaux-arts Palace... and the International Style Pavilion."
Goldberger thought the building a catalyst for change, making it "socially and culturally acceptable for an architect to design a expressive, intensely personal museum. In this sense every museum of our time is a child of the Guggenheim." From 1943 to early 1944, Wright produced four different sketches for the initial design. While one of the plans had a hexagonal shape and level floors for the galleries, all the others had circular schemes and used a ramp continuing around the building, he had experimented with the ramp design in 1948 at the V. C. Morris Gift Shop in San Francisco and on the house he completed for his son in 1952, the David and Gladys Wright House in Arizona. Wright's original concept was called an inverted "ziggurat", because it resembled the steep steps on the ziggurats built in ancient Mesopotamia, his design dispensed with the conventional approach to museum layout, in which visitors are led through a series of interconnected rooms and forced to retrace their steps when exiting.
Wright's plan was for the museum guests to ride to the top of the building by elevator, to descend at a leisurely pace along the gentle slope of the continuous ramp, to view the atrium of the building as the last work of art. The open rotunda afforded viewers the unique possibility of seeing several bays of work on different levels and to interact with guests on other levels. At the