World Economic Forum
The World Economic Forum, based in Cologny-Geneva, was founded in 1971 as a not-for-profit organization. It gained formal status in January 2015 under the Swiss Host-State Act, confirming the role of the Forum as an International Institution for Public-Private Cooperation; the Forum's mission is cited as "committed to improving the state of the world by engaging business, political and other leaders of society to shape global and industry agendas". The WEF hosts a annual meeting at the end of January in Davos, a mountain resort in Graubünden, in the eastern Alps region of Switzerland; the meeting brings together some 2,500 business leaders, international political leaders, economists and journalists for up to four days to discuss the most pressing issues facing the world. The organization convenes some six to eight regional meetings each year in locations across Africa, East Asia and Latin America, holds two further annual meetings in China and the United Arab Emirates. Beside meetings, the organization provides a platform for leaders from all stakeholder groups from around the world – business and civil society – to come together.
It produces a series of research reports and engages its members in sector-specific initiatives. There have been many other international conferences nicknamed with "Davos". However, the World Economic Forum objected the use of "Davos" in such contexts for any event not organised by them; this particular statement was issued on 22 October 2018, a day before the opening of 2018 Future Investment Initiative organised by the Public Investment Fund of Saudi Arabia. The WEF was founded in 1971 by Klaus Schwab, a business professor at the University of Geneva. First named the "European Management Forum", it changed its name to the World Economic Forum in 1987 and sought to broaden its vision to include providing a platform for resolving international conflicts. In the summer of 1971, Schwab invited 444 executives from Western European firms to the first European Management Symposium held in the Davos Congress Centre under the patronage of the European Commission and European industrial associations, where Schwab sought to introduce European firms to American management practices.
He founded the WEF as a nonprofit organization based in Geneva and drew European business leaders to Davos for the annual meetings each January. Schwab developed the "stakeholder" management approach, which attributed corporate success to managers taking account of all interests: not shareholders and customers, but employees and the communities within which the firm is situated, including governments. Events in 1973, including the collapse of the Bretton Woods fixed-exchange rate mechanism and the Arab–Israeli War, saw the annual meeting expand its focus from management to economic and social issues, for the first time, political leaders were invited to the annual meeting in January 1974. Political leaders soon began to use the annual meeting as a neutral platform; the Davos Declaration was signed in 1988 by Greece and Turkey, helping them turn back from the brink of war. In 1992, South African President F. W. de Klerk met with Nelson Mandela and Chief Mangosuthu Buthelezi at the annual meeting, their first joint appearance outside South Africa.
At the 1994 annual meeting, Israeli Foreign Minister Shimon Peres and PLO chairman Yasser Arafat reached a draft agreement on Gaza and Jericho. In late 2015, the invitation was extended to include a North Korean delegation for the 2016 forum, "in view of positive signs coming out of the country", the WEF organizers noted. North Korea has not been attending the WEF since 1998; the invitation was accepted but after the January 2016 North Korean nuclear test on 6 January, the invitation was revoked, the country's delegation was made subject to "existing and possible forthcoming sanctions". Despite protests by North Korea calling the decision by the WEF managing board a "sudden and irresponsible" move, the WEF committee maintained the exclusion because "under these circumstances there would be no opportunity for international dialogue". In 2017, the World Economic Forum in Davos attracted considerable attention when for the first time, a head of state from the People's Republic of China was present at the alpine resort.
With the backdrop of Brexit, an incoming protectionist US administration and significant pressures on free trade zones and trade agreements, President Xi Jinping defended the global economic scheme, portrayed China as a responsible nation and a leader for environmental causes. He rebuked the current populist movements that would introduce tariffs and hinder global commerce, warning that such protectionism could foster isolation and reduced economic opportunity. In 2018, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi gave the plenary speech, becoming the first head of state from India to deliver the inaugural keynote for the annual meet at Davos. Modi highlighted climate change and protectionism as the three major global challenges, expressed confidence that they can be tackled with collective effort. In 2019, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro gave the keynote address at the plenary session of the conference. On his first international trip to Davos, he emphasized liberal economic policies despite his populist agenda, attempted to reassure the world that Brazil is a protector of the rain forest while utilizing its resources for food production and export.
He stated that "his government will seek to better integrate Brazil into the world by mainstreaming international best practices, such as those adopted and promoted by the OECD". Environmental concerns like extreme weather events, the failure of climate-change mitigation and adaptation were among the top-r
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
International Trade Union Confederation
The International Trade Union Confederation is the world's largest trade union federation. It was formed on 1 November 2006, out of the merger of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions and the World Confederation of Labour; the Founding Congress of the ITUC was held in Vienna and was preceded by the dissolution congresses of both the ICFTU and the WCL. The ITUC has three main regional organizations – the Asia-Pacific Regional Organization, the American Regional Organization, the African Regional Organization; the Trade Union Development Cooperation Network is an initiative of the ITUC whose main objective is to bring the trade union perspective into international development policy debates and improve the coordination and effectiveness of trade union development cooperation activities. The ITUC represents 207 million workers through its 331 affiliated organizations within 163 countries and territories. Sharan Burrow is the current General Secretary; the ITUC traces its origins back to the First International and in 2014 commemorated the 150th anniversary of the founding of the International Working Men's Association at its own world congress held in Berlin.
In 2014, the ITUC debuted the Global Rights Index, which ranks nations on 97 metrics pertaining to workers' rights, such as freedom from violent conditions and the right to strike and unionise. The founding congress of the ITUC was held from 1 to 3 November 2006 in Austria; the first day of the congress saw the formal creation of the ITUC followed by an address by Juan Somavia, the Director-General of the International Labour Organization. Day two included Pascal Lamy, the Director-General of the World Trade Organization responding to panel discussions on the impact of globalisation, including the topics "Cohesion and chaos - the global institutions" and "Global unions - global companies". Technical difficulties limited Lamy's satellite video link participation. Leadership and officers were elected on the final day of the congress. Guy Ryder, the former general secretary of the ICFTU, was elected to the same position in the new organisation. Sharan Burrow was elected president. A Governing Council was established, with 70 elected members, 8 additional seats reserved for youth and women’s representatives.
A Council of Global Unions was formed on the final day of the congress. It was established jointly with ten global union federations and the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD; the Council will enable us to mobilize global membership around political and strategic initiatives and actions in order to confront global forces that work against the interests of working people and families. The second congress of the ITUC was held from 21 to 25 June 2010 in Canada. On 25 June 2010, at the conclusion of the congress, Sharan Burrow was elected General Secretary, succeeding Guy Ryder. In anticipation of her election, Burrow had resigned from her position as President of the Australian Council of Trade Unions effective 1 July 2010. Speaking to the Congress after her election, Burrow paid tribute to her predecessor and emphasised the continuing role of organised labour in the world's emergence from the Global Financial Crisis, she made special mention of the significance of her election as the first female leader of the world's largest trade union: I am a warrior for woman and we still have work to ensure the inclusion of women in the work place and in our unions.
The struggles for women are multiple – too within their families for independence in the workplace for rights and equal opportunity, in their unions for access and representation and as union leaders. But the investment in and participation of women is not only a moral mandate it is an investment in democracy and a bulwark against fundamentalism and oppression. Organising woman is and must continue to be a priority for the ITUC; the Pan-European Regional Council, a European trade union organisation within the ITUC was formed 19 March 2007. It consists of a total membership of 87 million, it works with the European Trade Union Confederation, Bernadette Ségol is the general secretary of both organisations. The ITUC raises capital through charging dues to its member organisations. Global union federation List of federations of trade unions World Federation of Trade Unions General Confederation of Trade Unions Decent work Fabio Bertini, Gilliatt e la piovra. Il sindacalismo internazionale dalle origini ad oggi, Aracne Ed Mustill, The Global Labour Movement: An Introduction, a short guide to the global union federations, the ITUC, other international bodies Official website "Workers of the world unite in Vienna".
WikiLeaks. 9 November 2006. WikiLeaks cable: 06VIENNA3297. Retrieved 8 July 2015
Martin John Ferguson, AM, Australian politician, was an Australian Labor Party member of the Australian House of Representatives from March 1996 until August 2013 representing the Division of Batman, Victoria. He is a son of Jack Ferguson, Deputy Premier of New South Wales from 1976 to 1984, his brother is Laurie Ferguson a long-serving federal MP. Ferguson retired from parliament at the 2013 Australian federal election. Born in Sydney to Mary Ellen and Jack Ferguson, he was educated at St Patrick's College and the University of Sydney, he was successively research officer, Assistant General Secretary and General Secretary of the Miscellaneous Workers' Union, a member of the executive of the Australian Council of Trade Unions 1984–90. He was Vice-President of the ACTU 1985–90 and President of the ACTU 1990–96. A member of the Governing Body of the International Labour Organization 1990–96, he was admitted to the Order of Australia in 1996. Ferguson won preselection for the seat of Batman in 1995, after a deal had been negotiated between the right-wing Labor Unity faction in Victoria and the ALP National Executive.
At the local level, the majority Greek party membership resulting from heavy branch stacking, was to support a candidate other than Ferguson. The other candidates, Jenny Mikakos and Theo Theophanous members of competing Left factions, were forced to withdraw from a local preselection plebiscite in favour of Ferguson, as a result of these negotiations. Elected to the Opposition Shadow Ministry in March 1996, Ferguson served as Shadow Minister for Regional and Urban Development and Shadow Minister for Transport and Infrastructure 2001–04, he was Shadow Minister for Primary Industries and Tourism from October 2004, being moved back to Shadow Minister for Transport and Tourism from December 2006. On 29 November 2007, after Labor, led by Kevin Rudd, had won the federal election, Ferguson was appointed Minister for Resources and Energy and Minister for Tourism, he continued in these portfolios after Julia Gillard succeeded Rudd as prime minister in 2010. Ferguson resigned his ministerial portfolio on 22 March 2013 after he supported an unsuccessful attempt to re-install Rudd as prime minister.
He decided to leave parliament at the September 2013 election. Ferguson is a supporter of uranium mining in Australia and in 2005, Ferguson addressed an Australian Uranium Conference and said "We as a community have to be part of the ever-complex question of how we clean up the world's climate, and part of that debate is going to be nuclear power." The anti-nuclear movement in Australia is stronger than in other developed countries. Friends of the Earth have opposed Ferguson's advocacy for expanding the export of uranium beyond the existing three-mine policy which Ferguson sought to overturn at the ALP's national conference in April 2007; the lobby group Northern Anti Nuclear Alliance has distributed 60,000 leaflets critical of his policy in his electorate of Batman. He supported – in scientific terms – the proposal of former Prime Minister Bob Hawke for Australia to become the world's storage facility for nuclear waste although he said that it was politically not possible, he told ABC Radio that it was wrong to ban uranium exports to the People's Republic of China: "The Labor Party adopts the view that we're open for investment.
It's about economic growth and jobs in Australia. Is China to be treated any different to South Korea, France, United States? I don't think so. We don't have one rule for China in terms of overseas investment and economic growth and jobs and another rule for Japan." On 19 May 2014, the Australian Labor Party's WA Executive endorsed a motion to expel Martin Ferguson from the Party. However he continues to be a member. In the lead up to the 2015 NSW Election, Ferguson criticised NSW Labor leader Luke Foley over his proposal to ban coal seam gas extraction. A range of Labor figures have doubled down on efforts to oust Ferguson from the party. Ferguson come out in support for the Liberal government plan to sell 49% of the government's electricity distributors. Ferguson went further, saying he was "ashamed of the Party" and accusing Foley and the unions of "deliberately misleading the public, creating unnecessary fear and trying to scare people." Since leaving parliament in 2013, Ferguson has continued to advocate for Australia's energy and resources sector.
As of 2015, Ferguson is the chairman of the Advisory Board of APPEA and UCL Australia, has commercial interests in the sector as a non-executive director of Seven Group Holdings and BG Group. Since June 2015, Ferguson has been Chair of Tourism Accommodation Australia. Ferguson Left First Rudd Ministry Paydirt's Uranium Conference 2006 Martin Ferguson's Parliamentary web page Search or browse Hansard for Martin Ferguson at OpenAustralia.org
Australian Labor Party
The Australian Labor Party is a major centre-left political party in Australia. The party has been in opposition at the federal level since the 2013 election. Bill Shorten has been the party's federal parliamentary leader since 13 October 2013; the party is a federal party with branches in each territory. Labor is in government in the states of Victoria, Western Australia, in both the Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory; the party competes against the Liberal/National Coalition for political office at the federal and state levels. It is the oldest political party in Australia. Labor's constitution has long stated: "The Australian Labor Party is a democratic socialist party and has the objective of the democratic socialisation of industry, production and exchange, to the extent necessary to eliminate exploitation and other anti-social features in these fields"; this "socialist objective" was introduced in 1921, but was qualified by two further objectives: "maintenance of and support for a competitive non-monopolistic private sector" and "the right to own private property".
Labor governments have not attempted the "democratic socialisation" of any industry since the 1940s, when the Chifley Government failed to nationalise the private banks, in fact have privatised several industries such as aviation and banking. Labor's current National Platform describes the party as "a modern social democratic party"; the ALP was not founded as a federal party until after the first sitting of the Australian Parliament in 1901. It is regarded as descended from labour parties founded in the various Australian colonies by the emerging labour movement in Australia, formally beginning in 1891. Labor is thus the country's oldest political party. Colonial labour parties contested seats from 1891, federal seats following Federation at the 1901 federal election; the ALP formed the world's first Labour Party government, as well as the world's first social democratic government at a national level. Labor was the first party in Australia to win a majority in either house of the Australian Parliament, at the 1910 federal election.
The Australian Labor Party at both a federal and state/colony level predates, among others, both the British Labour Party and the New Zealand Labour Party in party formation and policy implementation. Internationally, the ALP is a member of the Progressive Alliance network of social-democratic parties, having been a member of the Socialist International. In standard Australian English, the word "labour" is spelled with a ⟨u⟩. However, the political party uses the spelling "Labor", without a ⟨u⟩. There was no standardised spelling of the party's name, with "Labor" and "Labour" both in common usage. According to Ross McMullin, who wrote an official history of the Labor Party, the title page of the proceedings of Federal Conference used the spelling "Labor" in 1902, "Labour" in 1905 and 1908, "Labor" from 1912 onwards. In 1908, James Catts put forward a motion at Federal Conference that "the name of the party be the Australian Labour Party", carried by 22 votes to two. A separate motion recommending state branches to adopt the name was defeated.
There was no uniformity of party names until 1918, when Federal Conference resolved that state branches should adopt the name "Australian Labor Party" – now spelled without a ⟨u⟩. Each state branch had used a different name, due to their different origins. Despite the ALP adopting the spelling without a ⟨u⟩, it took decades for the official spelling to achieve widespread acceptance. In 1954, Labor MP Ted Johnson complained in the Parliament of Western Australia that both Hansard and the daily newspapers were still using the spelling "Labour"; as late as the 1980s, historian Finlay Crisp used the spelling "Labour" in academic works about the party. McMullin has observed that "the way the spelling of'Labor Party' was consolidated had more to do with the chap who ended up being in charge of printing the federal conference report than any other reason"; some sources have attributed the official decision to use "Labor" to King O'Malley, born in the United States and was reputedly an advocate of spelling reform.
It has been suggested that the adoption of the spelling without a ⟨u⟩ "signified one of the ALP's earliest attempts at modernisation", served the purpose of differentiating the party from the Australian labour movement as a whole and distinguishing it from other British Empire labour parties. The decision to include the word "Australian" in the party's name – rather than just "Labour Party" as in the United Kingdom – has been attributed to "the greater importance of nationalism for the founders of the colonial parties"; the Australian Labor Party has its origins in the Labour parties founded in the 1890s in the Australian colonies prior to federation. Labor tradition ascribes the founding of Queensland Labour to a meeting of striking pastoral workers under a ghost gum tree in Barcaldine, Queensland in 1891; the Balmain, New South Wales branch of the party claims to be the oldest in Australia. Labour as a parliamentary party dates from 1891 in New South Wales and South Australia, 1893 in Queensland, in the other colonies.
The first election contested by Labour candidates was the 1891 New South Wales election, when Labour candidates won 35 of 141 seats. The major parties were the Protectionist and Free Trade parties and Labour held the balance of power, it offered parliamentary support in exchange for policy concessions. The United Labor Party of
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
World Justice Project
The World Justice Project is an international civil society organization with the stated mission of "working to advance the rule of law around the world". The WJP works through three programs — Research and Scholarship, the WJP Rule of Law Index, Engagement. WJP seeks to increase public awareness about the foundational importance of the rule of law, stimulate government reforms, develop practical programs at the community level, it was founded by William H. Neukom in 2006 as a presidential initiative of the American Bar Association and with the support of 21 partners; the World Justice Project became an independent 501 non-profit organization in 2009. Its offices are located in Washington, D. C. and Seattle, Washington. The World Justice Project defines the rule of law system as one in which the following four universal principles are upheld: The government and its officials and agents are accountable under the law; the laws are clear, publicized and fair, protect fundamental rights, including the security of persons and property.
The process by which the laws are enacted and enforced is accessible and fair. Justice is delivered by competent and independent representatives and neutrals who are of sufficient number, have adequate resources, reflect the makeup of the communities they serve; the World Justice Project supports research that examines the contributions of the rule of law to aspects of economic and social development. The scholarship program is pursuing a research agenda studying the effectiveness of the rule of law in domains of social life, the inter-dependencies among the institutional components of the rule of law, the causal mechanisms by which the rule of law affects economic and political life; the World Justice Project Rule of Law Index is an quantitative assessment tool designed to offer a detailed and comprehensive picture of the extent to which countries adhere to the rule of law in practice. The Index provides data on eight dimensions of the rule of law: limited government powers; these factors are further disaggregated into forty-four indicators.
Together, they provide a comprehensive picture of rule of law compliance. The index is published annually; the Index rankings and scores are built from over 400 variables drawn from two new data sources: a general population poll, designed by the WJP and conducted by leading local polling companies using a probability sample of 1,000 respondents in the three largest cities of each country. To date, over 97,000 people and 2,500 experts have been interviewed in 99 countries and jurisdictions. Adherence to the rule of law is assessed using 47 indicators organized around eight themes: constraints on government powers, absence of corruption, open government, fundamental rights and security, regulatory enforcement, civil justice, criminal justice. In addition to country scores and rankings, the Index includes key global findings as well as an analysis of regional strengths, rule of law challenges and worst performers, trends to watch; the list below shows the top 30 countries/territories and the full rankings are available for download on the WJP website.
Since its founding in 2006, the WJP has helped give people in countries around the world greater understanding of the rule of law and with it, greater opportunities in nearly every part of their lives – from education, to health care, to property rights to fair and peaceful resolution of disputes. The WJP's Engagement initiatives strive to make rule of law advancement as fundamental to the thinking and work of other professionals as it is to lawyers and judges; the World Justice Challenge is an open competition designed to incubate practical, on-the-ground programs that advance the rule of law. Selected programs will be supported by: Modest seed grants — the typical size of a seed grant is $15,000 to $25,000 Connections to others in the WJP's global network Increased visibility through media and communications support The World Justice Forum is the world's largest global multidisciplinary platform dedicated to advancing the rule of law, it is a global gathering at which prominent leaders from all parts of the world and a variety of disciplines come together to articulate how the rule of law affects their disciplines and regions and to develop collaborative actions to strengthen the rule of law.
Since 2007, the WJP has held four World Justice Forums. The inaugural World Justice Forum was held in Vienna, Austria, on July 2–5, 2008; the World Justice Forum II took place on November 11–14, 2009 in Vienna, Austria. The World Justice Forum III was held on June 20 -- 2011, in Barcelona, Spain; the World Justice Forum IV took place on July 8 -- 2013, in The Hague, Netherlands. The World Justice Project convened a small taskforce of Tunisian leaders from business and civil society in Tunis, Tunisia, on May 28, 2012, to assess rule of law opportunities and challenges facing Tunisia during the ongoing reform process; the WJP worked with the World Federation of Engineering Organizations, the Arab Center for the Rule of Law and Integrity, the Hague Institute for the Internationalisation of Law in the planning and execution of the Tunisia workshop. It produced a detailed report on the rule of law situation in Tunisia based on data from its Rule of Law Index; the WJP is considering organizing additional workshops in the future for countries undergoing transition.
The WJP supports multidisciplinary workshops aim