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Shareaza is a peer-to-peer file sharing client running under Microsoft Windows which supports the gnutella, Gnutella2, eDonkey, BitTorrent, FTP, HTTP and HTTPS network protocols and handles magnet links, ed2k links, the now deprecated gnutella and Piolet links. It is available in 30 languages. Shareaza was developed by Michael Stokes until June 1, 2004, has since been maintained by a group of volunteers. On June 1, 2004, Shareaza 2.0 was released, along with the source code, under the GNU General Public License, making it free software. Shareaza can connect to G2, eDonkey and BitTorrent. Shareaza hashes its files for all networks, distributes those hash values on G2; this allows Shareaza to download one file from several networks at once. When another client connected to G2 finds such a file, it is given the hash values for all networks and can search on the other networks with their respective hash values, which increases the number of sources and the download speed of the file. Shareaza uses its G2 network to find more sources for torrents.

The Shareaza client has some basic content filters including a forced child and optional adult pornography filter, some other optional filters such as a filter for files encumbered with Digital rights management. Shareaza's security filters can be extended with user-defined keywords and/or IP addresses. Versions of Shareaza allow for the use of regular expressions and filtering by hash; these filters increase the chances of getting the files the user wants and decrease the chance of getting malicious or fake files. The file format used for the filters is an extendable XML schema; the filters are editable inside Shareaza, can be exported from the application to be shared with others. Shareaza implements a framework for additional plugins; the Shareaza installer ships several plugins. Most of them are used to read and strip off built in metadata from the files being hashed and convert it to an external XML based format, or to decode multimedia files for making a preview for other G2 clients; some others serve the need of a media player inside Shareaza, enhancements of that media player.

Third party plugins can be used, for example, which will add a link inside Shareaza when downloading or searching copyrighted material from where it can be downloaded. The client can have all parts of the GUI skinned; this includes icons, as well as backgrounds and buttons. In that way, Shareaza can be changed with colors, new buttons, etc. A basic list of skins is contained in the Shareaza installer package. Other skins can be downloaded in the community forums or found via a search for.sks in the G2 network. The skins are zip archives, renamed with the extension.sks, containing icons and images, as well as an XML file which binds the images and colors with the GUI. This feature is used for localization; the language files are XML files, like the normal skins, but not zipped. The XML file contains the translations for a certain part of the program; this enables languages to be changed and tested without compiling an entire binary. Shareaza has three user modes; the first one is for normal users. This mode is the default mode and provides a clean, trimmed GUI.

Users will not be able to make major changes to settings in this mode, but will be able to make use of the most essential functions, like searching and downloading. The second mode is for power users, it provides more access to network and advanced settings, but can break your connection to the networks. The third mode is the windowed mode. In this mode, users can see different tabs providing a lot of control about the things happening; this mode makes it possible to personalize the look of the client to fit the needs of the respective user. Shareaza contains a built-in IRC client. There are channels in several languages for help; these channels are located on the P2PChat servers and can by joined by any normal IRC client or via a Java addon on the Shareaza homepage. In mid-2002 Stokes released the first version of a gnutella client he had written and dubbed "Shareaza", it was from the beginning a client with the aim of having features other gnutella clients did not have. Over the next two years Stokes coded in support for the eDonkey 2000 network, BitTorrent and a rewritten gnutella-based protocol which he named Gnutella2.

On June 1, 2004 Stokes released the Shareaza source code under version 2 of the GNU General Public License. Shareaza joined LimeWire and others as an open source client on the gnutella network. Since the beginning Shareaza was advertised as "completely free. No ads, no spyware, no guilting you to upgrade to a commercial version", stating that the developers " stand that kind of crap." It has remained as such in each subsequent release. From the first version Shareaza has supported swarming, library management, automatic file hashing. On 19 December 2007 the project's domain name,, was redirected to a site claiming to be "The Official Home of Shareaza", promoting the download of a client known as Shareaza V4 unrelated to releases by the Shareaza development team, an iMesh clone with only small graphical modifications, using Shareaza v1 logo. The domain owner Jon Nilson was forced to sell it as a part of a settlement with La Societe Des Producteurs De Phonogrammes En France; this client is a network interface for a centralised music shop by Discordia Ltd. and does not connect to any open P2P

Jack Norworth

John Godfrey Knauff, known professionally as Jack Norworth, was an American songwriter and vaudeville performer. Norworth is credited as co-writer of a number of Tin Pan Alley hits, he wrote the lyrics to "Take Me Out to the Ball Game" in 1908, his longest-lasting hit. It wasn't until 1940; the song placed at number 8 on the "Songs of the Century" list selected by the National Endowment for the Arts and the Recording Industry Association of America. His "Shine On, Harvest Moon" was a bigger hit at the time. There is some disagreement about his involvement in its creation. Broadway historian John Kenrick credits Edward Madden and Gus Edwards, while the family of Follies songwriter Dave Stamper claims he wrote the song while working as the pianist for Nora Bayes, the credited co-writer with Norworth. Another possibility for the music could lie with George Gershwin, a piano player for this vaudeville troupe. Albert Koch, of Wisconsin an accomplished songwriter, claims to have written the song himself, sold it outright for $50, forfeiting the rights to the song.

Other popular songs credited to Norworth include "Back to My Old Home Town". "Turn Off Your Light, Mr. Moon Man" is a sequel to "Shine on, Harvest Moon." Born John Godfrey Knauff in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to Theodore Christian Knauff and Louise H. Knauff, he changed his name to Jack Norworth when he went into show business, his father was an organ builder and a choir director at St. Mark's Episcopal Church in Philadelphia; the theater was not a reputable career in that time coming from a religious family. Following a few years at sea, he landed in New York City at age 20 to embark on a show business career. In 1908 he married Nora Bayes. Following the Ziegfeld Follies, Norworth appeared in a number of Broadway theater productions and was heard on early radio, such as his March 1928 guest appearance on Acousticon Hour. Before Bayes, he had been married to actress Louise Dresser, he appeared in early sound films with Dorothy Adelphi. He was portrayed by Dennis Morgan in the 1944 musical film Shine On, Harvest Moon and by Ron Husmann in the 1978 Ziegfeld biopic Ziegfeld: The Man & His Women.

He is a member of the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Jack Norworth died of a heart attack in Laguna Beach, California and is interred at Melrose Abbey Memorial Park in Anaheim, just across I-5 from the Los Angeles Angels ballpark. On July 11, 2010, a 3-foot-tall black granite monument, paid for by concerned fans, was installed about 100 feet from Jack's actual headstone. In the 2018 video game We Happy Few, Norworth's 1910 song "For Months and Months and Months" is heard playing on an Edwardian phonograph in an abandoned house, with the first verse looping endlessly, only to wind down upon being approached. Jack Norworth Jack Norworth on IMDb Discography of Jack Norworth on Victor Records from the Encyclopedic Discography of Victor Recordings Nora Bayes and Jack Norworth: Together and Alone YouTube performance


Kepler-432b is a hot super-Jupiter exoplanet orbiting the giant star Kepler-432 A, the innermost of two such planets discovered by NASA's Kepler spacecraft. It is located about 2,830 light-years from Earth in the constellation Cygnus; the exoplanet was found by using the transit method, in which the dimming effect that a planet causes as it crosses in front of its star is measured. Kepler-432b is a hot super-Jupiter, an exoplanet that has a radius and mass larger than that of the planet Jupiter, with an high temperature, it has a temperature of 809 K. It has a mass of 5.41 MJ and a radius of 1.45 RJ. It has a high density for such a planet, at 4.46 g cm3. The planet orbits a giant star named Kepler-432 A, it has begun expanding into a red giant. The star has a mass of 1.32 M☉ and a radius of 4.06 R☉. It is 4.2 billion years old. In comparison, the Sun is about 4.6 billion years old and has a surface temperature of 5778 K. The star's apparent magnitude, or how bright it appears from Earth's perspective, is 13.

It is too dim to be seen with the naked eye. Kepler-432b orbits its host star with 920% of the Sun's luminosity about every 52 days at a distance of 0.30 AU. It has an eccentric orbit, with an eccentricity of 0.5134. Obseverations made on Kepler-432b reveal that its host star is causing the planet's orbit to decay via tidal interactions; as Kepler-432 A is ascending the red giant branch, it will continue to expand past the orbit of Kepler-432b engulfing it completely. The drag between the stellar photosphere and the gas giant would cause its orbit to spiral inward until it is vaporized by the star after ablation and vaporization take its toll on the planet. In some way, this helps with studying how similar interactions will cause the Earth to be engulfed by the Sun as a red giant, some 7 billion years from now. In 2009, NASA's Kepler spacecraft was completing observing stars on its photometer, the instrument it uses to detect transit events, in which a planet crosses in front of and dims its host star for a brief and regular period of time.

In this last test, Kepler observed 50000 stars in the Kepler Input Catalog, including Kepler-419, the preliminary light curves were sent to the Kepler science team for analysis, who chose obvious planetary companions from the bunch for follow-up at observatories. Observations for the potential exoplanet candidates took place between 13 May 2009 and 17 March 2012. After observing the respective transits, which for Kepler-432b occurred every 50 days, it was concluded that a planetary companion was responsible for the periodic 50-day transits; the discovery of the oddball planet was announced on 24 January 2015. Kepler-1520 b – similar planet about to be engulfed by its host star. NASAKepler Mission. NASA – Kepler Discoveries – Summary Table. NASA – Kepler-432b at The NASA Exoplanet Archive. NASA – Kepler-432b at The Exoplanet Data Explorer. NASA – Kepler-432b at The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopaedia

Ludwig Winter

Ludwig Winter was a German botanist and landscape designer, creator of gardens such as the Giardini Botanici Hanbury, noted for introducing tall palms and other foreign species to the Ligurian riviera. Born in Prussia, the son of a bookseller, the family moved to Leipzig where he studied botany and became a gardener at Erfurt. After two years at Erfurt he went to the School of Horticulture in Potsdam, graduating in Botanics, became head gardener at the Botanical Garden of Poppelsdorf near Bonn. In 1867 he went to the Paris World Exposition and settled there, working first as a labourer and as head gardener in the Tuileries Garden; as the Franco-Prussian War approached, the tense atmosphere in Paris forced Winter to move south via Marseilles and Cannes to Hyères in the Côte d'Azur, where he worked as a plant illustrator for Charles Huber Freres & Co, a prominent nursery and principal source of novelty plants during that period. In 1869, Thomas Hanbury began work on his botanical gardens at Mortola and engaged Winter as a botanist.

He devoted himself to this garden for five years, importing a wide variety of plants from Australia, New Zealand and California and acclimatising them to Liguria. When the work at Mortola was complete in 1874, Winter moved to Bordighera from where he designed and collaborated on many gardens and nurseries on the Ligurian Riviera and the Costa Azzurra, as well as introducing and breeding roses and other flowers. In 1875, he created an experimental nursery at Vallone del Sasso, where he brought a wealth of rare tropical plants including palms and ficus, he designed beautiful gardens, such as those for the Empress Eugenie at Cap Martin, Prince Hohenlohe in San Remo, the Countess Foucher de Careil in Mentone, Villa Zirio in San Remo, Villa Bischoffsheim in Bordighera and Borgo Storico Seghetti Panichi in Ascoli Piceno. The most celebrated is the Giardino di Madonna della Ruota, on the road between Bordighera and Ospedaletti. Five of Winter's gardens survive: Giardini Botanici Hanbury at Mortola, Ventimiglia La Madonna della Ruota, Bordighera Villa Wilmott, Imperia Winter Gardens, Vallone del Sasso, Bordighera Borgo Storico Seghetti Panichi, Ascoli Piceno Hybrids bred by Winter include Acacia x deneufvillei, Acacia x hanburyana, Acacia x siebertiana La Madonna della Ruota Parco Storico Seghetti Panichi

Luzuriaga radicans

Luzuriaga radicans is a species of flowering plant in the genus Luzuriaga of the family Alstroemeriaceae, part of the monocot order Liliales. Luzuriaga radicans is an evergreen climbing plant; the leaves are alternate and with an entire border, oblong-lanceolate in shape, the acute tip ending abruptly. They are light green in color, from 1–4 cm in length and 0.3–1 cm wide, with 9–13 white lines on the undersurface. The flowers are hermaphroditic, 1 cm in length and either single or forming an inflorescence with 2–4 flowers; the six white tepals are uneven in size. There are six stamens, the style, longer than the stamens, ends in a tri-lobed stigma; the fruit is a smooth, globose berry, red-orange in color and 0.8–1 cm in diameter, with up to twelve flattened seeds about 4 mm in length. Luzuriaga radicans was first described by the Spanish botanists Hipólito Ruiz López and José Antonio Pavón Jiménez in 1802, the botanical authority is stated as Ruiz et Pavón, it is the type-species of genus Luzuriaga.

The epithet refers to the characteristic climbing roots. Luzuriaga radicans is native to South Central to South Argentina. In Chile, it grows from Colchagua to Aisén provinces, where it prefers a shady humid environment with constant rainfall under dense vegetation cover. In coastal areas it grows up to 500 m, it occurs at low altitudes in interior valleys. The plant grows either in water or with its roots in water, including marshes and the shores of lakes and rivers; the plant, hence its uses, has become scarce, due to overusage and the destruction of forests. However it can be found in protected areas such as the Llancahue reserve near Valdivia. Cultivation is difficult. After the vine has been removed from the tree, it takes about 5 years to regrow; the plant is valued as an ornamental, while the stems are used in the manufacture of household utensils and handicrafts, including basketry and brooms. It was used for fences and ropes, but now it is used for artisanal crafts; the fruit is edible and eaten raw, was a traditional food, but has fallen out of use.

Luzuriaga radicans appears in Chilote mythology, where a creature called Trauco clothes himself in the plant and sustains himself on its fruit

Cleon Jones

Cleon Joseph Jones is an American former professional baseball player. He played in Major League Baseball as a left fielder. Jones played most of his career for the New York Mets and in 1969 caught the final out of the "Miracle Mets" World Series Championship over the Baltimore Orioles. Jones played football and baseball at Mobile County Training School in Mobile and Alabama A&M University. With the Bulldogs, Jones scored 26 touchdowns in nine games. Jones signed with the New York Mets as an amateur free agent in 1963. After batting over.300 for both the Carolina League Raleigh Mets and New York–Penn League Auburn Mets, Jones received a September call-up to the major league club without having played double or triple A ball. He got two hits in 15 at-bats for a.133 batting average during his stint with the New York Mets. After spending all of 1964 with the triple A Buffalo Bisons, Jones made the Mets out of Spring training and was in the 1965 season opener against the Los Angeles Dodgers. Jones was demoted to Buffalo on May 2 with a.156 batting average.

He again received a call up to New York that September, hit his first major league home run on September 22 against the Pittsburgh Pirates. He finished the season with a.149 batting average. Jones was awarded the starting center fielder job in 1966, batted.275 with eight home runs, 57 runs batted in and 16 stolen bases to finish tied for fourth in National League Rookie of the Year balloting. His batting average dipped to.246 in 1967, he ended up sharing playing time in center field with Larry Stahl. Following the season, the Mets acquired Jones' childhood friend Tommie Agee from the Chicago White Sox. Jones was moved to left field with the former Gold Glove-winner Agee playing center field. Jones began the 1968 season platooning with Art Shamsky in left, he was batting.205 on May 18, when he went three for four with a home run, two RBIs and two runs scored to lift the Mets to a 5–2 victory over the Atlanta Braves. From there, Jones began to hit, he ended the season with a.297 batting average, sixth best in the National League.

Jones was batting.341 with ten home runs and 56 RBIs in the first half of 1969 earning the starting left field job for the All-Star Game. He went two for four with two runs scored in the NL's 9–3 victory, he hit a home run in the first game after the break, emerged as the hitting star of the surprising Mets, with a team-leading batting average of.340. The Amazins found themselves in second place, five games back of the Chicago Cubs in the newly aligned National League East when the Houston Astros came to Shea Stadium for a July 30 double header. After losing the first game 16–3, the Mets were down 7–0 in the third inning of the second game when Johnny Edwards hit a double to Jones in left field to make the score 8–0. Mets manager Gil Hodges emerged from the dugout, walked past Nolan Ryan on the mound, walked all the way out to left field. A few minutes Hodges walked back to the dugout, with Jones a few paces behind him, replaced Jones in left with Ron Swoboda. Newspapers at the time said Jones suffered a leg injury and he was not in the Mets lineup for several games after July 30.

Accounts say that Jones was removed for failure to hustle, Hodges decided to do so publicly to show that he would not tolerate lack of effort on his team from its star player. On August 22, 2009, following pre-game ceremonies honoring the 40th anniversary of the "Miracle Mets", Jones discussed the incident during SportsNet New York's telecast of that night's game. Jones said. According to Jones, he pointed down to the water-filled turf. Hodges said that something must be wrong with Jones's ankle and pulled him for that reason. Jones explained that Hodges was his favorite manager, that he would never publicly embarrass a player. According to Jones, neither party revealed the contents of the conversation. Jones believes that the fear instilled in other players by the incident was the turning point in the season; the Mets won 38 of their last 50 games, finished the 1969 season with 100 wins against 62 losses, eight games over the second place Cubs. Jones ended the season with a.340 batting average, third in the league behind Pete Rose and Roberto Clemente, was second on the team in home runs, RBIs and runs scored, behind Tommie Agee in all three categories.

Jones batted a stellar.429 in the Mets' three game sweep of the Atlanta Braves in the 1969 National League Championship Series. In game two of the series, Jones went three for five with a home run, two runs scored and three RBIs in the Mets' 11–6 victory; the Mets were heavy underdogs in the 1969 World Series but took a 3–1 series lead. The Orioles were ahead 3 -- 0 in game five. Dave McNally struck Jones in the foot with a pitch, home plate umpire Lou DiMuro ruled that the ball missed Jones. Gil Hodges emerged from the dugout to argue, showed DiMuro the shoe-polish smudged ball. DiMuro reversed his call, awarded Jones first base; the following batter, Donn Clendenon, hit a two-run home run to pull the Mets within a run of Baltimore. Following an Al Weis solo home run in the seventh to tie the game, Jones led off the eighth inning with a double off the wall that missed being a home run by about 2 ft, scored on Ron Swoboda's double two batters later. With the Mets leading 5–3 in the ninth inning, Orioles second baseman Davey Johnson hit a 2-1 fastball which Jones caught near the warning track to win the World Series