Kumbhakarna is a named rakshasa and younger brother of Ravana in the famous Hindu Legends in the events of Ramayana. Despite his monstrous size and great appetite, he was described to be of good character and great warrior in those times, though he killed and ate many monkeys only to show his power, he was considered so pious and unchallenged warrior in battle that Indra, the king of gods, was worried and jealous of him and his strength. Along with his brothers and Vibhishana, Kumbhkarna performed a major yajna and penance to please Lord Brahma; when the time came for asking a boon from Brahma, his tongue was tied by goddess Saraswati, acting on Indra's request. It is said he intended to ask for Nirdevatvam and instead asked for Nidravatvam, his request was granted. However, his brother Ravana asked Brahma to undo this boon. Kumbhakarna slept for six months and when he awoke, he ate everything in the vicinity, including humans. In the Bhagavata Purana, Kumbhakarna is said to be the incarnation of the gatekeeper deity Vijaya, punished by the Four Kumaras for impiety while they guarded the sacred realm of Vishnu.
Vijaya was sentenced to mortality, but after appealing to the deity Vishnu for assistance, Vishnu agreed to reduce their sentence to just three lifetimes as his enemies before allowing them to return to the sacred realm Vaikuntha. While his brother Jaya became Ravana, Vijaya became the godly demon Kumbhakarna during their second incarnation of three on Earth. During the war, Ravana was humiliated by Rama and his army, he decided he needed the help of his brother Kumbhakarna, awakened with great difficulty. He woke up; when he was informed of the circumstances of Ravana's war with Rama, he tried to convince Ravana that what he was doing was wrong. However, he chose to fight in the battle due to his loyalty to his brother. After becoming drunk, Kumbhakarna devastated Rama's army, he knocked Sugriva unconscious, took him prisoner, but was killed by Rama. When Ravana heard of his brother's death, he fainted and proclaimed that he was doomed. Kumbhakarna had two sons and Nikumbha, from his wife Vajramala, who too fought in the war against Rama and were killed.
He had another son named Bhimasura from another wife Karkati, the princess of sayadri. When she heard about her husband's death, rather than to take avenge from Lord Rama, she ordered her son to perform harsh penance of Lord Bramha and take a boon to remain invincible, but Bhimasura was killed by Lord Shiva. Kumbhakarna attained Moksha from Barwani. Ravana Sri Lanka, Virtual Library. KUMBHAKARNA Pot-Ear's Awakening. From the Ramayana, as translated by Arthur W. Ryder
Ravana is described in the Hindu epic Ramayana as the demon king of Lanka. Ravana is described as having been as a follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the Veena, but someone who wished to overpower the Devas, his ten heads represent his knowledge of the four Vedas. In the Ramayana, Ravana kidnaps Rama's wife Sita to exact vengeance on Rama and his brother Lakshmana for having cut off the nose of his sister Shurpanakha. Ravana is worshiped by Hindus of Bisrakh, he is considered to be the most revered devotee of Shiva. Images of Ravana are seen associated with Shiva at some places, he appears in Buddhist Mahayana text Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra, Buddhist Ramayanas and Jatakas, as well as in Jain Ramayanas. The word Rāvaṇa means roaring opposite of Vaiśravaṇa meaning "hear distinctly". Both Ravana and Vaiśravaṇa, popularly known as Kubera, are considered to be patronymics derived as sons of Vishrava."Rāvana" was a title taken on by Dashananda, it means "screamer" in Sanskrit.
Further, "roravana" is Sanskrit for "loud roaring." In Abhinava Gupta's Krama Shaiva scripture, "yāsām rāvanam" is used as an expression to mean people who are aware in terms of the materialism of their environment. According to F. E. Pargiter the word may have been a Sanskritisation of Iraivan, the Tamil name for a lord or king. Ravana has many other popular names such as Dasis Ravana, Dasis Sakvithi Maha Ravana, Ravula, Lankeshwaran, Ravanasura and Eela Vendhar. Ravana is depicted and described as having ten heads, although sometimes he is shown with only nine heads because he has sacrificed a head to convince Shiva, he is described as a devout follower of Shiva, a great scholar, a capable ruler and a maestro of the Veena. Ravana is depicted as the author of the Ravana Samhita, a book on Hindu astrology, the Arka Prakasham, a book on Siddha medicine and treatment. Ravana possessed a thorough knowledge of political science, he is said to have possessed the nectar of immortality, stored inside his belly, thanks to a celestial boon by Brahma.
Ravana was born to great sage Vishrava, his wife, the daitya princess Kaikeshi. People of Bisrakh village in Uttar Pradesh claim that Bisrakh was named after Vishrava, Ravana was born there, but according to Hela historical sources and folklore, Ravana was born in Lanka, where becomes its king. Ravana's grandfather on his father's side, the sage Pulastya, was one of the ten Prajapatis or mind-born sons of Brahma and one of the Saptarishi in the first Manvantara, his grandfather on his mother's side, king of the Raksasas, was the son of Sukesha. Sukesha's parents were King Vidyutkesa, who had married Salakantankata, who had abandoned Sukesha, but by the grace of Shiva he survived. Sumali had wished her to marry the most powerful being in the mortal world, so as to produce an exceptional heir, he rejected the kings of the world. Kaikesi searched among the sages and chose Vishrava, the father of Kubera. Ravana and his siblings were born to the couple, they completed their education with Ravana being a great scholar of the Vedas.
The brothers won boons from Brahma. Ravana was blessed with a boon that would make him invincible to the creation of Brahma, except for humans, he received weapons, chariot as well as the ability to shapeshift from Brahma. Ravana usurped Lanka from his half-brother Kubera and became the King of Lanka, he learnt the Arthashastra from him. Rama once addressed Ravana as a "Maha Brahman". After worshiping Shiva on the banks of the Narmada, in the more central Yadu region, Ravana was captured and held under the control of king Kartavirya Arjuna, one of the greatest Yadu kings, it is clear from the references in the Ramayana that Ravana was no commoner among the Humans or Asuras, but a great chanter of the Sama Veda. Ravana's family are hardly mentioned outside the Ramayana, viewed by some as being only the point of view of Rama devotees. According to that: Ravana's grandfather was Malyavan, against the war with Rama and Lakshmana. Ravana's parents were Pushpothkata. Kaikesi had two brothers Maricha and Subahu which would make them Ravana's uncles.
Ravana had six brothers and two sisters:Kuberan – the King of North direction and the Guardian of Heavenly Wealth. He was an older half-brother of Ravana: they were born to the same father by different mothers. Vibhishana – A follower of Rama and one of the most important characters in the Ramayana; as a minister and brother of Ravana, he spoke the truth without fear and advised Ravana to return the kidnapped Sita and uphold Dharma. Ravana not only rejected this sane advice, but banished him from his kingdom. Vibhishana sought protection from Rama, granted without hesitation. Kumbhakarna – One of the most jovial demons in Hindu history; when offered a boon by Brahma, he was tricked into asking for eternal sleep. A horrified Ravana, out of brotherly love, persuaded Brahma to amend the boon. Brahma mitigated the power of the boon by making Kumbhakarna sleep for six months and being awake for the rest six months of a year. During the war with Rama, Kumbhakarna was untime
Indra is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism. His mythologies and powers are similar to other Indo-European deities such as Jupiter, Perkūnas, Taranis and Thor. In the Vedas, Indra is the king of Svarga and the Devas, he is the god of the heavens, thunder, rains, river flows, war. Indra is the most referred to deity in the Rigveda, he is celebrated for his powers, the one who kills the great symbolic evil named Vritra who obstructs human prosperity and happiness. Indra destroys Vritra and his "deceiving forces", thereby brings rains and the sunshine as the friend of mankind, his importance diminishes in the post-Vedic Indian literature where he is depicted as a powerful hero but one, getting in trouble with his drunken and adulterous ways, the god who disturbs Hindu monks as they meditate because he fears self-realized human beings may become more powerful than him. Indra rules over the much sought Devas realm of rebirth within the Samsara doctrine of Buddhist traditions.
However, like the Hindu texts, Indra is a subject of ridicule and reduced to a figurehead status in Buddhist texts, shown as a god that suffers rebirth and redeath. In the Jainism traditions, like Buddhism and Hinduism, Indra is the king of gods and a part of Jain rebirth cosmology, he is the god who appears with his wife Indrani to celebrate the auspicious moments in the life of a Jain Tirthankara, an iconography that suggests the king and queen of gods reverentially marking the spiritual journey of a Jina. Indra's iconography shows him wielding a lightning thunderbolt known as Vajra, riding on a white elephant known as Airavata. In Buddhist iconography the elephant sometimes features three heads, while Jaina icons sometimes show the elephant with five heads. Sometimes a single elephant is shown with four symbolic tusks. Indra's heavenly home is near Mount Meru; the etymological roots of Indra are unclear, it has been a contested topic among scholars since the 19th-century, one with many proposals.
The significant proposals have been: root ind-u, or "rain drop", based on the Vedic mythology that he conquered rain and brought it down to earth. Root ind, or "equipped with great power"; this was proposed by Vopadeva. Root idh or "kindle", ina or "strong". Root indha, or "igniter", for his ability to bring light and power that ignites the vital forces of life; this is based on Shatapatha Brahmana. Root idam-dra, or "It seeing", a reference to the one who first perceived the self-sufficient metaphysical Brahman; this is based on Aitareya Upanishad. Roots in ancient Indo-European, Indo-Aryan deities. For example, states John Colarusso, as a reflex of proto-Indo-European *h₂nḗr-, Greek anēr, Sabine nerō, Avestan nar-, Umbrian nerus, Old Irish nert, Ossetic nart, others which all refer to "most manly" or "hero". Colonial era scholarship proposed that Indra shares etymological roots with Zend Andra derived from Old High German Antra, or Jedru of Old Slavonic, but Max Muller critiqued these proposals as untenable.
Scholarship has linked Vedic Indra to the European Aynar, Abaza and Innara of Hittite mythology. Colarusso suggests a Pontic origin and that both the phonology and the context of Indra in Indian religions is best explained from Indo-Aryan roots and a Circassian etymology, he is known in Burmese as သိကြားမင်း, pronounced. Indra has many epithets in the Indian religions, notably Śakra, Vṛṣan, Vṛtrahan, Meghavāhana, Devarāja, Surendra, Vajrapāṇī and Vāsava. Indra is of unclear origin. Aspects of Indra as a deity are cognate to other Indo-European gods; the similarities between Indra of Hindu mythologies and of Thor of Nordic and Germanic mythologies are significant, states Max Muller. Both Indra and Thor are storm gods, with powers over lightning and thunder, both carry hammer or equivalent, for both the weapon returns to their hand after they hurl it, both are associated with bulls in the earliest layer of respective texts, both use thunder as a battle-cry, both are heroic leaders, both protectors of mankind, both are described with legends about "milking the cloud-cows", both are benevolent giants, gods of strength, of life, of marriage and the healing gods, both are worshipped in respective texts on mountains and in forests.
Michael Janda suggests that Indra has origins in the Indo-European *trigw-welumos "smasher of the enclosure" and diye-snūtyos "impeller of streams". Brave and heroic Innara or Inra, which sounds like Indra, is mentioned among the gods of the Mitanni, a Hurrian-speaking people of Hittite region. Indra as a deity had a presence in northeastern Asia minor, as evidenced by the inscriptions on the Boghaz-köi clay tablet
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India. Situated in the south-east of the country, it is the seventh-largest state in India, covering an area of 162,970 km2; as per the 2011 census, it is the tenth most populous state, with 49,386,799 inhabitants. The largest city in Andhra Pradesh is Visakhapatnam. Telugu, one of the classical languages of India, is the major and official language of Andhra Pradesh. On 2 June 2014, the north-western portion of Andhra Pradesh was separated to form the new state Telangana and the longtime capital of Andhra Pradesh, was transferred to Telangana as part of the division. However, in accordance with the Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014, Hyderabad was to remain as the acting capital of both Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states for a period of time not exceeding ten years; the new riverfront de facto capital, Amaravati, is under the jurisdiction of the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region Development Authority. Andhra Pradesh has a coastline of 974 km – the second longest coastline among the states of India, after Gujarat – with jurisdiction over 15,000 km2 of territorial waters.
The state is bordered by Telangana in the north-west and Odisha in the north-east, Karnataka in the west, Tamil Nadu in the south, to the east lies the Bay of Bengal. The small enclave of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies to the south of Kakinada in the Godavari delta on the eastern side of the state; the state is made up of the two major regions of Rayalaseema, in the inland southwestern part of the state, Coastal Andhra to the east and northeast, bordering the Bay of Bengal. The state comprises thirteen districts in total, nine of which are located in Coastal Andhra and four in Rayalaseema; the largest city and commercial hub of the state are Visakhapatnam, located on the Bay of Bengal, with a GDP of US$43.5 billion. The economy of Andhra Pradesh is the seventh-largest state economy in India with ₹8.70 lakh crore in gross domestic product and a per capita GDP of ₹142,000. Andhra Pradesh hosted 121.8 million visitors in 2015, a 30% growth in tourist arrivals over the previous year, making it the third most-visited state in India.
The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Tirupati is one of the world's most visited religious sites, with 18.25 million visitors per year. Other pilgrimage centres in the state include the Mallikarjuna Jyotirlinga at Srisailam, the Srikalahasteeswara Temple at Srikalahasti, the Ameen Peer Dargah in Kadapa, the Mahachaitya at Amaravathi, the Kanaka Durga Temple in Vijayawada, Prasanthi Nilayam in Puttaparthi; the state's natural attractions include the beaches of Visakhapatnam, hill stations such as the Araku Valley and Horsley Hills, the island of Konaseema in the Godavari River delta. A tribe named. According to Aitareya Brahmana of the Rig Veda, the Andhra left north India and settled in south India; the Satavahanas have been mentioned by the names Andhra, Andhrara-jateeya and Andhrabhrtya in the Puranic literature. They did not refer themselves as Andhra in any of their inscriptions. Archaeological evidence from places such as Amaravati and Vaddamanu suggests that the Andhra region was part of the Mauryan Empire.
Amaravati might have been a regional centre for the Mauryan rule. After the death of Emperor Ashoka, Mauryan rule weakened around 200 BCE and was replaced by several smaller kingdoms in the Andhra region; the Satavahana dynasty dominated the Deccan region from the 1st century BC to the 3rd century. The Satavahanas made Dharanikota and Amaravathi their capital, which according to the Buddhists is the place where Nagarjuna, the philosopher of Mahayana lived in the 2nd and 3rd centuries; the Andhra Ikshvakus, with their capital at Vijayapuri, succeeded the Satavahanas in the Krishna River valley in the latter half of the 2nd century. Pallavas, who were executive officers under the Satavahana kings, were not a recognised political power before the 2nd century AD and were swept away by the Western Chalukyan invasion, led by Pulakesin II in the first quarter of the 7th century CE. After the downfall of the Ikshvakus, the Vishnukundinas were the first great dynasty in the 5th and 6th centuries, held sway over the entire Andhra country, including Kalinga and parts of Telangana.
They played an important role in the history of Deccan during the 5th and 6th century CE, with Eluru and Puranisangam. The Salankayanas were an ancient dynasty that ruled the Andhra region between Godavari and Krishna with their capital at Vengi from 300 to 440 CE; the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi, whose dynasty lasted for around five hundred years from the 7th century until 1130 C. E. merged with the Chola empire. They continued to rule under the protection of the Chola empire until 1189 C. E. when the kingdom succumbed to the Hoysalas and the Yadavas. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the fifth century CE. Kakatiyas constructed several forts, they were succeeded by the Musunuri Nayaks. The Reddy dynasty was established by Prolaya Vema Reddi in the early 14th century, who ruled from present day Kondaveedu. Prolaya Vema Reddi was part of the confederation of states that started a movement against the invading Turkic Muslim armies of the Delhi
Tamil Nadu is one of the 29 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka. Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population, it has a high HDI ranking among Indian states as of 2017. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹17.25 lakh crore in gross domestic product after Maharashtra and a per capita GDP of ₹167,000. It was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India.
Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. The region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chola and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture; the British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganization of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested,like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus- Sarasvati civilization… The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centre or port city in Sangam Era; the Bhakti movement originated in Tamil speaking region of South India and spread northwards through India. The Bhakti Movement was a rapid growth of bhakti beginning in this region with the Saiva Nayanars and the Vaisnava Alvars who spread bhakti poetry and devotion; the Alwars and Nayanmars were instrumental in propagating the Bhakti tradition. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century.
The Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep s
The Narayanastra was the personal weapon of Lord Vishnu in his Narayana form. This astra in turn fires a powerful tirade of millions of deadly missiles simultaneously; the intensity of the shower rises with increase in resistance. The only way of defense towards this missile, is to show total submission; this in turn will cause this weapon to spare the target. It is one of the six ` Mantramukta' weapons. Ashwathama, a Kuru warrior-hero in the epic Mahabharata unleashes this weapon on the Pandava forces. Lord Krishna, an Avatar of Vishnu tells the Pandavas and their warriors to drop their weapons and lie down on the ground, so that they all surrender to the power of the weapon, it was said that this weapon can be used only once in a war and if one tries to use it twice it would devour the user's own army. When it was used, Ekadasha Rudras appeared in the sky to destroy Pandavas. Millions of types of weapons like Chakra, ultra sharp arrows appeared in rage to destroy them. Who tried to offend were destroyed.
Shri Krishna who knew how to cool down the Narayanastra advised Pandavas and their army to drop all types and sorts of weapons from their hands and utterly surrender to the great astra of Lord Vishnu. Everybody survives; when targeted, the Pandava hero Bhima refuses to surrender, thinking it an act of cowardice, attacks the downpour of fiery arrows. The Narayana weapon concentrates its shower on him, he gets exhausted. However, he was not killed as Krishna and his brothers restrain him at the right time. In Mahabharata only Lord Krishna and Aswathama possessed the Narayanastra. In Ramayana only Lord Rama and Indrajit possessed it. Ramayana Mahabharata
Sharangsky District is an administrative district, one of the forty in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia. Municipally, it is incorporated as Sharangsky Municipal District, it is located in the northeast of the oblast. The area of the district is 1,595.8 square kilometers. Its administrative center is the urban locality of Sharanga. Population: 12,450; the population of Sharanga accounts for 52.7% of the district's total population. The district was established in 1929. Государственно-правовой департамент Нижегородской области. Приказ №3-од от 27 января 2016 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных образований, городских и сельских населённых пунктов Нижегородской области». Опубликован: "Нижегородская правда", №27 и №30, 19 и 26 марта 2016 г.. Правительство Нижегородской области. Постановление №670 от 11 сентября 2009 г. «О перечне муниципальных образований Нижегородской области», в ред. Постановления №587 от 29 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в перечень муниципальных образований Нижегородской области, утверждённый Постановлением Правительства Нижегородской области от 11 сентября 2009 г. №670».
Опубликован: "Нижегородские новости", №177, 1 октября 2009 г